Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 351 in total

  1. Tan YL, Foong K
    Tob Control, 2014 Jan;23(1):84-7.
    PMID: 23872424 DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-050977
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Products*
  2. Sadagatullah AN, Halim AS, Bathusha MS, Ramachandran AK
    J Hand Microsurg, 2017 Dec;9(3):120-125.
    PMID: 29302135 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1605354
    Background  The possibility of a person who had undergone surgery to be exposed to the ill effects of cigarette smoke is high, more so if the person lives with a smoker. With increasing popularity of reverse sural fasciocutaneous flaps, a surgeon may have to manage a person who lives with a smoker or is exposed to cigarette smoke. A clear understanding of the effects of exposure to cigarette smoke on reverse sural fasciocutaneous flaps is necessary. This study was performed to establish a clearer understanding of the effects of smoking on reverse sural fasciocutaneous flaps and evidence for preoperative patient counseling about smoking and smoke exposure. Objective  The study investigated effects of exposure to cigarette smoke on the survival of the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap. Methods  This was an experimental observational study conducted at the Laboratory for Animal Research Unit in the Health Campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia. Twelve adult White New Zealand rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) were divided into two groups of six. All 12 rabbits had a 2.5- × 2.5-cm reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap raised on both its hind limbs. The group exposed to cigarette smoke underwent 4 weeks of smoke exposure for 2 hours daily prior to surgery. This was then continued until analysis of the results. The control group had no intervention. All flaps were analyzed on the seventh postoperative day, after tracing on transparent plastic sheets with the necrotic area marked followed by 2D planimetry done on a grid paper. The flaps were assessed on the total flap area and survival area percentage. It was recorded as mean ± SD. The presence or absence of infection and hematoma was also noted. Results  Twelve flaps were analyzed in each group. Total mean flap area and survival area percentage of the control group were 120.33 ± 31.03 mm 2 and 80.12 ± 15.75%, respectively, whereas in the cigarette smoke-exposed group, it was 121.83 ± 17.93 mm 2 and 62.04 ± 34.01%, respectively. The control group had two infections and one hematoma, and the smoking-exposed group had six infections and nine hematomas. The comparison between the groups was made in terms of total flap area, survival percentage, presence of infection, and hematoma for which the p values were 0.886, 0.115, 0.083, and 0.003, respectively. The differences between right and left hind limbs were also analyzed ( p  = 0.414). Conclusion  There was no statistical difference in the results from the right and left hind limbs. There was no statistical difference in the survival of reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap between the control and smoking-exposed groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution*
  3. ISBN: 978-0-309-10384-8
    Citation: Institute of Medicine (US). Committee on Cancer Control in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, Frank A. Sloan, Hellen Gelband (Eds.). Cancer Control Opportunities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academies Press, 2007

    Full text contains Malaysian data:
    Appendix A. Cancer Control in Malaysia and Tanzania. page 305
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Use
  4. Ren T, Chen N, Wan Mahari WA, Xu C, Feng H, Ji X, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 01;192:110273.
    PMID: 33002505 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110273
    Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of biochar addition and the mechanisms that alleviate Cd stress in the growth of tobacco plant. Cadmium showed an inhibitory effect on tobacco growth at different post-transplantation times, and this increased with the increase in soil Cd concentration. The growth index decreased by more than 10%, and the photosynthetic pigment and photosynthetic characteristics of the tobacco leaf were significantly reduced, and the antioxidant enzyme activity was enhanced. Application of biochar effectively alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cd on tobacco growth, and the alleviation effect of treatments is more significant to the plants with a higher Cd concentration. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids in the leaves of tobacco plants treated with biochar increased by 9.99%, 12.58%, and 10.32%, respectively, after 60 days of transplantation. The photosynthetic characteristics index of the net photosynthetic rate increased by 11.48%, stomatal conductance increased by 11.44%, and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration decreased to 0.92. Based on the treatments, during the growth period, the antioxidant enzyme activities of tobacco leaves comprising catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde increased by 7.62%, 10.41%, 10.58%, and 12.57%, respectively, after the application of biochar. Our results show that biochar containing functional groups can effectively reduce the effect of Cd stress by intensifying the adsorption or passivation of Cd in the soil, thereby, significantly reducing the Cd content in plant leaves, and providing a theoretical basis and method to alleviate soil Cd pollution and effect soil remediation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco
  5. Lim, Lee Min
    Tobacco products can be classified into combustible and smokeless types. It kills up to half of the users and globally around 5 million deaths every year. There are strong associations between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco; Tobacco Products
  6. Pak Dek MS, Padmanabhan P, Tiwari K, Todd JF, Paliyath G
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2020 Mar;148:180-192.
    PMID: 31972387 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.01.014
    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are characterized by the presence of a C2 domain at the N-terminal end (class I, III); or at both the N-terminal and C-terminal ends (class II), sometimes including a Plextrin homology domain and/or a Ras domain. Plant PI3Ks are analogous to the class III mammalian PI3K. An N-terminal fragment (~170 aa) of the tomato PI3K regulatory domain including the C2 domain, was cloned and expressed in a bacterial system. This protein was purified to homogeneity and its physicochemical properties analyzed. The purified protein showed strong binding with monophosphorylated phosphatidylinositols, and the binding was dependent on calcium ion concentration and pH. In the overall tertiary structure of PI3K, C2 domain showed unique characteristics, having three antiparallel beta-sheets, hydrophobic regions, acidic as well as alkaline motifs, that can enable its membrane binding upon activation. To elucidate the functional significance of C2 domain, transgenic tobacco plants expressing the C2 domain of PI3K were generated. Transgenic plants showed defective pollen development and disrupted seed set. Flowers from the PI3K-C2 transgenic plants showed delayed wilting, and a decrease in ethylene production. It is likely that introduction of the PI3K-C2 segment may have interfered with the normal binding of PI3K to the membrane, delaying the onset of membrane lipid catabolism that lead to senescence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco/genetics
  7. Donald PM, Renjith G, Arora A
    J Indian Soc Periodontol, 2018 2 15;21(3):249-251.
    PMID: 29440796 DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_109_17
    Smokeless tobacco is used orally or nasally without burning tobacco. This is equally harmful as smokers due to the tobacco content and can cause oral cancer as well as systemic effects such as nicotinic dependence. Many other oral conditions have also been reported in association with smokeless tobacco. This paper presents features of tobacco pouch keratosis and aims to highlight the oral effects of smokeless tobacco, management, and guidelines for dentists in educating and counselling tobacco users.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco; Tobacco Use Disorder; Tobacco, Smokeless
  8. Rahman AU, Mohamed MHN, Jamshed S, Mahmood S, Iftikhar Baig MA
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2020 Nov;12(Suppl 2):S671-S675.
    PMID: 33828359 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_245_19
    Background: The Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND) is the most widely used scale for assessing nicotine dependence on conventional tobacco cigarettes (TCGs). But the FTND does not evaluate the subject's nicotine dependence to electronic cigarette (EC).

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and assess an equivalent modified FTND scale that measures the nicotine dependency via EC.

    Materials and Methods: The investigator developed the equivalent modified FTND scale that scores identical to the original scale, that is, 0-10. The developed scale piloted among 15 EC single users, that is, use only EC verified by carbon monoxide (CO) level of <8ppm. The assessment of the scale was done among 69 EC single users and observed for 1 year to determine their nicotine status.

    Results: The modified scale revealed an acceptable Cronbach α value of 0.725. Further test-retest reliability of the scale showed a satisfactory Spearman's rank correlation coefficient value of 0.730 (P > 0.05). A 1-year observation showed that of 69 single users, 11 single users completely stopped nicotine intake, 24 remained as EC single users, 15 shifted to dual-use, and 19 relapsed to TCG. Surprisingly, the EC users who completely stopped nicotine intake after 1 year had a low average nicotine dependence value of 3 that was measured by the modified FTND scale at the baseline.

    Conclusion: The modified FTND scale precisely identifies the physical dependence to nicotine via EC. Therefore, as per this study results the modified FTND scale can be applied in any EC-related studies to assess nicotine dependency via EC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco; Tobacco Use Disorder; Tobacco Products
  9. Ahluwalia IB, Tripp AL, Dean AK, Mbulo L, Arrazola RA, Twentyman E, et al.
    Am J Prev Med, 2021 03;60(3 Suppl 2):S128-S135.
    PMID: 33663700 DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2020.04.029
    INTRODUCTION: About 80% of the 1.1 billion people who smoke tobacco worldwide reside in low- and middle-income countries. Evidence-based approaches to promote cessation include brief advice from health professionals and referrals through quitlines. This study assesses cessation behaviors and the use of cessation services in the past 12 months among current tobacco smokers in 31 countries who attempted to quit.

    METHODS: Data came from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a household-based survey of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥15 years. Surveys were conducted in 31 countries during 2008-2018; sample sizes ranged from 4,250 (Malaysia) to 74,037 (India), and response rates ranged from 64.4% (Ukraine) to 98.5% (Qatar). In 2019, data from the 31 countries were assessed in June 2019, and indicators included self-reported current (daily or less than daily) tobacco smoking, past-year quit attempts, and cessation methods used in the past 12 months.

    RESULTS: Current tobacco smoking prevalence ranged from 3.7% (Ethiopia) to 38.2% (Greece). Overall, an estimated 176.8 million adults from the 31 countries made a quit attempt in the past 12 months, with country-level prevalence ranging from 16.4% (Greece) to 54.7% (Botswana). Most individuals who made a quit attempt did so without assistance (median=74.4%). Other methods were less prevalent, including quitlines (median=0.2%) and counseling (median=7.2%).

    CONCLUSIONS: In the assessed countries, the majority of those who currently smoked tobacco and made a quit attempt did so without assistance; very few reported using quitlines, partly because of the lack of quitlines in some countries. In resource-limited settings, quitlines can play a greater role in helping people quit smoking as part of a comprehensive approach.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco; Tobacco Use*
  10. Nordin AS, Bullen C
    Tob Control, 2014 Jan;23(1):4-5.
    PMID: 24479154
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Industry*; Tobacco Products*
  11. Zain Z
    Addiction, 2002 Aug;97(8):960-1, discussion 961-2.
    PMID: 12144596
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control; Tobacco Use Cessation/methods*
  12. Abdul Syakir Abdul Mubin, Norhafizan Ahmad
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2015;4(2):19-30.
    It has been shown in previous studies that the flight trajectories of sports balls are influenced by their aerodynamic characteristics. These aerodynamic characteristics are primarily dependent on the physical shape and surface texture of the balls. Even though sepak takraw is well established as a sport, little is known regarding the aerodynamic characteristics of the sepak takraw ball, which has a rather complex shape and surface texture. Hence, the main objective of this research is to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics (specifically the drag and lift coefficients) and flow features of a modern sepak takraw ball commercially available in the market by means of numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments using the smoke flow visualization technique. The aerodynamic characteristics and flow features of the ball are determined for non-spinning conditions at a wind speed of 3 m/s. It is found that the drag coefficient and lift coefficient of the sepak takraw ball is 0.4868400 and - 0.0130915, respectively. The images captured from the smoke flow visualization experiments reveal that the sepak takraw ball is in the subcritical flow regime at a wind speed of 3 m/s, which is the regime before the drag crisis. The laminar boundary layer separates from the upper and lower surfaces of the ball at points upstream of the equator of the ball, creating a large wake region downstream of the sepak takraw ball and resulting in high drag. This in turn, influences the trajectory of the sepak takraw ball in flight. The flow features observed from the smoke flow visualization experiments are representative of the flow during a sepak takraw game. Owing to the complexity of sepak takraw ball, it is recommended that the aerodynamic characteristics of the sepak takraw ball are investigated for spinning conditions in future studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco
  13. Awan, K.H.
    Ann Dent, 2011;18(1):18-23.
    Tobacco use is linked with many serious illnesses, such as cancer, cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as with many health problems. Every year, the use of tobacco products causes a heavy toll of deaths and severe human disease worldwide. One of the many health problems linked to tobacco use is its detrimental impact on oral health. Tobacco causes a whole series of oral health problems, ranging from life-threatening (precancerous changes leading to oral cancer) and serious (periodontal disease, teeth decay) to social (bad breath). Tobacco is consumed through the mouth in a variety of forms, varied from smoked tobacco to smokeless tobacco chewing on itself or combined with areca nut. All these forms of tobacco have damaging effects on the oral health. The most significant preventive measure to prevent the oral health problems caused by tobacco use is to stop using tobacco products. The risk of developing oral cancer drops rapidly when a smoker ceases tobacco use. After ten years of not using tobacco, an ex-smoker/user's risk of oral cancers is about the same as that for someone who has never smoked. To stop using tobacco products is not an easy task. Fortunately, there are a number of therapies available to assist in quitting of tobacco. It is important to remember that, while it will be difficult, ceasing to use tobacco has immediate health benefits, including increased life expectancy and reduced risk of tobacco related diseases and conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco; Tobacco Use Disorder; Tobacco, Smokeless; Tobacco Use
  14. Rahman, M., Ahmad, S.A., Karim, J., Azhar, A., Rafidah, D.
    Participation and adherence to the law and cultivation of anti-tobacco culture became the important issues for reducing the tobacco use prevalence in the community. Measuring the perception of tobacco policy indirectly measures the acceptability of the law. This study aims to determine the perception of students on anti-tobacco policy in terms of tobacco free school environment and factors that support or deter them. A two-stage cluster samplingtechnique was used for selection of schools with probability proportional to enrolment size followed by stratified random sampling of government and private schools. Data were collected from 6563 secondary school students using
    structured questionnaire. Analysis showed that 66.2% of the female students and 33.8% of the male student have strong supportive attitude towards tobacco free school environment. Logistic regression analysis revealed that class grade IX and above, father’s occupation as service, family size less than 6, higher economic status, non smoker, non exposure to second hand smoking in the house and discussion of dangers of smoking appeared to have important influencing factors for tobacco free school environment (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco; Tobacco Smoke Pollution; Tobacco Use Disorder; Tobacco Use
  15. Mohd Zin F, Hillaluddin AH, Mustaffa J
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016 12 01;17(12):5113-5119.
    PMID: 28122443
    Purpose:The present qualitative study explored adolescents’ perceptions regarding effective strategies to prevent adolescents from using tobacco products (TP). Apart from the commercial TPs, there has been emerging use of alternatives such as vapes, e-cigarettes and shisha. This unfortunate phenomenon continues despite the currently available preventive strategies. Thus, understanding of the perceptions of the current generation would be valuable to provide new insights.
    Methods: Purposive sampling was utilized to recruit 40 adolescents between the age of 15 and 16 years old attending public daily secondary schools. Eight focus group discussions were conducted among the TP users, ex-users and non-users. Data were analyzed using a thematic content analysis procedure with NVivo.
    Results: Among barriers with the currently available strategies were having teachers who smoke tobacco, addiction to nicotine and self-perceptions of being healthy. The content of any program should include knowledge on negative outcomes of using tobacco products and awareness of the legislation together with ways to overcome peer and family influence including improving self-efficacy and refusal skills. Strategies were suggested to be delivered using information technology which provides interactive learning and visual effects.
    Conclusions: Adolescents agreed that the content and delivery of tobacco use prevention strategies need to be revised to suit the current generation to ensure sustainability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco; Tobacco Use Cessation; Tobacco Products; Tobacco Use
  16. Lim KH, Ghazali SM, Lim HL, Kee CC, Cheah YK, Singh BSGP, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2020;18:80.
    PMID: 33013276 DOI: 10.18332/tid/127231
    INTRODUCTION: Periodic surveys on tobacco use patterns and other aspects of tobacco use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia provide information on the effectiveness of anti-smoking measures implemented. However, such information is limited in Malaysia. We investigated the prevalence of smoking and other related aspects among middle-secondary school students in Malaysia from the years 2003-2016 to fill this gap.

    METHODS: We analyzed data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003, GYTS 2009, and the Tobacco and Electronic Cigarette Survey among Malaysia Adolescents (TECMA) 2016. The surveys employed multistage sampling to select representative samples of adolescents attending secondary school in Malaysia. Data were collected using a pre-validated self-administered anonymous questionnaire adopted from the GYTS.

    RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2016, major changes occurred in which there were reductions in the prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and susceptibility to smoking. Reductions were also observed in exposure to SHS in public places and in the home. The proportion of school-going adolescents who support a ban on smoking in public places increased between 2013 to 2016, and there was a significant reduction in the proportion of respondents that were offered 'free' cigarettes by tobacco company representatives. However, there was no difference in the proportion of adolescents who initiated smoking before the age of 10 years and current smokers seeking advice to quit smoking across the time period.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the smoking policies and measures have been effective in reducing smoking prevalence, secondhand smoke exposure, and access to cigarettes, among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. However, measures to reduce smoking initiation and increase smoking cessation need to be strengthened to reduce the burden of smoking-related diseases in Malaysia in the long-term.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco; Tobacco Smoke Pollution; Tobacco Products; Tobacco Use
  17. Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Use Disorder; Tobacco Use Cessation
  18. Citation: Clinical Practice Guidelines: Tobacco Use Disorder. Putrajaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2016

    Quick Reference:

    Older version:
    Clinical Practice Guidelines on Treatment of Tobacco Smoking and Dependence. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2003
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Use Disorder; Tobacco Use Cessation
  19. Nga JDL, Hakim SL, Bilal S
    Subst Use Misuse, 2020;55(12):1943-1948.
    PMID: 32552152 DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2020.1781180
    BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and heated tobacco products (HTPs) are noncombustible tobacco products which have been found to generate aerosols containing lower levels of Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHCs) in comparison to conventional cigarettes. Objective: This quasi experimental study measured and compared the end tidal carbon monoxide (eCO) levels of participants after use of ENDS, HTPs and conventional cigarettes. Methods: In total 45 smokers, each smoking at least 10 conventional cigarettes per day for 5 years participated in the study. Based on their preference, participants used only one of the tobacco products (ENDS, HTPs, or conventional cigarette) and were briefed about the product use based on manufacturer's instructions. The eCO levels were obtained at baseline, followed by 5, 10, 15, 30 and 45 min respectively after the product use. Results: There was significant increase in eCO levels for conventional cigarettes as compared to other modes. Peak eCO levels of 20.2 ± 0.86 ppm, 8.8 ± 1.56 ppm and 6.0 ± 1.36 ppm was achieved at 30 min, 15 min and 10 min for conventional cigarettes, ENDS and HTPs respectively. However, the levels were significantly lower in ENDS and HTPs. Conclusion: Even though ENDS and HTPs may have produced significantly lower eCO than conventional cigarettes, the significantly increasing levels over time from baseline which was not shown before is a cause of concern. As of now, their use as an alternate to cigarettes needs to be considered under regulatory framework.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Products*
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