The aim of the present numerical study is to analyze the conjugate natural convection heat transfer in a differentially heated square enclosure containing a conductive polygon object. The left wall is heated and the right wall is cooled, while the horizontal walls are kept adiabatic. The COMSOL Multiphysics software is applied to solve the dimensionless governing equations. The governing parameters considered are the polygon type, 3 ≤ N ≤ ∞, the horizontal position, 0.25 ≤ X 0 ≤ 0.75, the polygon size, 0 ≤ A ≤ π/16, the thermal conductivity ratio, 0.1 ≤ K r ≤ 10.0, and the Rayleigh number, 10(3) ≤ Ra ≤ 10(6). The critical size of the solid polygon was found exists at low conductivities. The heat transfer rate increases with the increase of the size of the solid polygon, until it reaches its maximum value. Here, the size of the solid polygon is reaches its critical value. Further, beyond this critical size of the solid polygon, will decrease the heat transfer rate.
This article aims to study the thin film layer flowing on a vertical oscillating belt. The flow is considered to satisfy the constitutive equation of unsteady second grade fluid. The governing equation for velocity and temperature fields with subjected initial and boundary conditions are solved by two analytical techniques namely Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) and Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The comparisons of ADM and OHAM solutions for velocity and temperature fields are shown numerically and graphically for both the lift and drainage problems. It is found that both these solutions are identical. In order to understand the physical behavior of the embedded parameters such as Stock number, frequency parameter, magnetic parameter, Brinkman number and Prandtl number, the analytical results are plotted graphically and discussed.
A pre- and post experimental analysis of copper-water and silver-water nanofluids are conducted to investigate minimal changes in quality of nanofluids before and after an effective heat transfer. A single loop oscillating heat pipe (OHP) having inner diameter of 2.4mm is charged with aforementioned nanofluids at 60% filling ratio for end to end heat transfer. Post experimental analysis of both nanofluids raises questions to the physical, chemical and thermal stability of such suspension for hazardless uses in the field of heat transfer. The color, deposition, dispersibility, propensity to be oxidized, disintegration, agglomeration and thermal conductivity of metal nanofluids are found to be strictly affected by heat transfer process and vice versa. Such degradation in quality of basic properties of metal nanofluids implies its challenges in practical application even for short-term heat transfer operations at oxidative environment as nano-sized metal particles are chemically more unstable than its bulk material. The use of the solid/liquid suspension containing metal nanoparticles in any heat exchanger as heat carrier might be detrimental to the whole system.
The thermal conductivity of boron carbide filled thermoplastic natural rubber blend composite is studied experimentally as a function of filler loading and filler size. A polymer blend of 60/40 NR/HDPE was used as matrix for incorporation of particulate nano- and micro-sized B4C as filler to form the composite. As the filler loading is increased from 2-10%wt, a reduction and increment of thermal conductivity was observed. The results show at lower filler loading, HDPE crystallinity affects the thermal conductivity up to 4 and 6%wt of filler for nano- and micro-composite respectively. Further increase the loading do not much alter the crystallinity as the filler is distributed in continues phase of NR. The increment of filler amount in the amorphous NR causes the thermal conductivity to gradually increase which indicates the formation of interconnecting filler network structures
Recycling automotive waste has increasingly become an alternative solution towards producing sustainable materials given the rising issue of raw material shortages and waste management challenges at global level. The improper end-of-life vehicle (ELV) waste management poses detrimental impacts on the environment. This paper proposes a novel method to develop thermal insulation sandwich panels using ELV waste, motivated by the critical needs of creating high-performance thermal insulation for buildings. Six sandwich panels (P1-P6) of different weight and ratio of shredded ELV particles were manufactured. The sandwich panels structure was made of three layers: a core, and a glass face sheet bonded to each side. The core structure composed of Polycarbonate (PC) from headlamp lenses and polyurethane (PU) from seat, bonded using resin casting approach. Thermal conductivity of the samples was measured using guarded hot-plate apparatus. Results corroborated that thermal conductivity of ELV-based sandwich panels reduced remarkably compared to panel without ELVs, recorded at 15.51% reduction. Composition gives the best thermal performance was made of mixed ELV core materials of ratio 50%PC:50%PU, it has a thermal conductivity value of 0.1776 W/mK. The transparency data were obtained using Haze-gard plus haze meter. The best luminous transmittance value was exhibited by P2 (100% PC), 67.47%. The best clarity value and haze value were shown by P6 (25% PC: 75% PU), 55.13% and 52.6% respectively. ELV waste can be recycled to develop useful sustainable thermal insulation to improve thermal and optical transparency performance of buildings as a substitute for conventional materials which have a relevance for future façade concepts.
The incessant demand for concrete is predicted to increase due to the fast construction developments worldwide. This demand requires a huge volume of cement production that could cause an ecological issue such as increasing the rates of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. This motivated several scholars to search for various alternatives for cement and one of such alternatives is called sulfur-based concrete. This concrete composite contributes to reduce the amount of cement required to make conventional concrete. Sulfur can be used as a partial-alternate binder to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) to produce sulfur-based concrete, which is a composite matrix of construction materials collected mostly from aggregates and sulfur. Sulfur modified concrete outperforms conventional concrete in terms of rapid gain of early strength, low shrinkage, low thermal conductivity, high durability resistance and excellent adhesion. On the basis of mentioned superior characteristics of sulfur-based concrete, it can be applied as a leading construction material for underground utility systems, dams and offshore structures. Therefore, this study reviews the sources, emissions from construction enterprises and compositions of sulfur; describes the production techniques and properties of sulfur; and highlights related literature to generate comprehensive insights into the potential applications of sulfur-based concrete in the construction industry today.
This study investigates thermal natural convective heat transfer in a nanofluid filled-non-Darcian porous and wavy-walled domain under the local thermal non-equilibrium condition. The considered cavity has corrugated and cold vertical walls and insulated horizontal walls except the heated part positioned at the bottom wall. The transport equations in their non-dimensional model are numerically solved based on the Galerkin finite-element discretization technique. The dimensionless governing parameters of the present work are the nanoparticle in volume concentration, the Darcy number, number of undulations, modified heat conductivity ratio, dimensionless heated part length, and location. Comparisons with other published theoretical and experimental results show good agreement with the present outcomes. The findings indicate that the heater length, its position, and the waves number on the side vertical walls as well as the nanoparticles concentration can be the control parameters for free convective motion and heat transport within the wavy cavity.
The experimental determination of thermophysical properties of nanofluid (NF) is time-consuming and costly, leading to the use of soft computing methods such as response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate these properties. The present study involves modelling and optimization of thermal conductivity and viscosity of NF, which comprises multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and thermal oil. The modelling is performed to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of NF by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Both models were tested and validated, which showed promising results. In addition, a detailed optimization study was conducted to investigate the optimum thermal conductivity and viscosity by varying temperature and NF weight per cent. Four case studies were explored using different objective functions based on NF application in various industries. The first case study aimed to maximize thermal conductivity (0.15985 W/m oC) while minimizing viscosity (0.03501 Pa s) obtained at 57.86 °C and 0.85 NF wt%. The goal of the second case study was to minimize thermal conductivity (0.13949 W/m °C) and viscosity (0.02526 Pa s) obtained at 55.88 °C and 0.15 NF wt%. The third case study targeted maximizing thermal conductivity (0.15797 W/m °C) and viscosity (0.07611 Pa s), and the optimum temperature and NF wt% were 30.64 °C and 0.0.85,' respectively. The last case study explored the minimum thermal conductivity (0.13735) and maximum viscosity (0.05263 Pa s) obtained at 30.64 °C and 0.15 NF wt%.
Foamed mortar with a density of 1300 kg/m³ was prepared. In the initial laboratory trials, water-to-cement (w/c) ratios ranging from 0.54 to 0.64 were tested to determine the optimal value for foamed mortar corresponding to the highest compressive strength without compromising its fresh state properties. With the obtained optimal w/c ratio of 0.56, two types of foamed mortar were prepared, namely cement-foamed mortar (CFM) and slag-foamed mortar (SFM, 50% cement was replaced by slag weight). Four different curing conditions were adopted for both types of foamed mortar to assess their compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and thermal insulation performance. The test results indicated that utilizing 50% of slag as cement replacement in the production of foamed mortar improved the compressive strength, UPV and thermal insulation properties. Additionally, the initial water curing of seven days gained higher compressive strength and increased UPV values as compared to the air cured and natural weather curing samples. However, this positive effect was more pronounced in the case of compressive strength than in the UPV and thermal conductivity of foamed mortar.
It has been observed previously that the physical behaviors of Schmidt number (Sc) and Prandtl number (Pr) of an energy-conserving dissipative particle dynamics (eDPD) fluid can be reproduced by the temperature-dependent weight function appearing in the dissipative force term. In this paper, we proposed a simple and systematic method to develop the temperature-dependent weight function in order to better reproduce the physical fluid properties. The method was then used to study a variety of phase-change problems involving solidification. The concept of the "mushy" eDPD particle was introduced in order to better capture the temperature profile in the vicinity of the solid-liquid interface, particularly for the case involving high thermal conductivity ratio. Meanwhile, a way to implement the constant temperature boundary condition at the wall was presented. The numerical solutions of one- and two-dimensional solidification problems were then compared with the analytical solutions and/or experimental results and the agreements were promising.
The main feature of the present numerical model is to explore the behavior of Maxwell nanoliquid moving within two horizontal rotating disks. The disks are stretchable and subjected to a magnetic field in axial direction. The time dependent characteristics of thermal conductivity have been considered to scrutinize the heat transfer phenomena. The thermophoresis and Brownian motion features of nanoliquid are studied with Buongiorno model. The lower and upper disk's rotation for both the cases, same direction as well as opposite direction of rotation is investigated. The subsequent arrangement of the three dimensional Navier Stoke's equations along with energy, mass and Maxwell equations are diminished to a dimensionless system of equations through the Von Karman's similarity framework. The comparative numerical arrangement of modeled equations is further set up by built-in numerical scheme "boundary value solver" (Bvp4c) and Runge Kutta fourth order method (RK4). The various physical constraints, such as Prandtl number, thermal conductivity, magnetic field, thermal radiation, time relaxation, Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters and their impact are presented and discussed briefly for velocity, temperature, concentration and magnetic strength profiles. In the present analysis, some vital characteristics such as Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are considered for physical and numerical investigation. The outcomes concluded that the disk stretching action opposing the flow behavior. With the increases of magnetic field parameter [Formula: see text] the fluid velocity decreases, while improving its temperature. We show a good agreement of the present work by comparing with those published in literature.
Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials play an increasingly important role in modern manufacturing, and they are among the more prominent materials used in aircraft manufacturing today. However, CFRP is highly prone to delamination and other damage when drilled due to it being extremely strong with a good strength-to-weight ratio and high thermal conductivity. Because of this problem and CFRP's growing importance in aircraft manufacture, research has focused on the entry and exit holes as indicators of damage occurrence during drilling of screws, rivets, and other types of holes. The inside of the hole was neglected in past research and a proper way to quantify the internal side of a hole by combining the entry and exit hole should be included. To fill this gap and improve the use of CFRP, this paper reports a novel technique to measure the holes by using the extension of the adjusted delamination factor (SFDSR) for drilling thick CFRP composites in order to establish the influence of machining input variables on key output measures, i.e., delamination and other damages. The experimental results showed a significant difference in interpretation of the damage during the analysis. Improvement was made by providing better perspectives of identifying hole defects.
Titanium alloys are difficult to machine using conventional methods, therefore, nonconventional processes are often chosen in many applications. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of those nonconventional processes that is used frequently for shaping titanium alloys with their respective pros and cons. However, a good understanding of this process is very difficult to achieve as research results are not properly connected and presented. Therefore, this study investigates different types of EDM processes such as, wire EDM, die-sink EDM, EDM drill and hybrid EDM used to machine titanium alloys. Machining mechanism, tool electrode, dielectric, materials removal rate (MRR), and surface integrity of all these processes are critically analysed and correlated based on the evidence accessible in literature. Machining process suffer from lower material removal rate and high tool wear while applied on titanium alloys. Formation of recast layer, heat affected zone and tool wear is common in all types of EDM processes. Additional challenge in wire EDM of titanium alloys is wire breakage under severe machining conditions. The formation of TiC and TiO2 are noticed in recast layer depending on the type of dielectrics. Removal of debris from small holes during EDM drilling is a challenge. All these restricts the applications EDMed titanium alloys in high-tech applications such as, aerospace and biomedical areas. Most of these challenges come up due to extraordinary properties such as, low thermal conductivity, high melting point and high hardness, of titanium alloys. Though hybrid EDM has been introduced and there is some work on simulation of EDM process, further developments in EDM of this alloy is required for widening the application of this methods.
This study investigates the numerical solutions of MHD boundary layer and heat transfer of the Williamson fluid flow on the exponentially vertical shrinking sheet, having variable thickness and thermal conductivity under effects of the velocity and thermal slip parameters. It is also assumed that shrinking/stretching velocity, as well as the wall temperature, has the exponential function form. In this study, the continuity, momentum and energy equations with buoyancy parameter and Hartmann number are incorporated especially in the Williamson fluid flow case. Similarity transformation variables have been employed to formulate the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) from partial differential equations (PDEs). The resultant ODEs are solved by shooting method with Runge Kutta of fourth order method in Maple software. The effects of the different applied non-dimensional physical parameters on the boundary layer and heat transfer flow problems are presented in graphs. The effects of Williamson parameter, Prandtl number, and slip parameters on velocity and temperature profiles have been thoroughly demonstrated and discussed. The numerical results show that the buoyancy force and the slip parameters contribute to the occurrence of the dual solutions on the boundary layer and heat transfer flow problems. Furthermore, the stability analysis suggests that the first solution is stable and physically possible.
Energy transfer in mixed convection unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an incompressible nanofluid inside a channel filled with saturated porous medium is investigated. The channel with non-uniform walls temperature is taken in a vertical direction under the influence of a transverse magnetic field. Based on the physical boundary conditions, three different flow situations are discussed. The problem is modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Four different shapes of nanoparticles of equal volume fraction are used in conventional base fluids, ethylene glycol (EG) (C 2 H 6 O 2 ) and water (H 2 O). Solutions for velocity and temperature are obtained discussed graphically in various plots. It is found that viscosity and thermal conductivity are the most prominent parameters responsible for different results of velocity and temperature. Due to higher viscosity and thermal conductivity, C 2 H 6 O 2 is regarded as better convectional base fluid compared to H 2 O.
This paper presents a numerical study of the thermal performance of fins mounted on the bottom wall of a horizontal channel and cooled with either pure water or an Al2O3-water nanofluid. The bottom wall of the channel is heated at a constant temperature and cooled by mixed convection of laminar flow at a relatively low temperature. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the heat transfer rate of fins is significantly affected by the Reynolds number (Re) and the thermal conductivity of the fins. The influence of the solid volume fraction on the increase of heat transfer is more noticeable at higher values of the Re.
Thermo-Electrochemical cells (Thermocells/TECs) transform thermal energy into electricity by means of electrochemical potential disequilibrium between electrodes induced by a temperature gradient (ΔT). Heat conduction across the terminals of the cell is one of the primary reasons for device inefficiency. Herein, we embed Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) membrane in thermocells to mitigate the heat transfer effects - we refer to these membrane-thermocells as MTECs. At a ΔT of 12 K, an improvement in the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the TEC from 1.3 mV to 2.8 mV is obtained by employment of the membrane. The PVDF membrane is employed at three different locations between the electrodes i.e. x = 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm where 'x' defines the distance between the cathode and PVDF membrane. We found that the membrane position at x = 5 mm achieves the closest internal ∆T (i.e. 8.8 K) to the externally applied ΔT of 10 K and corresponding power density is 254 nWcm(-2); 78% higher than the conventional TEC. Finally, a thermal resistivity model based on infrared thermography explains mass and heat transfer within the thermocells.
Al-Si/SiC composites with the fraction of 5 and 15 wt. % fine SiC particles were fabricated using stir casting process by which SiC powders were poured into aluminium melt and cast in a stainless steel mould to form ingot. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the presence of constituent and intermetallic materials in the composites. Microstructure study revealed that both fine and course particles scattered in the Al-Si matrix. The characterization of thermal properties showed that the thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion decreased with the increase in SiC content. The conductivity and expansion behavior is correlated to the microstructure and weight fraction of the SiC particles. Meanwhile, the hardness of the composite increased with the increasing of SiC particles in the composites.
The problem of steady, laminar natural convection in a discretely heated and cooled square cavity filled by an alumina/water nanofluid with a centered heat-conducting solid block under the effects of inclined uniform magnetic field, Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis is studied numerically by using the finite difference method. Isothermal heaters and coolers are placed along the vertical walls and the bottom horizontal wall, while the upper horizontal wall is kept adiabatic. Water-based nanofluids with alumina nanoparticles are chosen for investigation. The governing parameters of this study are the Rayleigh number (103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106), the Hartmann number (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 50), thermal conductivity ratio (0.28 ≤ k w ≤ 16), centered solid block size (0.1 ≤ D ≤ 0.7) and the nanoparticles volume fraction (0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.04). The developed computational code is validated comprehensively using the grid independency test and numerical and experimental data of other authors. The obtained results reveal that the effects of the thermal conductivity ratio, centered solid block size and the nanoparticles volume fraction are non-linear for the heat transfer rate. Therefore, it is possible to find optimal parameters for the heat transfer enhancement in dependence on the considered system. Moreover, high values of the Rayleigh number and nanoparticles volume fraction characterize homogeneous distributions of nanoparticles inside the cavity. High concentration of nanoparticles can be found near the centered solid block where thermal plumes from the local heaters interact.
Aluminium foam tube is a metal that consists of porous medium with special characteristics such as good energy absorption, good heat transfer and high thermal conductivity. These make it suitable to be used in a wide range of applications such as in heat exchangers. The aim of this project is to identify and analyse mechanical behaviour and microstructure aluminium foam tube produced and fabricated with infiltration method with vacuum-gas. The density of aluminium foam tube was also determined and an average aluminium foam tube with porosity 50% - 80% with the average NaCl particle size 2mm, 3mm and 4mm was produced. Foams with porosity 60%-75% NaCl has higher energy absorption. These was based on foam structure, density and maximum compressive load test result.