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  1. Ng SL, Ong YS, Khaw KY, Teh SP, Tan CS, Ming LC, et al.
    Medicina (Kaunas), 2021 Feb 23;57(2).
    PMID: 33672384 DOI: 10.3390/medicina57020189
    The global pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 is a known consequence of infection of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has affected nations worldwide with soaring number of cases daily. Symptoms such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting are commonly presented in COVID-19 patients. This focused review aims to discuss these uncommon and atypical COVID-19 symptoms that may be presented which might affect neurological, cardiovascular, cutaneous and ocular systems and their possible mode of actions. Nonetheless, there are some cases of reported uncommon or atypical symptoms which may warrant healthcare professionals to be aware of, especially when in contact with patients. The knowledge and information concerning these symptoms might be able to provide additional cues for healthcare professional by subjecting patients to COVID-19 screening. Meanwhile, it might be able to further enhance the alertness and additional precautions being taken by healthcare personnel, which eventually lead to reduced risk of infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment/methods*
  2. Joseph LH, Hussain RI, Pirunsan U, Naicker AS, Htwe O, Paungmali A
    Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc, 2014;48(2):169-74.
    PMID: 24747625 DOI: 10.3944/AOTT.2014.3184
    The aim of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-rater reliability of ultrasonography (US) to measure anterior translation of the humeral head (ATHH) among healthy subjects and patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment/methods; Symptom Assessment/standards
  3. Look ML, Tan SB, Hong LL, Ng CG, Yee HA, Lim LY, et al.
    BMJ Support Palliat Care, 2021 Dec;11(4):433-439.
    PMID: 32788274 DOI: 10.1136/bmjspcare-2020-002382
    CONTEXT: There has been increasing evidence of the role of mindfulness-based interventions in improving various health conditions. However, the evidence for the use of mindfulness in the palliative care setting is still lacking.

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study was to determine the efficacy of a single session of 20 min mindful breathing in alleviating multiple symptoms in palliative care.

    METHODS: Adult palliative care in patients with at least one symptom scoring ≥5/10 based on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) were recruited from September 2018 to December 2018. Recruited patients were randomly assigned to either 20 min mindful breathing and standard care or standard care alone.

    RESULTS: Forty patients were randomly assigned to standard care plus a 20 min mindful breathing session (n=20) or standard care alone (n=20). There was statistically significant reduction of total ESAS score in the mindful breathing group compared with the control group at minute 20 (U=98, n 1 = n 2 = 20, mean rank 1 = 15.4, mean rank 2 = 25.6, median reduction 1 = 6.5, median reduction 2 = 1.5, z=-2.763, r=0.3, p=0.005).

    CONCLUSION: Our results provided evidence that a single session of 20 min mindful breathing was effective in reducing multiple symptoms rapidly for palliative care patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment
  4. Lim YJ, Rosita J, Chieng JY, Hazizi AS
    PLoS One, 2016;11(12):e0167243.
    PMID: 27997551 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167243
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Functional constipation is very common with heterogeneous symptoms that have substantial impact on patient quality of life as well as medical resources which are rarely reported as life-threatening. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and symptoms characteristic of functional constipation (FC) by using Rome III diagnostic criteria among tertiary education students with an intention to introduce treatment in the future.

    METHODS: Demographic, socio-economics characteristics and symptoms of FC using the Rome III criteria were sought using a questionnaire administered to Malaysian students in a tertiary education setting. Other data obtained were the general health status, lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements. Using a simple random sampling method, a total of 1662 students were recruited in the study with a response rate of 95.0%. Sampled data are presented as frequency and percentage and stratified accordingly into categories for Chi-square analysis.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of functional constipation among the students was 16.2%, with a significantly higher prevalence among women (17.4%) than men (12.5%). Hard or lumpy stool, incomplete evacuation, anorectal obstruction and straining were reported as the commonest symptoms experienced. Type 3 was the most frequent stool consistency experienced among the constipated individuals (35.2%). Only 4.4% of individuals reported having less than three defecations per week. Using univariable analysis, FC was significantly associated with sex (odds ratio: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.06-2.06) and age group (odds ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01-1.79) with P value < 0.05 significance level. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only sex was found significantly associated with FC (adjusted odds ratio: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-2.17, P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on the prevalence rate, constipation is a common problem among tertiary education students (16.2%), with significantly more prevalence among the female respondents. Early detection of symptoms and further intervention studies focusing on treatment recommendation in improving the symptoms are essential.

    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment*
  5. Schliemann D, Ismail R, Donnelly M, Cardwell CR, Su TT
    BMC Public Health, 2020 Apr 06;20(1):464.
    PMID: 32252721 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-08581-0
    BACKGROUND: Cancer incidence in Malaysia is expected to double by 2040. Understanding cancer awareness is important in order to tailor preventative efforts and reduce the cancer burden. The objective of this research was to assess nationwide awareness about the signs and symptoms as well as risk factors for various cancers in Malaysia and identify socio-demographic factors associated with awareness.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March-November 2014 in the form of a telephone survey. Participants aged 40 years and above were randomly selected across Malaysia and interviewed using the validated Awareness Beliefs about Cancer (ABC) measurement tool. Linear regression was conducted to test the association between symptom and risk factor recognition and socio-demographic variables.

    RESULTS: A sample of 1895 participants completed the survey. On average, participants recognised 5.8 (SD 3.2) out of 11 symptoms and 7.5 (SD 2.7) out of 12 risk factors. The most commonly recognised symptom was 'lump or swelling' (74.5%) and the most commonly recognised risk factor was 'smoking' (88.7%). Factors associated with prompted awareness were age, ethnicity, education and smoking status.

    CONCLUSION: Recognition of symptom and risk factors for most cancers was relatively low across Malaysia compared to previous studies in high-income countries and to studies conducted in Malaysia. There is a need to conduct regular public health campaigns and interventions designed to improve cancer awareness and knowledge as a first step towards increasing the early detection of cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment/psychology*
  6. Chan PY, Mohd Ripin Z, Abdul Halim S, Kamarudin MI, Ng KS, Eow GB, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 05 31;9(1):8117.
    PMID: 31148550 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-44142-1
    There is a lack of evidence that either conventional observational rating scale or biomechanical system is a better tremor assessment tool. This work focuses on comparing a biomechanical system and the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale in terms of test-retest reliability. The Parkinson's disease tremors were quantified by biomechanical system in joint angular displacement and predicted rating, as well as assessed by three raters using observational ratings. Qualitative comparisons of the validity and function are made also. The observational rating captures the overall severity of body parts, whereas the biomechanical system provides motion- and joint-specific tremor severity. The tremor readings of the biomechanical system were previously validated against encoders' readings and doctors' ratings; the observational ratings were validated with previous ratings on assessing the disease and combined motor symptoms rather than on tremor specifically. Analyses show that the predicted rating is significantly more reliable than the average clinical ratings by three raters. The comparison work removes some of the inconsistent impressions of the tools and serves as guideline for selecting a tool that can improve tremor assessment. Nevertheless, further work is required to consider more variabilities that influence the overall judgement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment/standards*
  7. McLean D, Barrett R, Loa P, Thara R, John S, McGrath J, et al.
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2015 Mar;7(1):36-44.
    PMID: 24038814 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12093
    INTRODUCTION: The symptom profile of schizophrenia can vary between ethnic groups. We explored selected symptom variables previously reported to be characteristic of schizophrenia in the Iban of Sarawak in transethnic populations from Australia, India, and Sarawak, Malaysia. We tested site differences to confirm previous research, and to explore implications of differences across populations for future investigations.
    METHODS: We recruited schizophrenia samples in Australia (n = 609), India (n = 310) and Sarawak (n = 205) primarily for the purposes of genetic studies. We analyzed seven identified variables and their relationship to site using logistic regression, including: global delusions, bizarre delusions, thought broadcast/insertion/withdrawal delusions, global hallucinations, auditory hallucinations, disorganized behavior, and prodromal duration.
    RESULTS: We identified a distinct symptom profile in our Sarawak sample. Specifically, the Iban exhibit: low frequency of thought broadcast/insertion/withdrawal delusions, high frequency of auditory hallucinations and disorganized behavior, with a comparatively short prodrome when compared with Australian and Indian populations.
    DISCUSSION: Understanding between-site variation in symptom profile may complement future transethnic genetic studies, and provide important clues as to the nature of differing schizophrenia expression across ethnically distinct groups. A comprehensive approach to subtyping schizophrenia is warranted, utilizing comprehensively ascertained transethnic samples to inform both schizophrenia genetics and nosology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment
  8. Marsden PA, Satia I, Ibrahim B, Woodcock A, Yates L, Donnelly I, et al.
    Chest, 2016 06;149(6):1460-6.
    PMID: 26973014 DOI: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.02.676
    BACKGROUND: Cough is recognized as an important troublesome symptom in the diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. Asthma control is thought to be determined by the degree of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness but how these factors relate to cough frequency is unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between objective cough frequency, disease control, airflow obstruction, and airway inflammation in asthma.

    METHODS: Participants with asthma underwent 24-h ambulatory cough monitoring and assessment of exhaled nitric oxide, spirometry, methacholine challenge, and sputum induction (cell counts and inflammatory mediator levels). Asthma control was assessed by using the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) classification and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ). The number of cough sounds was manually counted and expressed as coughs per hour (c/h).

    RESULTS: Eighty-nine subjects with asthma (mean ± SD age, 57 ± 12 years; 57% female) were recruited. According to GINA criteria, 18 (20.2%) patients were classified as controlled, 39 (43.8%) partly controlled, and 32 (36%) uncontrolled; the median ACQ score was 1 (range, 0.0-4.4). The 6-item ACQ correlated with 24-h cough frequency (r = 0.40; P < .001), and patients with uncontrolled asthma (per GINA criteria) had higher median 24-h cough frequency (4.2 c/h; range, 0.3-27.6) compared with partially controlled asthma (1.8 c/h; range, 0.2-25.3; P = .01) and controlled asthma (1.7 c/h; range, 0.3-6.7; P = .002). Measures of airway inflammation were not significantly different between GINA categories and were not correlated with ACQ. In multivariate analyses, increasing cough frequency and worsening FEV1 independently predicted measures of asthma control.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ambulatory cough frequency monitoring provides an objective assessment of asthma symptoms that correlates with standard measures of asthma control but not airflow obstruction or airway inflammation. Moreover, cough frequency and airflow obstruction represent independent dimensions of asthma control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment/methods
  9. Ching S, Chia YC, Chew BN, Soo MJ, Lim HM, Sulaiman WAW, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Nov 29;19(1):1602.
    PMID: 31783831 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7922-7
    BACKGROUND: Information regarding the knowledge on the action to be taken during stroke and good recognition of stroke symptoms is mandatory in helping to plan out educational strategies to deliver health education to the community.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 and above attending a blood pressure screening program in community in conjunction with May Measurement Month 2017 in Malaysia. A structured self-administered questionnaire was given to the participants who gave verbal consent. Data analysis was done using SPSS v. 23 and multiple logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of knowledge on actions to be taken during stroke and recognition of stroke symptoms.

    RESULTS: Out of 4096 respondents, 82.9-92.1% of them able to recognise the common stroke symptoms. and 74.2% of the study respondents will go to hospital within 4.5 h of stroke onset. According to binomial logistic regression analyses, adults aged 45 years old and above (OR 1.39 95%CI 1.01-1.92), being Malay (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.27-2.40), being non-smokers (OR = 2.491, 95% CI: 1.64-3.78), hypertensives (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.02-2.42)and diabetics (OR: 2.54, 95% CI:1.38-4.69) are determinants of right actions to be taken during stroke. Meanwhile, respondents aged 45 years old and older (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.39-2.03), being Malay (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.24-1.79), hypertensive (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.04-1.66) and those who had a previous history of stroke (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.01-5.00) are determinants of good recognition of stroke symptoms.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall knowledge of stroke in our study population was good. Older age, being Malay, non-smokers, hypertensives and diabetics are determinants of right actions to be taken during stroke. Meanwhile, older age, being Malay, hypertensive and those who had a previous history of stroke are determinants of good recognition of stroke symptoms.

    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment/psychology*
  10. Yahaya NA, Subramanian P, Bustam AZ, Taib NA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(2):723-30.
    PMID: 25684515
    BACKGROUND: This study was performed to assess patient symptoms prevalence, frequency and severity, as well as distress and coping strategies used, and to identify the relationships between coping strategies and psychological and physical symptoms distress and demographic data of cancer patients. This cross-sectional descriptive study involved a total of 268 cancer patients with various types of cancer and chemotherapy identified in the oncology unit of an urban tertiary hospital.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected using questionnaires (demographic questionnaire, Medical characteristics, Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS) and Brief COPE scales and analyzed for demographic, and disease-related variable effects on symptom prevalence, severity, distress and coping strategies.

    RESULTS: Symptom prevalence was relatively high and ranged from 14.9% for swelling of arms and legs to 88.1% for lack of energy. This latter was the highest rated symptom in the study. The level of distress was found to be low in three domains. Problem-focused coping strategies were found to be more commonly employed compared to emotion-focused strategies, demonstrating significant associations with sex, age group, educational levels and race. However, there was a positive correlation between emotion-focused strategies and physical and psychological distress, indicating that patients would choose emotion-focused strategies when symptom distress increased.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that high symptom prevalence rates and coping strategies used render an improvement in current nursing management. Therefore development of symptoms management groups, encouraging the use of self-care diaries and enhancing the quality of psycho- oncology services provided are to be recommended.

    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment*
  11. Razali SM, Yusoff MZ
    East Asian Arch Psychiatry, 2014 Jun;24(2):68-74.
    PMID: 24986201
    Objective: Adherence to medication is essential for maximising the outcomes of patients with schizophrenia as the consequences of poor adherence are devastating. The study aimed to compare medication adherence between patients with relapse schizophrenia and those attending psychiatric follow-up clinics, and to determine the factors affecting adherence.
    Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 70 patients with schizophrenia who were divided equally into 2 groups. Medication adherence was assessed with the Medication Adherence Rating Scale. Appropriate instruments were used to measure insight, social support, and psychopathology. Various socio-demographic and clinical variables were explored to find associations with medication adherence.
    Results: Medication adherence among patients with schizophrenia was poor; 51% of the patients did not adhere to a medication regimen. Adherence was better in outpatients with schizophrenia (61%) than in relapse cases (39%), although the difference was not statistically significant (t = 1.70; p = 0.09). Besides, relapse patients had significant higher number of admission (X2 = 22.95; p < 0.05) and severe psychopathology (t = –29.96; p < 0.05), while perceived social support was significantly better in outpatients with schizophrenia (t = 2.90; p < 0.05). Frequency of admission (adjusted b = –0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.99 to -0.10; p < 0.05) and psychopathology (adjusted b = –0.12; 95% CI, -0.24 to -0.01; p < 0.05) were also significantly associated with medication adherence.
    Conclusion: Medication adherence among both groups of patients with schizophrenia was poor. If adherence is addressed appropriately, the number of admissions and severity of psychopathology could be improved.
    Key words: Patient compliance; Psychopathology; Schizophrenia; Social support
    Study site: Psychiatric clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment
  12. Teh CL, Ling GR, Aishah WS
    Rheumatol Int, 2015 Jan;35(1):153-7.
    PMID: 24906574 DOI: 10.1007/s00296-014-3057-4
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been well studied in West Malaysian populations but lacking in East Malaysian populations. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical features and disease patterns of patients with SLE in a multiethnic East Malaysian population in Sarawak. All SLE patients who were treated in Sarawak General Hospital were reviewed in a retrospective longitudinal study using a standard protocol from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2013. There were a total of 633 patients in our study with the female to male ratio of 12:1. Our study patients were of multiethnic origins with predominant Chinese ethnic group. They had a mean age of 36.9 ± 13.2 years and a mean duration of illness of 7.2 ± 6.0 years. The main involvements were haematological (74.2 %), malar rash (64.0 %) and renal (58.6 %). Chinese patients were less likely to have discoid lupus, pleuritis and pericarditis, while Malay patients were more likely to have arthritis. Bidayuh patients were more likely to have oral ulcer. Secondary antiphospholipid syndrome was more common in Chinese. The majority of patients were in clinical remission with low SDI. There were 58 deaths (9.2 %) during 2006-2013 with the main causes of death being flare of disease and infection.

    Study site: Sarawak General Hospital
    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment
  13. Tan JK, Leong D, Munusamy H, Zenol Ariffin NH, Kori N, Hod R, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2021 Mar 09;21(1):249.
    PMID: 33750347 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-021-05849-7
    BACKGROUND: Presymptomatic COVID-19 patients have been identified as a major stumbling block in efforts to break the chain of transmission. Studies on temporal dynamics of its shedding suggests it peaks 1-2 days prior to any symptom onset. Therefore, a large proportion of patients are actively spreading the disease unknowingly whilst undetected. However, lengthy lockdowns and isolation leads to a host of socioeconomic issues and are impractical. Conversely, there exists no study describing this group and their clinical significance despite their key role in disease transmission.

    METHODS: As a result, we devised a retrospective study to look at the prevalence of presymptomatic patients with COVID-19 from data sourced via our medical records office. Subsequently, we identify early indicators of infection through demographic information, biochemical and radiological abnormalities which would allow early diagnosis and isolation. In addition, we will look into the clinical significance of this group and their outcome; if it differs from asymptomatic or symptomatic patients. Descriptive statistics were used in addition to tabulating the variables and corresponding values for reference. Variables are compared between the presymptomatic group and others via Chi-square testing and Fisher's exact test, accepting a p value of symptoms like chest pain while symptomatic patients commonly present with respiratory symptoms like cough and shortness of breath. Besides that, there were more females presenting as presymptomatic patients compared to males (p = 0.019) and these group of patients were likely to receive treatment (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment
  14. Lim SL, Ong PS, Khor CG
    Mod Rheumatol Case Rep, 2020 07;4(2):237-242.
    PMID: 33086999 DOI: 10.1080/24725625.2020.1754567
    Tuberculosis (TB) and its association with rheumatic diseases have been widely recognised. Occurrence of multifocal skeletal involvement constitutes <5% of all skeletal TB cases. We present a Malay patient with multifocal osteoarticular TB (OATB). A 35 year-old SLE woman with background usage of corticosteroid therapy and Azathioprine presented with lupus nephritis flare. Renal biopsy revealed diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis and intravenous (IV) Cyclophosphamide 0.5 g/m2 (850 mg) was initiated. One week later, patient complained dorsum of left hand and right knee swelling. On physical examination, patient was afebrile and the left hand swelling was cystic in consistency while right knee was warm and tender. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) was 50 mm/hr and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) was 9.4 mg/L. Her Mantoux test was positive with 20 mm induration. Wrist radiograph and chest radiograph was normal. Musculoskeletal ultrasound showed 4th extensor compartment tenosynovitis with Doppler signal and right knee effusion with synovial proliferation. Extensor tenosynovectomy and right knee aspiration was performed. Left hand excised tissue and right knee synovial fluid for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) stain, TB PCR, bacterial and fungal cultures were negative. Urgent histopathological examination of the excised tissue showed necrotising granulomatous inflammation. Patient was empirically started on TB treatment and subsequent mycobacterial culture confirmed the diagnosis of TB. The joints swelling resolved after one month of TB treatment. Multifocal OATB is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary TB and diagnosing OATB requires high index of suspicion particularly in SLE patient on immunosuppression. Prompt investigations are essential to the diagnosis of this rare condition for early initiation of anti-tuberculous therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment
  15. Nasution A, Yusuf A, Lean Keng S, Rasudin NS, P Iskandar YH, Ab Hadi IS
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Oct 01;22(10):3151-3163.
    PMID: 34710991 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.10.3151
    BACKGROUND: Mobile health technologies are widely being used for delivering health behaviour interventions. However, there is insufficient evidence that they are integrating theory and only a few researchers utilized a qualitative approach in their study.

    OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to identify requirements in developing a breast examination awareness mobile app based on the component of the Health Belief Model (HBM) for integration in health promotion strategy.

    METHODS: A qualitative approach using semi-structured in-depth interview was utilized in this study. A purposive sampling method was conducted among public women attending hospital services, software and content experts in a tertiary teaching hospital in the East coast of Peninsular Malaysia. These interviews were recorded, transcribed and organized using NVIVO 11. The main themes were identified through thematic analysis of the interview transcripts.  Results: A total of 37 participants recruited in this study. The themes that emerged from the analysis are vulnerability, forecasting, reactive, influence, outcome and obstacles. The sub-themes findings supported the HBM's component in terms of the requirement for are an infographic risk factor, video (symptoms, self-examination), info (metastasis, survival, screening, triple assessment, treatment, myth and facts, benefit of early treatment, support groups), features (screening reminder, sharing button, prompt) and mobile app's design.

    CONCLUSION: The research findings could provide a guide for future app development from public women, content and software experts.  The information will be used to develop a breast examination awareness mobile app integrated with health theories.

    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment
  16. Nealon J, Taurel AF, Capeding MR, Tran NH, Hadinegoro SR, Chotpitayasunondh T, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 08;10(8):e0004918.
    PMID: 27532617 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004918
    Dengue incidence has increased globally, but empirical burden estimates are scarce. Prospective methods are best-able to capture all severities of disease. CYD14 was an observer-blinded dengue vaccine study conducted in children 2-14 years of age in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam. The control group received no vaccine and resembled a prospective, observational study. We calculated the rates of dengue according to different laboratory or clinical criteria to make inferences about dengue burden, and compared with rates reported in the passive surveillance systems to calculate expansion factors which describe under-reporting. Over 6,933 person-years of observation in the control group there were 319 virologically confirmed dengue cases, a crude attack rate of 4.6%/year. Of these, 92 cases (28.8%) were clinically diagnosed as dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever by investigators and 227 were not, indicating that most symptomatic disease fails to satisfy existing case definitions. When examining different case definitions, there was an inverse relationship between clinical severity and observed incidence rates. CYD14's active surveillance system captured a greater proportion of symptomatic dengue than national passive surveillance systems, giving rise to expansion factors ranging from 0.5 to 31.7. This analysis showed substantial, unpredictable and variable under-reporting of symptomatic dengue, even within a controlled clinical trial environment, and emphasizes that burden estimates are highly sensitive to case definitions. These data will assist in generating disease burden estimates and have important policy implications when considering the introduction and health economics of dengue prevention and control interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment
  17. Ng BH, Andrea YLB, Nuratiqah NA, Faisal AH, Soo CI, Najma K, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 09;75(5):582-584.
    PMID: 32918430
    The world feels strange as we face what is for most of us our first ever pandemic. The number of newly diagnosed cases rises daily in many parts of the world, and we are faced with the reality that there are still many things to learn about this new disease. We share here our experience of treating our first 199 COVID-19 patients in the Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment
  18. El-Desouky S, Taalab YM, El-Gamal M, Mohamed W, Salama M
    Methods Mol Biol, 2019;2011:451-464.
    PMID: 31273716 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9554-7_27
    Leigh syndrome (LS) is a common neurodegenerative disease affecting neonates with devastating sequences. One of the characteristic features for LS is the phenotypic polymorphism, which-in part-can be dedicated to variety of genetic causes. A strong correlation with mitochondrial dysfunction has been assumed as the main cause of LS. This was based on the fact that most genetic causes are related to mitochondrial complex I genome. The first animal LS model was designed based on NDUFS4 knockdown. Interestingly, however, this one or others could not recapitulate the whole spectrum of manifestations encountered in different cases of LS. We show in this chapter a new animal model for LS based on silencing of one gene that is reported previously in clinical cases, FOXRED1. The new model carries some differences from previous models in the fact that more histopathological degeneration in dopaminergic system is seen and more behavioral changes can be recognized. FOXRED1 is an interesting gene that is related to complex I assembly, hence, plays important role in different neurodegenerative disorders leading to different clinical manifestations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment
  19. Yahya N, Ebert MA, House MJ, Kennedy A, Matthews J, Joseph DJ, et al.
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2017 02 01;97(2):420-426.
    PMID: 28068247 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.10.024
    PURPOSE: We assessed the association of the spatial distribution of dose to the bladder surface, described using dose-surface maps, with the risk of urinary dysfunction.

    METHODS AND MATERIALS: The bladder dose-surface maps of 754 participants from the TROG 03.04-RADAR trial were generated from the volumetric data by virtually cutting the bladder at the sagittal slice, intersecting the bladder center-of-mass through to the bladder posterior and projecting the dose information on a 2-dimensional plane. Pixelwise dose comparisons were performed between patients with and without symptoms (dysuria, hematuria, incontinence, and an International Prostate Symptom Score increase of ≥10 [ΔIPSS10]). The results with and without permutation-based multiple-comparison adjustments are reported. The pixelwise multivariate analysis findings (peak-event model for dysuria, hematuria, and ΔIPSS10; event-count model for incontinence), with adjustments for clinical factors, are also reported.

    RESULTS: The associations of the spatially specific dose measures to urinary dysfunction were dependent on the presence of specific symptoms. The doses received by the anteroinferior and, to lesser extent, posterosuperior surface of the bladder had the strongest relationship with the incidence of dysuria, hematuria, and ΔIPSS10, both with and without adjustment for clinical factors. For the doses to the posteroinferior region corresponding to the area of the trigone, the only symptom with significance was incontinence.

    CONCLUSIONS: A spatially variable response of the bladder surface to the dose was found for symptoms of urinary dysfunction. Limiting the dose extending anteriorly might help reduce the risk of urinary dysfunction.

    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment
  20. Soh TV, Dzawani M, Noorlina N, Nik F, Norazmi A
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 09;75(5):479-484.
    PMID: 32918413
    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study aims to describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients admitted to Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA), Pahang, Malaysia and to identify the clinical and laboratory markers for severe disease, complications and virologic clearance according to clinical staging.

    METHODS: This was a single-centre, retrospective, descriptive study. All COVID-19 patients admitted to HTAA from March 9 to April 15, 2020, were included in the study. Patients were categorised according to clinical staging. Data obtained from the medical report includes baseline characteristics of patients, comorbidities, presenting symptoms, laboratory findings, treatments, complications, and outcomes.

    RESULTS: Of the total of 247 patients hospitalised, the majority consisted at clinical-stage 1 (43%) and stage 2 (39%) disease. Older patients, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic kidney disease were found more common among patients with severe disease. Fever was uncommon and the majority had normal haemoglobin levels, white cell counts, and platelet counts. C-reactive protein (CRP) was found statistically significant to predict pneumonia or hypoxia at a cut-off value of 14mg/L (sensitivity 73.8%, specificity 91.3%) and 50mg/L (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96.4%) respectively. Pneumonia was mostly diagnosed radiologically using chest radiography, especially among clinical stage 3. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was a significant complication, with 31% of clinical stage 3 and above developed AKI and 44% of them requiring haemodialysis. Median virologic clearance time was 15 days from onset of illness, and asymptomatic patients had longer clearance time.

    CONCLUSION: COVID-19 presented with a wide spectrum of clinical patterns. CRP was a valuable predictor of severe disease. In this study risk and severity of acute kidney injury were found to be higher. A longer duration of virologic clearance was observed among the asymptomatic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Symptom Assessment
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