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  1. Lye HS, Lee YT, Ooi SY, Teh LK, Lim LN, Wei LK
    Front Biosci (Elite Ed), 2018 03 01;10:344-351.
    PMID: 29293462
    Aging, which affects most of the multi-cellular organisms, is due to a potentially complex set of mechanisms that collectively cause a time-dependent decline of physiological functions. Aging restrains longevity and leads to neurodegenerative diseases including dementia, Alzheimer's disease and lacunar stroke. Human microbiota is now considered to have a strong impact on the progression of aging. The impact of aging and the risk of neurodegenerative diseases can be reduced by using probiotics, or preferably by combining probiotics and prebiotics, also known as synbiotics, that can drastically modify the composition of gut microbiome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Synbiotics*
  2. Mookiah S, Sieo CC, Ramasamy K, Abdullah N, Ho YW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2014 Jan 30;94(2):341-8.
    PMID: 24037967 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6365
    In view of a worldwide attempt to restrict or ban the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal production, probiotics, prebiotics and combinations of both, as synbiotics, have been suggested as potential alternatives. In this study, the effects of a prebiotic (isomalto-oligosaccharides, IMO), a multi-strain probiotic (consisting of 11 Lactobacillus strains), and a combination of these dietary additives as a synbiotic on the performance, caecal bacterial populations and concentrations of caecal volatile fatty acids and non-volatile fatty acids of broiler chickens were evaluated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Synbiotics*
  3. Ooi LG, Ahmad R, Yuen KH, Liong MT
    J Dairy Sci, 2010 Nov;93(11):5048-58.
    PMID: 20965319 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2010-3311
    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-designed study was conducted to investigate the effect of a synbiotic product containing Lactobacillus gasseri [corrected] CHO-220 and inulin on lipid profiles of hypercholesterolemic men and women. Thirty-two hypercholesterolemic men and women with initial mean plasma cholesterol levels of 5.7±0.32 mmol/L were recruited for the 12-wk study. The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups; namely the treatment group (synbiotic product) and the control group (placebo), and each received 4 capsules of synbiotic or placebo daily. Our results showed that the mean body weight, energy, and nutrient intake of the subjects did not differ between the 2 groups over the study period. The supplementation of synbiotic reduced plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol by 7.84 and 9.27%, respectively, compared with the control over 12 wk. Lipoproteins were subsequently subfractionated and characterized. The synbiotic supplementation resulted in a lower concentration of triglycerides in the very low, intermediate, low, and high-density lipoprotein particles compared with the control over 12 wk. The concentration of triglycerides in lipoproteins is positively correlated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Our results showed that the synbiotic might exhibit an atheropreventive characteristic. Cholesteryl ester (CE) in the high-density lipoprotein particles of the synbiotic group was also higher compared with the control, indicating greater transport of cholesterol in the form of CE to the liver for hydrolysis. This may have led to the reduced plasma total cholesterol level of the synbiotic group. The supplementation of synbiotic also reduced the concentration of CE in the LDL particles compared with the control, leading to the formation of smaller and denser particles that are more easily removed from blood. This supported the reduced LDL-cholesterol level of the synbiotic group compared with the control. Our present study showed that the synbiotic product improved plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol levels by modifying the interconnected pathways of lipid transporters. In addition, although Lactobacillus gasseri [corrected] CHO-220 could deconjugate bile, our results showed a statistically insignificant difference in the levels of conjugated, deconjugated, primary, and secondary bile acids between the synbiotic and control groups over 12 wk, indicating safety from bile-related toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Synbiotics*
  4. Lim YJ, Jamaluddin R, Hazizi AS, Chieng JY
    Nutrients, 2018 Jun 26;10(7).
    PMID: 29949873 DOI: 10.3390/nu10070824
    Synbiotics approach complementarily and synergistically toward the balance of gastrointestinal microbiota and improvement in bowel functions. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine the effects of a synbiotics supplement among constipated adults. A total of 85 constipated adults, diagnosed by Rome III criteria for functional constipation were randomised to receive either synbiotics (n = 43) or placebo (n = 42) once daily (2.5 g) in the morning for 12 weeks. Eight times of follow-up was conducted every fortnightly with treatment response based on a questionnaire that included a record of evacuation (stool frequency, stool type according to Bristol Stool Form Scale), Patients Assessment on Constipation Symptoms (PAC-SYM), and Patients Assessment on Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QOL). There were no significant differences in stool evacuation, but defecation frequency and stool type in treatment group were improved tremendously than in placebo group. While the treatment group was reported to have higher reduction in severity of functional constipation symptoms, the differences were not statistically significant. Dietary supplementation of synbiotics in this study suggested that the combination of probiotics and prebiotics improved the functional constipation symptoms and quality of life although not significant. This was due to the high placebo effect which synbiotics failed to demonstrate benefit over the controls.
    Matched MeSH terms: Synbiotics/administration & dosage*; Synbiotics/adverse effects
  5. Liong MT
    Int J Mol Sci, 2008 May;9(5):854-63.
    PMID: 19325789 DOI: 10.3390/ijms9050854
    Probiotics are live bacteria that could exert health beneficial effects upon consumption. In additional to their conventional use as gut modulators, probiotics are investigated for their role to prevent cancer. In-vivo and molecular studies have demonstrated encouraging outcomes, mainly attributed to its antimicrobial effects against carcinogen-producing microorganisms, antimutagenic properties, and alteration of the tumor differentiation processes. Prebiotics are indigestible food components that could promote the growth of beneficial bacteria including probiotics. Present studies have suggested that prebiotics also possess protective effect against colon carcinogenesis, mainly attributed to the production of short chain fatty acids upon its fermentation by gut microflora, and alteration of gene-expressions in tumor cells. Synbiotic (combination of probiotic and prebiotic) has been found to exert a synergistic effect in improving colon carcinogenesis compared to when both were used individually. This paper highlights the colon cancer preventive effects by probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. In addition, the controversial outcomes on the insignificant effect of these food adjuncts will be discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Synbiotics
  6. Nurul Alia Risma Rismayuddin, Munirah Mokhtar, Noratikah Othman, Ahmad Faisal Ismail, Mohd Hafiz Arzmi
    MyJurnal
    Introduction:Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus that is associated with oral carcinogenesis. In addition, biofilm formation has been one of the important virulence factors of the yeast. Streptococcus salivarius K12 is an oral probiotic while Musa acuminata is a well-known prebiotic. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of S. salivarius K12 and M. acuminata skin aqueous extract (synbiotic) on C. albicans with the hypothesis that S. salivariusK12 and M. acuminata inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation. Methods: To develop mono-species biofilm, C. albicans(ATCC MYA-4901 and cancer isolates, ALC2 and ALC3 strains) and S. salivarius K12 were standardised to 105 cells and 106 cells, respectively and grown in 96-well plate in nutrient broth (NB) or RPMI at 37 °C for 72 h. Polymicro-bial biofilms were developed by inoculating both microorganisms in the same well with similar cell number as in mono-species. To determine the effect of synbiotic, similar protocol was repeated by mixing with 800 mg mL-1 of M. acuminata skin extract and incubated at 37 °C for 72 h. The medium was replenished at every 24 h, aseptically. Finally, the biofilms were assessed using crystal violet assay and the optical density was measured at OD620nm. Results:C. albicans strain MYA-4901 and ALC3, when grown in polymicrobial with S. salivarius K12 in NB that is predominated by yeast-form C. albicans, exhibited decreased biofilms by 71.40±11.7% and 49.40±3.9%, respec-tively when compared to the expected biofilms. Meanwhile in RPMI, which C. albicans strain ATCC MYA-4901, ALC2 and ALC3 were predominated by hyphal-form showed decreased biofilms by 72.0±26.7%, 53.4±14.4% and 65.7±6.7%, respectively when compared to the expected biofilms. Conclusion:S. salivarius K12 and M. acuminata skin extract synbiotic inhibit biofilm formation of C. albicans yeast and hyphal forms thus supported the hypothesis of the present study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Synbiotics
  7. Ooi LG, Bhat R, Rosma A, Yuen KH, Liong MT
    J Dairy Sci, 2010 Oct;93(10):4535-44.
    PMID: 20854987 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2010-3330
    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-design study was conducted to investigate the effect of a synbiotic product containing Lactobacillus gasseri [corrected] CHO-220 and inulin on the irregularity in shape of red blood cells (RBC) in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The subjects (n=32) were randomly allocated to 2 groups, a treatment group (synbiotic product) and a control group (placebo), and received 4 capsules of either synbiotic or placebo daily for 12 wk. Morphological representation via scanning electron microscopy showed that the occurrence of spur RBC was improved upon supplementation of the synbiotic. In addition, the supplementation of synbiotic reduced the cholesterol:phospholipids ratio of the RBC membrane by 47.02% over 12 wk, whereas the control showed insignificant changes. Our present study also showed that supplementation of the synbiotic reduced the concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA), increased unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), and increased the ratio of UFA:SFA over 12 wk, whereas the control showed inconspicuous changes. The alteration of RBC membrane was assessed using fluorescence anisotropy (FAn) and fluorescence probes with different affinities for varying sections of the membrane phospholipid bilayer. A noticeable decrease in FAn of three fluorescent probes was observed in the synbiotic group compared with the control over 12 wk, indicative of increased membrane fluidity and reduced cholesterol enrichment in the RBC membrane.
    Matched MeSH terms: Synbiotics*
  8. Tang SG, Sieo CC, Kalavathy R, Saad WZ, Yong ST, Wong HK, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2015 Aug;80(8):C1686-95.
    PMID: 26174350 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12947
    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age.
    Matched MeSH terms: Synbiotics*
  9. Tang SGH, Sieo CC, Ramasamy K, Saad WZ, Wong HK, Ho YW
    BMC Vet Res, 2017 Aug 17;13(1):248.
    PMID: 28814309 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-017-1160-y
    BACKGROUND: The increasing trend of ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) across the globe in the poultry industry has led to a growing need for alternatives to AGPs. Prebiotic, probiotic and their combination as a synbiotic have been considered as potential alternatives. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a prebiotic (isomaltooligosaccharide, IMO), a probiotic (PrimaLac®), and their combination (synbiotic) on hen performance, biochemical and haematological responses, and relative organ weights from 20 to 52 weeks of age.

    RESULTS: Supplementation of 1% IMO (PRE), 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO) and 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN) improved (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Synbiotics*
  10. Kasatpibal N, Whitney JD, Saokaew S, Kengkla K, Heitkemper MM, Apisarnthanarak A
    Clin Infect Dis, 2017 May 15;64(suppl_2):S153-S160.
    PMID: 28475793 DOI: 10.1093/cid/cix114
    Background: Microbiome-directed therapies are increasingly used preoperatively and postoperatively to improve postoperative outcomes. Recently, the effectiveness of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in reducing postoperative complications (POCs) has been questioned. This systematic review aimed to examine and rank the effectiveness of these therapies on POCs in adult surgical patients.

    Methods: We searched for articles from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scopus, and CINAHL plus. From 2002 to 2015, 31 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were identified in the literature. Risk of bias and heterogeneity were assessed. Network meta-analyses (NMA) were performed using random-effects modeling to obtain estimates for study outcomes. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. We then ranked the comparative effects of all regimens with the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probabilities.

    Results: A total of 2,952 patients were included. We found that synbiotic therapy was the best regimen in reducing surgical site infection (SSI) (RR = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.64) in adult surgical patients. Synbiotic therapy was also the best intervention to reduce pneumonia (RR = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.09-0.90), sepsis (RR = 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.94), hospital stay (mean = 9.66 days, 95% CI, 7.60-11.72), and duration of antibiotic administration (mean = 5.61 days, 95% CI, 3.19-8.02). No regimen significantly reduced mortality.

    Conclusions: This network meta-analysis suggests that synbiotic therapy is the first rank to reduce SSI, pneumonia, sepsis, hospital stay, and antibiotic use. Surgeons should consider the use of synbiotics as an adjunctive therapy to prevent POCs among adult surgical patients. Increasing use of synbiotics may help to reduce the use of antibiotics and multidrug resistance.

    Matched MeSH terms: Synbiotics/administration & dosage*
  11. Firouzi S, Haghighatdoost F
    Nutrition, 2018 02 06;51-52:104-113.
    PMID: 29626749 DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.01.007
    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have demonstrated promising results regarding possible improvements in renal function after prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplementation. The aim of this review was to demonstrate whether such supplementation will improve renal profile indexes including glomerular filtration rate (GFR), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), and urea.

    METHOD: The meta-analysis included all studies that examined the effect of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplements on one or more renal function parameters and had a control group. We searched July 1967 through to March 2016 MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases.

    RESULTS: Of 437 studies, 13 were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. GFR levels tended to be reduced; whereas creatinine levels increased in the intervention group compared with the placebo group, both in a non-significant manner. The pooled effect on BUN demonstrated a significant decline compared with the placebo group (MD, -1.72 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.93 to -0.51; P = 0.005). Urea significantly decreased after intervention (-0.46 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.60 to -0.32; P <0.0001). The UA levels significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the placebo group (12.28 µmol/L; 95% CI, 0.85-23.71; P = 0.035).

    CONCLUSION: This study showed a significant increase in UA and a decrease in urea and BUN. The use of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplements among those with compromised renal function or those at risk for renal failure should be limited until large-scale, well-designed randomized controlled trials prove the safety and efficacy of these supplements in improving renal function.

    Matched MeSH terms: Synbiotics
  12. Ismail IH, Licciardi PV, Tang ML
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2013 Sep;49(9):709-15.
    PMID: 23574636 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.12175
    The increasing prevalence of allergic disease has been linked to reduced microbial exposure in early life. Probiotics have recently been advocated for the prevention and treatment of allergic disease. This article summarises recent publications on probiotics in allergic disease, focusing on clinical studies of prevention or treatment of allergic disease. Studies employing the combined administration of pre-natal and post-natal probiotics suggest a role for certain probiotics (alone or with prebiotics) in the prevention of eczema in early childhood, with the pre-natal component of treatment appearing to be important for beneficial effects. On the other hand, current data are insufficient to support the use of probiotics for the treatment of established allergic disease, although recent studies have highlighted new hope in this area. Probiotic bacteria continue to represent the most promising intervention for primary prevention of allergic disease, and well-designed definitive intervention studies should now be a research priority.
    Matched MeSH terms: Synbiotics
  13. Al-Sheraji SH, Ismail A, Manap MY, Mustafa S, Yusof RM
    J Food Sci, 2012 Nov;77(11):M624-30.
    PMID: 23106104 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02955.x
    The viability and activity of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4, B. longum BB 536 and yoghurt cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) were studied in yoghurt containing 0.75% Mangefira pajang fibrous polysaccharides (MPFP) and inulin. Growth of probiotic organisms, their proteolytic activities, the production of short chain fatty acids (lactic, acetic and propionic) and the pH of the yoghurt samples were determined during refrigerated storage at 4 °C for 28 d. B. pseudocatenulatum G4 and B. longum BB 536 showed better growth and activity in the presence of MPFP and inulin, which significantly increased the production of short chain fatty acids as well as the proteolytic activity of these organisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Synbiotics
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