Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at (10.1007/s11069-021-04613-z).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thus, crab samples for this study were sampled from the wild habitat at Setiu wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia. A total of 100 samples of with the same size (80±5 mm carapace width) were sampled and the eyestalk dissected for LF extraction. The determination of LF sites and levels in the eyestalks organ was taken from the area between the distal tangential layer (DTL) and proximal tangential layer (PTL). The lower part of the eyestalk was taken from the PTL until the end of the eyestalk.
RESULTS: The upper part of the crab's eyestalk was higher in the males crabs compared to the females crabs. LF index also shown that the upper part of crab's eyestalk have higher concentration compared to the lower part.
CONCLUSION: The left crab's eyestalk had the higher LF index especially in males compared to females but the total concentration was higher in female crabs. Knowing which part has highly dense accumulation of LF helps in LF detection of the tissue and further helps for age determination for this species.
METHODS: Adult WKY male rats were randomly distributed in nine groups: intact control, diabetic control, diabetic + 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, diabetic + 100 mg/kg Metformin, diabetic + swimming, diabetic + swimming 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, and diabetic +100 mg/kg Metformin + swimming. The hearts of the animals were punctured, and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The entire pancreas was exposed for histologic examination. The effect of UD on insulin secretion by RIN-5F cells in 6.25 or 12.5 mM glucose dose was examined. Glucose uptake by cultured L6 myotubes was determined.
RESULTS: The serum glucose concentration decreased, the insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity significantly increased in treated groups. These changes were more pronounced in the group that received UD extract and swimming training. Regeneration and less beta cell damage of Langerhans islets were observed in the treated groups. UD treatment increased insulin secretion in the RIN-5F cells and glucose uptake in the L6 myotubes cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Swimming exercises accompanied by consuming UD aqueous extracts effectively improved diabetic parameters, repaired pancreatic tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetics in vivo, and increased glucose uptake or insulin in UD-treated cells in vitro.
DATA SOURCE: Six major databases were searched from inception till June 2015: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychInfo, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Center Register of Controlled Trials.
STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Two reviewers independently rated methodological quality using the modified Downs and Black Scale and extracted and synthesized key findings (i.e., participant characteristics, study design, physical function and fitness outcomes, and adverse events).
RESULTS: Eight of 276 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which none showed high research quality. Four studies assessed physical function outcomes and 4 studies evaluated aerobic fitness as outcome measures. Significant improvements on these 2 outcomes were generally found. Other physical or fitness outcomes including body composition, muscular strength, and balance were rarely reported.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS: There is weak evidence supporting aquatic exercise training to improve physical function and aerobic fitness among adults with spinal cord injury. Suggestions for future research include reporting details of exercise interventions, evaluating other physical or fitness outcomes, and improving methodological quality.