Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 71 in total

  1. Sadagatullah AN, Halim AS, Bathusha MS, Ramachandran AK
    J Hand Microsurg, 2017 Dec;9(3):120-125.
    PMID: 29302135 DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1605354
    Background  The possibility of a person who had undergone surgery to be exposed to the ill effects of cigarette smoke is high, more so if the person lives with a smoker. With increasing popularity of reverse sural fasciocutaneous flaps, a surgeon may have to manage a person who lives with a smoker or is exposed to cigarette smoke. A clear understanding of the effects of exposure to cigarette smoke on reverse sural fasciocutaneous flaps is necessary. This study was performed to establish a clearer understanding of the effects of smoking on reverse sural fasciocutaneous flaps and evidence for preoperative patient counseling about smoking and smoke exposure. Objective  The study investigated effects of exposure to cigarette smoke on the survival of the reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap. Methods  This was an experimental observational study conducted at the Laboratory for Animal Research Unit in the Health Campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia. Twelve adult White New Zealand rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) were divided into two groups of six. All 12 rabbits had a 2.5- × 2.5-cm reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap raised on both its hind limbs. The group exposed to cigarette smoke underwent 4 weeks of smoke exposure for 2 hours daily prior to surgery. This was then continued until analysis of the results. The control group had no intervention. All flaps were analyzed on the seventh postoperative day, after tracing on transparent plastic sheets with the necrotic area marked followed by 2D planimetry done on a grid paper. The flaps were assessed on the total flap area and survival area percentage. It was recorded as mean ± SD. The presence or absence of infection and hematoma was also noted. Results  Twelve flaps were analyzed in each group. Total mean flap area and survival area percentage of the control group were 120.33 ± 31.03 mm 2 and 80.12 ± 15.75%, respectively, whereas in the cigarette smoke-exposed group, it was 121.83 ± 17.93 mm 2 and 62.04 ± 34.01%, respectively. The control group had two infections and one hematoma, and the smoking-exposed group had six infections and nine hematomas. The comparison between the groups was made in terms of total flap area, survival percentage, presence of infection, and hematoma for which the p values were 0.886, 0.115, 0.083, and 0.003, respectively. The differences between right and left hind limbs were also analyzed ( p  = 0.414). Conclusion  There was no statistical difference in the results from the right and left hind limbs. There was no statistical difference in the survival of reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap between the control and smoking-exposed groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution*
  2. Siew WF, Choo KJY, Lim ZX, Tsia AKV
    Background: It is an undeniable fact that exposure to tobacco smoke from the ambiance poses harmful effects to human health. Although many countries including Malaysia have imposed smoking bans and restrictions in indoor and outdoor public places, yet, to achieve a zero exposure to tobacco smoke from one’s surroundings remains a challenge.
    Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine the second-hand smoke (SHS) knowledge and percentage of exposure among adults of rural Pedas, Negeri Sembilan and assess the association between socio-demographics and knowledge of SHS among these adults.
    Methods: A cross sectional study with convenient sampling was carried out on 485 adults in Pedas, Negeri Sembilan. The instrument used was a validated questionnaire which was adapted with permission to suit the sample under study. The data collected were analysed with SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0.
    Results: The percentage of SHS exposure among the non-smoking adults in rural Pedas, Negeri Sembilan was high (95.5%). More than 30% of the non-smoking respondents reported a daily exposure to SHS. The adults from this study however have good knowledge of SHS effects on health. A Mann-Whitney U test result revealed that knowledge on SHS scores was significantly higher for the non-smokers than that of smokers (U=17645, p < .001, r=.18). The top three locations identified as the most common places for SHS exposure were restaurants (38.9%), followed by workplace (26.2%) and home (19.4%).
    Conclusions: The percentage of SHS exposure among the non-smoking adults of rural Pedas, Negeri Sembilan is high. Although the adults in this study have good knowledge of SHS health consequences, yet they are unavoidably exposed to SHS because smoking still occurs within their home, workplaces and public places. Our findings suggest the need for more comprehensive, assertive and strongly enforced policies to ban smoking in public areas, not only in this community but all across Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution*
  3. Lim KH, Lim HL, Teh CH, Kee CC, Heng PP, Cheah YK, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2018;16.
    DOI: 10.18332/tid/95188
    Introduction: Understanding the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and the associated factors is beneficial for the formulation of effective measures to reduce exposure to SHS. The purpose of this study was to determine SHS exposure at home and workplace, and its associated factors among non-smoker Malaysian adults. Methods: Data were extracted from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey-Malaysia (GATS-M) that involved a representative sample of 5112 Malaysian adults. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between SHS exposure, sociodemographic factors, knowledge on the danger of SHS, and smoking restrictions at home and at work among non-smokers. Results: Among non-smoker Malaysians, age ≥15 years, 27.9% (equivalent to approximately 4.21 million non-smokers) and 33.9% (equivalent to approximately 1.37 million non-smokers) reported that they were exposed to SHS at home and the workplace, at least once a month, respectively. Women (AOR=2.12, 95% CI:, young individuals (AOR=3.06, 95% CI:, Malays (AOR=2.39, 95% CI: or other Bumiputra ethnic groups (AOR=2.40, 95% CI: and those who worked as other than government employees were more likely to report SHS exposure at home (non-government employee: AOR=1.88, 95% CI: Respondents with a total smoking restriction at home did not report any SHS exposure at home. Similarly, those whose workplace had smoking restrictions were less likely to report SHS exposure at the work compared to their counterparts whose workplace had partial (AOR=3.08, 95% CI: or no smoking restrictions (AOR=15.33, 95% CI: Conclusions: A substantial proportion of Malaysian adults were exposed to SHS at home and at work. The findings emphasize the need for policies on smoking restrictions at work and the need to promote the adoption of a completely smoke-free home, among the Malaysian population.
    Study name: Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS-2011)
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution*
  4. Siti Munira Yasin, Khairul Mizan Taib, Mohd Rodi Isa, Mohd Ariff Fadzil, Mohd Razilan Abdul Kadir
    This study aimed to examine the association between second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and psychological distress amongst non-smoking pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was used to obtain a representative sample of non-smoking pregnant women attending health clinics (n = 661) across six states in Malaysia. The duration of SHS exposure inside and outside the house was recorded from the participants. Psychological distress was assessed via General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12). The analyses were conducted using a logistic regression adjusted for demographic variables and other variables. Amongst non-smoking pregnant women, the prevalence of global SHS exposure and psychological distress was 80.4% and 64.2%, respectively. In the multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) models for psychological distress and the duration of SHS exposures, there was an OR of 1.04 (95% CI: 0.61-1.77) for individuals with SHS exposure of 1-4 hours/week, 0.44 (95% CI: 0.23-0.81) for SHS exposure of 5-14 hours/week and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.32-2.22) for exposures of >15 hours/week compared to those with no SHS exposure outside the home. Meanwhile, SHS exposure outside the house with the duration of 5-14 hours might have temporary calming effects against psychological distress. Nonetheless, more research is needed to ascertain this.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution*
  5. Mohd Asri IA, Abd Rani NA, Dzulkifli Z, Muhamad Jamil MI, Ahmad Saman MS, Yasin SM
    Tobacco use is one of the largest causes of preventable diseases across the world. It is interesting to note that second-hand smoke exposure is a major public health problem in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are first, to explore the perspectives of pregnant mothers whose partners are smokers, and second, to explore barriers and facilitators to creating a smoke-free environment in their home. This study uses a qualitative method in analysing the experiences of 15 pregnant mothers taken from a specialist healthcare centre in Sungai Buloh, Malaysia. It discusses the perspectives of these pregnant mothers towards their partners’ smoking habits, as well as the barriers and facilitators in creating a smoke-free home. From the interviews, it became apparent that pregnant mothers despised their partners’ smoking habits due to smoke odour, lack of money, and poor health. The barriers in creating a smoke-free home include the attitude of the smoking spouse, difficulty in weaning off the habit, excessive encouragement by a spouse, difficultly in advising a smoking spouse, influences from friends, and wrong perceptions. Meanwhile, the facilitators towards creating a smoke-free home are illnesses developed through smoking, multiple reminders from family members, and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were perceived to work on certain smokers and habitual cues in quitting smoking. The transition process towards making homes smoke-free is complex and individualistic; healthcare professionals may need to tailor strategies to take into account the specific contexts of each individual. More education programmes on the impacts of smoking and second-hand smoke exposures to family members and smoking cessation are needed for both pregnant mothers and their smoking partners.
    Study site: Gynaecology Clinic, public teaching hospital, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution*
  6. Rashiden I, Ahmad Tajuddin NANB, Yee A, Zhen STE, Bin Amir Nordin AS
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Aug;27(24):29856-29866.
    PMID: 32483718 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-09407-7
    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the workplace has led many workplaces to set up smoke-free policies to protect non-smoking employees. Although smoke-free workplaces are pervasive, the intensity of the practice is questionable. The purpose of this review is to identify the pooled prevalence estimate of secondhand smoke at smoke-free workplaces and the factors associated with SHS exposure at the workplace despite existing smoke-free policies. Fourteen studies (total 7458 employees) were identified from Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Cinahl, Scopus, and Web of Science from inception to December 2017. Results indicate that despite the existence of smoke-free policies at the workplace, 14 studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke. The pooled prevalence of the SHS exposure was 0.29 (95% CI = 0.23 to 0.36) (P smoke at the smoke-free workplace. While most of the selected studies show the exposure of SHS within the smoking ban workplace, only two studies reported no exposure to secondhand smoke after implementation of smoke-free policies. Although the smoking ban policy at the workplace has been introduced, there are still a number of employees being affected by secondhand smoke. This indicates that there is still a gap of knowledge, attitude, and practice of non-smokers in strengthening the smoke-free policy at the workplace.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution*
  7. Ramesh KN, Vidyadaran MK, Goh YM, Nasaruddin AA, Jammal ABE, Zainab S
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Aug;60(3):305-10.
    PMID: 16379184
    A study was undertaken to 1) determine the effects of tobacco smoke exposure on maternal and neonatal weight and body mass index (BMI) and placental weight, volume and surface area and 2) establish any correlations between the placental surface area, volume and weight with maternal and neonatal body weight and BMI in mothers exposed to cigarette smoke. A total of 154 full-term placentae, 65 from mothers exposed to tobacco smoke and 89 from non-exposed mothers were collected from Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital. The placental surface area was determined using a stereological grid, the volume by Scherle's method and the weight by using an electronic weighing machine. In general there were no differences in maternal, placental and neonatal parameters between the exposed and non-exposed groups. However, there were significant correlations between placental weight with maternal weight and maternal BMI in both exposed (r = 0.315; p = 0.013) and (r = 0.265; p = 0.038), and non-exposed (r = 0.224; p = 0.035) and (r = 0.241; p = 0.023) mothers. It was also found that the maternal weight on admission correlated significantly with placental weight in both Malay (r = 0.405; p = 0.020) and Indian (r = 0.553; p = 0.050) passive smokers. Correcting the placental parameters for the maternal weight had no effect on the results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects*
  8. Frisch AS, Kurtz M, Shamsuddin K
    J Adolesc, 1999 Oct;22(5):627-34.
    PMID: 10527534 DOI: 10.1006/jado.1999.0258
    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine changes in knowledge, attitudes and preventive efforts of Malaysian medical students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. There were significant improvements in knowledge about cigarette smoking and in knowledge, attitudes and efforts concerning environmental exposure to tobacco smoke. Overall attitudes concerning cigarette smoking did not change over this period. The same pattern was found for male non-smokers. Women improved on all five scales; male smokers improved on none over the 3-year period. Male non-smokers had better scores on these scales than male smokers in both beginning and ending years. Women excelled in comparison to male non-smokers on smoking attitudes in the pre-clinical year and on all scales except preventive efforts in the final clinical year.Although medical students experienced no changes in the amount of pressures not to smoke from family and friends, there was a significant increase in the amount of prohibition on smoking from their teachers. Male non-smokers alone accounted for this increase. Women experienced more pressure than men not to smoke from their teachers in both years, but the male smokers and non-smokers did not differ in teacher pressure for either year.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution*
  9. Rashiden I, Ahmad Tajuddin NAN, Yee A, Amer Nordin AS
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Aug;28(32):44557-44564.
    PMID: 33855660 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-13883-w
    This research sought to develop and validate the "Workplace Second-hand Smoke: Perception on the SHS Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice" (WSHS: PAP) instrument, which targets non-smoking employees. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2018 to validate WSHS: PAP among non-smoking employees at Universiti Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). Experts were invited to validate the instrument. Then, for exploratory factor analysis, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 336 UMMC non-smoking employees who were recruited by convenience sampling. A total of 28 items on KAP, rated on five-point Likert scales, underwent exploratory factor analysis and were tested for internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). Participants were approached after 2 weeks for the assessment of test-retest reliability. Cronbach's alpha was 0.828, 0.743 and 0.837, respectively, for the domains of perception of the knowledge, attitude and practice, indicating acceptable internal consistency (above 0.7). Exploratory factor analysis identified a one-factor solution for each of the KAP domains. Therefore, the Malay version of the WSHS: PAP instrument demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties for the assessment of non-smoking employees in workplaces with a smoking ban.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution*
  10. Abidin EZ, Hashim Z, Semple S
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(11):6845-50.
    PMID: 24377615
    BACKGROUND: This study was performed to gather data on second-hand smoke (SHS) concentrations in a range of public venues following the implementation of partial Smoke-Free Legislation in Malaysia in 2004.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: PM2.5 was measured as a marker of SHS levels in a total of 61 restaurants, entertainment centres, internet cafes and pubs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Under the current smoke-free laws smoking was prohibited in 42 of the 61 premises. Active smoking was observed in nearly one-third (n=12) of these. For premises where smoking was prohibited and no active smoking observed, the mean (standard deviation) indoor PM2.5 concentration was 33.4 (23.8) μg/m3 compared to 187.1 (135.1) μg/m3 in premises where smoking was observed The highest mean PM2.5 was observed in pubs [361.5 (199.3) μg/m3].

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of high levels of SHS across a range of hospitality venues, including about one-third of those where smoking is prohibited, despite 8 years of smoke-free legislation. Compliance with the legislation appeared to be particularly poor in entertainment centres and internet cafes. Workers and non-smoking patrons continue to be exposed to high concentrations of SHS within the hospitality industry in Malaysia and there is an urgent need for increased enforcement of existing legislation and consideration of more comprehensive laws to protect health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis*; Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence*; Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control
  11. Lee J, Lim S, Lee K, Guo X, Kamath R, Yamato H, et al.
    Int J Hyg Environ Health, 2010 Sep;213(5):348-51.
    PMID: 20542729 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2010.05.007
    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major threat to public health. Asian countries having the highest smoking prevalence are seriously affected by SHS. The objective of the study was to measure SHS levels in hospitality venues in seven Asian countries and to compare the SHS exposure to the levels in Western countries. The study was carried out in four types of related hospitality venues (restaurant, café, bar/club and entertainment) in China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Real-time measurement of particulate matter of <2.5microm aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) was made during business hour using a handheld laser operated monitor. A total of 168 venues were measured in seven countries. The average indoor PM(2.5) level was 137microg/m(3), ranging from 46microg/m(3) in Malaysia to 207microg/m(3) in India. Bar/club had the highest PM(2.5) level of 191microg/m(3) and restaurants had the lowest PM(2.5) level of 92microg/m(3). The average indoor PM(2.5) level in smoking venues was 156micro/m(3), which was 3.6 times higher than non-smoking venues (43microg/m(3)). Indoor PM(2.5) levels were significantly associated with country, type of venue, smoking density and air exchange rate (p<0.05). In the seven Asian countries, PM(2.5) levels were high due to SHS in public places. The current levels are comparable to the levels in Western countries before the adoption of smoke-free policy. Since Asian country has high prevalence of SHS in public places, there is an urgent need for comprehensive smoke-free regulation in Asian countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis; Tobacco Smoke Pollution/statistics & numerical data*
  12. Tee GH, Hairi NN, Nordin F, Choo WY, Chan YY, Kaur G, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(9):3659-65.
    PMID: 25987018
    BACKGROUND: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has becoming popular especially among young people worldwide. Smokers are attracted by its sweeter, smoother smoke, social ambience and the misconception of reduced harm. The objective of this study was to systematically review the effects of waterpipe tobacco policies and practices in reducing its prevalence.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was conducted electronically using the PubMed, OVID, Science Direct, Proquest and Embase databases. All possible studies from 1980 to 2013 were initially screened based on titles and abstracts. The selected articles were subjected to data extraction and quality rating.

    RESULTS: Three studies met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for this review. Almost all of the waterpipe tobacco products and its accessories did not comply with the regulations on health warning labelling practices as stipulated under Article 11 of WHO FCTC. In addition, the grisly new warning labels for cigarettes introduced by Food and Drug Administration did not affect hookah tobacco smoking generally. Indoor air quality in smoking lounges was found to be poor and some hookah lounges were operated without smoke shop certification.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed the availability of minimal information on the practices in controlling waterpipe smoking in reducing its prevalence. The lack of comprehensive legislations or practices in controlling waterpipe smoking warrants further research and policy initiatives to curb this burgeoning global epidemic, especially among the vulnerable younger population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects; Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control*
  13. Sirichotiratana N, Sovann S, Aditama TY, Krishnan M, Kyaing NN, Miguel-Baquilod M, et al.
    Tob Control, 2008 Dec;17(6):372-8.
    PMID: 18669557 DOI: 10.1136/tc.2007.024190
    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has made tobacco use prevention a primary health issue. All ASEAN countries except Indonesia have ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the world's first public health treaty on tobacco control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence; Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control
  14. David AM, Mercado SP, Klein JD, Kaundan MSK, Koong HN, Garcia E
    Child Care Health Dev, 2017 09;43(5):774-778.
    PMID: 28480578 DOI: 10.1111/cch.12472
    BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are generally considered diseases of adulthood, but NCD risk factors like tobacco use often are taken up during childhood and adolescence, and second-hand smoke exposure affects child survival and development.

    METHODS: At a regional meeting of the Asia Pacific Child and Family Health Alliance for Tobacco Control, members reviewed existing good practices of child-focused tobacco control approaches using health promotion strategies. These interventions were implemented nationally in Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore.

    RESULTS: Three good practice national examples were identified that focused on creating supportive tobacco-free environments and upgrading cessation skills among paediatricians. These country examples highlight strategic areas to protect children and families from the harms of tobacco, as part of NCD prevention and control. Training paediatricians in brief cessation advice has enabled them to address tobacco-using parents. Fully enforcing smoke-free public areas has led to an increase in smoke-free homes. The Tobacco Free Generation is a tobacco control 'endgame' strategy that taps into a social movement to deglamorize tobacco use and empower youth born in and after year 2000 to reject tobacco and nicotine addiction.

    CONCLUSION: Tobacco control is pivotal in the fight against NCDs; health promotion strategies to protect children and youth from tobacco have a critical role to play in NCD prevention and control. Frontline health workers, including primary care paediatricians, need to step up and actively advocate for full implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, including tobacco tax increases and smoke-free areas, while monitoring patients and their parents for tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure, preventing adolescent smoking uptake, and offering cessation support. A life-course approach incorporating child-focused efforts to prevent initiation of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure with measures promoting cessation among parents will offer the greatest chance of overcoming future tobacco-related NCD burden.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects*; Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control*
  15. Zulkifli A, Abidin NZ, Abidin EZ, Hashim Z, Rahman AA, Rasdi I, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(12):4815-21.
    PMID: 24998546
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the relationship between respiratory health of Malaysian adolescents with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoke-free legislation (SFL) implementation.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 898 students from 21 schools across comprehensive- and partial-SFL states were recruited. SHS exposures and respiratory symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure information was obtained from parental-completed questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was: 11.9% ever wheeze, 5.6% current wheeze, 22.3% exercise-induced wheeze, 12.4% nocturnal cough, and 13.1% self-reported asthma. SHS exposure was most frequently reported in restaurants. Hierarchical logistic regression indicates living in a comprehensive-SFL state was not associated with a lower risk of reporting asthma symptoms. SHS exposure in public transport was linked to increased risk for wheeze (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 16.6; 95%confidence interval (CI), 2.69-101.7) and current wheezing (AOR 24.6; 95%CI, 3.53-171.8).

    CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents continue to be exposed to SHS in a range of public venues in both comprehensive- and partial-SFL states. Respiratory symptoms are common among those reporting SHS exposure on public transportation. Non-compliance with SFL appears to be frequent in many venues across Malaysia and enforcement should be given priority in order to reduce exposure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects; Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence*; Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control
  16. Norsa'adah B, Salinah O
    Malays J Med Sci, 2014 Mar;21(2):44-53.
    PMID: 24876807 MyJurnal
    There was strong evidence from studies conducted in developed countries that second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure is detrimental to the birth weight of newborn. This study was conducted to determine the effect of exposure to SHS smoke during pregnancy on the weight of newborns.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  17. ISBN: 978-963-3887-72-9
    Citation: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Health, Malaysia, 2012
    Fact sheet: http://moh.gov.my/images/gallery/Report/GATS_Malaysia.pdf
    Datasets: GATS_Malaysia_National_2011_SPSS.zip
    Study name: Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS-2011)
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  18. Abdullah N, Al-Junid SH, Looi ML, Chin SF, Mohd Haniff EA, Syed Zakaria SZ, et al.
    Background: Validation of self-reported questionnaire is very crucial in ensuring the quality and reliability of data collection.
    Objective: The aim of this study were i) to validate the questionnaire on tobacco smoke intake and second hand smoke exposure among The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) subjects through the determination of urinary cotinine levels, ii) to determine the optimal cut-off point of urine cotinine that discriminates smokers from non-smokers and iii) to estimate misclassification rate between self-reported smoking and urinary cotinine level.
    Methods: Urine samples from a total of 775 The Malaysian Cohort subjects (104 smokers, 102 former smokers and 569 non-smokers) were obtained and urinary cotinine levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Differences between groups were compared using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curved was performed to define the optimal urinary cotinine cut-off point.
    Results: Urinary cotinine concentration significantly (p<0.001) correlated with smoking status (r=0.46), the average number of cigarettes smoked per day (r=0.53), duration of smoking (r=0.33) and number of cigarettes packed per year (r=0.47). Smokers and second hand smokers have significantly higher median cotinine levels (978.40 and 21.31 respectively) compared to non-smokers (15.52) and non-exposed (13.60) subjects. Cotinine level at cut-off value of 1.51 ng/mg creatinine is able to distinguish smokers and non-smokers with a sensitivity of 84.62% and specificity of 81.97%.
    Conclusion: The Malaysian Cohort self-reported smoking questionnaire is a reliable tool in assessing the use of tobacco and second hand smoke exposure among the subjects.
    Study name: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  19. Fateh Addin Nejm Addin Al-Emad, Zaleha Md. Isa
    Int J Public Health Res, 2017;7(1):783-790.
    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of secondary school students in Sana'a Yemen related to exposure to second-hand smoking.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Sana'a city. The total sample size was 336 students in which 63 were males and 273 were females. These students were stratified random sampling . Data were collected by using Questionnaire comprising of 3 parts: Part 1- consists of socio-demographic data. Part 2- consists of the knowledge regarding smoking and second-hand smoking and Part 3-consists of adolescents' attitude in relation to second-hand smoking.
    RESULTS: Out of 336 students, majority were between 14-18 years old (75.9%), males (81.2%) , (55.7%)of them was fathers' occupation private employee and low educated mother was (86.3%).The students who do not have smoking habit were (94.3%),and those who do not have friends with the habit of smoking was (57.4%). (57.10) having some one else at home who smokes beside them .The reaction of non printed mass media for SHS warning was (83.3%) . The exposed to smoke out door was (60.1%) . In this study, the majority of students had inadequate knowledge about the second-hand smoke was (52.7%). A higher percentage of students who had unfavorable attitudes toward secondhand smoke was(86.6%).
    CONCLUSION: We concluded that The level of knowledge and attitude about the second-hand smoke is relatively low among the secondary school student in Sana'a Yemen .The finding of this study emphasized the need of effective awareness programs to increase level of consciousness and knowledge regarding SHS. Keywords: Second-hand Smoking, Secondary School, Adolescent, Sana'a .
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  20. Rashid A, Manan AA, Yahya N, Ibrahim L
    PLoS One, 2014;9(10):e109429.
    PMID: 25338116 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109429
    This cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the support in making Penang UNESCO World Heritage Site (GTWHS) smoke free and to determine the influence of tolerance towards smoking on this support. This is the first phase in making Penang, Malaysia a smoke free state. A multistage sampling process was done to select a sample of respondents to represent the population of GTWHS. Attitude towards smoking was assessed using tolerance as a proxy. A total of 3,268 members of the community participated in the survey. A big majority (n = 2969; 90.9%) of the respondents supported the initiative. Support was lowest among the owners and residents/tenants, higher age groups, the Chinese, men, respondents who had poor knowledge of the places gazetted as smoke free, and respondents with poor knowledge of the health effects on smokers and on passive smokers. The odds (both adjusted and unadjusted) of not supporting the initiative was high among those tolerant to smoking in public areas. Tolerance towards smoking was associated with 80.3% risk of non-support in the respondents who were tolerant to smoking and a 57.2% risk in the population. Health promotion and education concerning the harm of tobacco smoke in Malaysia, which has mainly targeted smokers, must change. Health education concerning the risks of second hand smoke must also be given to non-smokers and efforts should be made to denormalize smoking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tobacco Smoke Pollution*
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