RESULTS: Supplementation of 1% IMO (PRE), 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO) and 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN) improved (P
Methods: We searched for articles from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scopus, and CINAHL plus. From 2002 to 2015, 31 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were identified in the literature. Risk of bias and heterogeneity were assessed. Network meta-analyses (NMA) were performed using random-effects modeling to obtain estimates for study outcomes. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. We then ranked the comparative effects of all regimens with the surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probabilities.
Results: A total of 2,952 patients were included. We found that synbiotic therapy was the best regimen in reducing surgical site infection (SSI) (RR = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.64) in adult surgical patients. Synbiotic therapy was also the best intervention to reduce pneumonia (RR = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.09-0.90), sepsis (RR = 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.94), hospital stay (mean = 9.66 days, 95% CI, 7.60-11.72), and duration of antibiotic administration (mean = 5.61 days, 95% CI, 3.19-8.02). No regimen significantly reduced mortality.
Conclusions: This network meta-analysis suggests that synbiotic therapy is the first rank to reduce SSI, pneumonia, sepsis, hospital stay, and antibiotic use. Surgeons should consider the use of synbiotics as an adjunctive therapy to prevent POCs among adult surgical patients. Increasing use of synbiotics may help to reduce the use of antibiotics and multidrug resistance.
METHOD: The meta-analysis included all studies that examined the effect of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplements on one or more renal function parameters and had a control group. We searched July 1967 through to March 2016 MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases.
RESULTS: Of 437 studies, 13 were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. GFR levels tended to be reduced; whereas creatinine levels increased in the intervention group compared with the placebo group, both in a non-significant manner. The pooled effect on BUN demonstrated a significant decline compared with the placebo group (MD, -1.72 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.93 to -0.51; P = 0.005). Urea significantly decreased after intervention (-0.46 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.60 to -0.32; P <0.0001). The UA levels significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the placebo group (12.28 µmol/L; 95% CI, 0.85-23.71; P = 0.035).
CONCLUSION: This study showed a significant increase in UA and a decrease in urea and BUN. The use of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplements among those with compromised renal function or those at risk for renal failure should be limited until large-scale, well-designed randomized controlled trials prove the safety and efficacy of these supplements in improving renal function.