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  1. Wey MC, Salah Fayed MM, Ringgingon LP, Sivarajan S
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2020 08;158(2):159-160.
    PMID: 32576428 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2020.04.010
    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement*
  2. Zainal Ariffin SH, Yamamoto Z, Zainol Abidin IZ, Megat Abdul Wahab R, Zainal Ariffin Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2011;11:1788-803.
    PMID: 22125437 DOI: 10.1100/2011/761768
    Tooth movement induced by orthodontic treatment can cause sequential reactions involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structures. To better understand the biological processes involved in orthodontic treatment, improve treatment, and reduce adverse side effects, several of these substances have been proposed as biomarkers. Potential biological markers can be collected from different tissue samples, and suitable sampling is important to accurately reflect biological processes. This paper covers the tissue changes that are involved during orthodontic tooth movement such as at compression region (involving osteoblasts), tension region (involving osteoclasts), dental root, and pulp tissues. Besides, the involvement of stem cells and their development towards osteoblasts and osteoclasts during orthodontic treatment have also been explained. Several possible biomarkers representing these biological changes during specific phenomenon, that is, bone remodelling (formation and resorption), inflammation, and root resorption have also been proposed. The knowledge of these biomarkers could be used in accelerating orthodontic treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement*
  3. Sivarajan S, Ringgingon LP, Fayed MMS, Wey MC
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2020 Mar;157(3):290-304.
    PMID: 32115107 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2019.10.009
    INTRODUCTION: Minimally invasive micro-osteoperforations (MOPs) look promising for a routine acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). The objective of this research was to systematically evaluate evidence regarding the effects of MOPs on the OTM rate, treatment duration, and associated complications.

    METHODS: Electronic database and hand search of English literature in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Web of Science, and clinical trial.gov, with author clarification were performed. The selection criteria were randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing MOPs with conventional treatment involving both extraction and nonextraction. Cochrane's risk of bias tool and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach were used for quality assessment. Studies were analyzed with chi-square-based Q statistic methods, I2 index, fixed-effects, and random-effects model. Quantitative analysis was done on homogenous studies using Review Manager.

    RESULTS: Eight RCTs were included for the qualitative analysis. Meta-analysis of 2 homogenous studies indicated insignificant effect with MOPs (0.01 mm less OTM; 95% CI, 0.13-0.11; P = 0.83). No difference (P >0.05) was found in anchorage loss, root resorption, gingival recession, and pain.

    CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analysis of 2 low-risk of bias studies showed no effect with single application MOPs over a short observation period; however, the overall evidence was low. The quality of evidence for MOP side effects ranged from high to low. Future studies are suggested to investigate repeated MOPs effect over the entire treatment duration for different models of OTM and its related biological changes.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CDR42019118642.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement*
  4. Asif MK, Ibrahim N, Sivarajan S, Heng Khiang Teh N, Chek Wey M
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2020 Oct;158(4):579-586.e1.
    PMID: 32826123 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2019.09.022
    INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to investigate the effects of micro-osteoperforations (MOPs) on the mandibular bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) ratio changes and the rate of orthodontic tooth movement using cone-beam computed tomography images. Another objective was to evaluate the effects of MOP frequency intervals (4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks) on the BV/TV ratio and rate of tooth movement.

    METHODS: In 24 participants, 140-200 g of force was applied for mandibular canine retraction. Three MOPs were made according to the scheduled intervals of the 3 different groups: group 1 (MOP 4 weeks), group 2 (MOP 8 weeks), and group 3 (MOP 12 weeks) directly at the mandibular buccal cortical bone of extracted first premolars sites. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were obtained at the 12th week after MOP application. Computed tomography Analyzer software (version 1.11.0.0; Skyscan, Kontich, Belgium) was used to compute the trabecular alveolar BV/TV ratio.

    RESULTS: A significant difference was observed in the rate of canine movement between control and MOP. Paired t test analysis showed a significant difference (P = 0.001) in the mean BV/TV ratio between control and MOP sides in all the frequency intervals groups. However, the difference was significant only in group 1 (P = 0.014). A strong negative correlation (r = -0.86) was observed between the rate of canine tooth movement and the BV/TV ratio at the MOP side for group 1 and all frequency intervals together (r = -0.42).

    CONCLUSIONS: The rate of orthodontic tooth movement can be accelerated by the MOP technique with frequently repeated MOPs throughout the treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement*
  5. Jawad MM, Husein A, Alam MK, Hassan R, Shaari R
    Lasers Med Sci, 2014 Jan;29(1):367-72.
    PMID: 22986701 DOI: 10.1007/s10103-012-1199-8
    The need for orthodontic treatment is increasing all the time. As the treatment is time consuming ranging from a year to several years, any method of reducing the period of treatment and increasing the quality of the tissue will be beneficial to patients. The use of non-invasive techniques such as low level laser therapy and low intensity pulsed ultasound in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement are promising. Thus, this overview study will help to generate more understanding about the background information and the possible applications of them in daily orthodontics, depending on previous literature searching for reviews and original research articles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement/methods*; Tooth Movement/trends
  6. Qamruddin I, Alam MK, Khamis MF, Husein A
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:608530.
    PMID: 26881201 DOI: 10.1155/2015/608530
    To evaluate various noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures for the enhancement of orthodontic tooth movement in animals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement/methods*
  7. Tsai MH, Megat Abdul Wahab R, Yazid F
    Arch Oral Biol, 2021 Dec;132:105278.
    PMID: 34634537 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2021.105278
    OBJECTIVE: The optimal timing of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) could allow earlier tooth movements across alveolar bone defects while minimizing the adverse effects. The objective of this scoping systematic review was therefore designed to review pre-clinical animal studies on the ideal protocol for the timing of orthodontic traction across alveolar defects augmented with synthetic scaffolds.

    DESIGN: Following the PRISMA-ScR guidelines, three electronic databases were searched (Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science).

    RESULTS: A total of twelve studies were included in the final review that reported on small-animal (rats, guinea pigs, rabbits) and large-animal (dogs and goats) models. Based on the grafting biomaterials, eight papers used cell-free scaffolds, four articles utilised cell-based scaffolds. The timing protocol for the initiation of OTM employed in the studies ranged from immediate to 6 months after surgical grafting. Only four studies included autologous bone graft (gold standard) as positive control. Most papers reported positive results with regards to the rate of OTM and bone augmentation effects while only a few reported side effects such as root resorptions. Overall, the included articles showed a massive heterogeneity in terms of the animal bone defect model characteristics, scaffold materials, study designs, parameters of OTM and methods of analysis.

    CONCLUSION: Since there was inadequate evidence to identify the optimal protocol of OTM, optimization of animal bone defect models and outcome measurements is needed to improve the translational ability of future studies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement*
  8. Shahrin AA, Ghani SHA, Norman NH
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2021 Dec;160(6):784-792.
    PMID: 34452786 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2021.04.021
    INTRODUCTION: This trial aimed to investigate the effectiveness of microosteoperforations (MOPs) in overall time taken for alignment of maxillary anterior crowding and to evaluate the alignment improvement percentage within 6 months between MOPs and control groups.

    METHODS: Thirty adult participants (25 females and 5 males; mean age, 22.66 ± 3.27 years) with moderate upper labial segment crowding were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups using block randomization. All participants had first premolar extractions, bonded conventional fixed appliances, and 0.014-in, followed by 0.018-in nickel-titanium archwire placement for initial alignment. The intervention group received a 3-mm deep MOPs procedure under local anesthesia using a Propel device (Propel Ortho Singapore, Pte, Ltd, Winstedt Rd, Singapore) on the labial attached gingivae of maxillary incisors at monthly visits until complete alignment. Little's irregularity index was used to assess the overall changes and measure the change of tooth alignment of the 6 maxillary anterior teeth. Assessor blinding was employed.

    RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the median overall alignment duration between MOPs and control groups (139 days [95% confidence interval, 115.32-161.83] vs 143 days [95% confidence interval, 107.12-179.74]; hazard ratio, 0.829; P = 0.467). The MOPs procedure had no significant effect on the alignment duration (P = 0.657) and no overall significant difference in alignment improvement percentage among 2 groups on the basis of time (F = 2.53; P = 0.124). No harm was encountered.

    CONCLUSIONS: The application of MOPs is no more effective in accelerating initial orthodontic alignment than conventional treatment.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered at the ISRCTN registry with the study ID ISRCTN15080404.

    PROTOCOL: https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN15080404.

    FUNDING: This work was supported by the Postgraduate Trust Fund, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement*
  9. Marya A, Venugopal A, Vaid N, Alam MK, Karobari MI
    Pain Res Manag, 2020;2020:6677929.
    PMID: 33488889 DOI: 10.1155/2020/6677929
    Fixed orthodontic treatment has been compromised at many levels during the pandemic period, as clinics underwent a prolonged lockdown and patients could not be treated regularly. With the end of the pandemic nowhere in sight, may be it is time to put newer tools, such as clear aligner therapy, for better use. Fixed orthodontic appliances by nature are not always self-limiting, which, if left unmonitored over a long period may cause undesirable side effects, pain, and discomfort. The undesired tooth movements that may occur with arch wire-guided mechanics in addition to problems with cut wires or removed brackets may be minimized with the use of aligners. While the benefits of using aligners are for all to see, they do require extensive planning and careful evaluation of the progress. This article reviews the advantages of using aligners during the pandemic period and how it can be beneficial in helping orthodontists resume their practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement/instrumentation*
  10. Chong JA, Mohamed AMFS, Pau A
    J Oral Biosci, 2020 09;62(3):249-259.
    PMID: 32619633 DOI: 10.1016/j.job.2020.06.003
    BACKGROUND: Palatal rugae are asymmetric ridges of connective tissue located behind the incisive papilla over the anterior hard palate. They serve as stable superimposition landmarks to assess tooth movement in orthodontics and as identification aids in forensic odontology. However, the stability of palatal rugae remains controversial. This review aimed to describe the genetic, growth, and environmental factors that may influence the palatal rugae patterns. A broad search of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was conducted. A total of 193 articles were identified, of which 73 met the selection criteria. Data were extracted into a table that presented the details of the study, sample description, and changes in the palatal rugae patterns.

    HIGHLIGHT: There were conflicting results regarding sexual dimorphism and population characterization of the palatal rugae patterns. All rugae showed positional changes, increased lengths, and lower numbers, but no significant shape changes with growth. The lengths, numbers, and positions of the rugae were affected by orthodontic treatment, especially their lateral points, but their individual characteristics did not change.

    CONCLUSION: The diversity in rugae patterns and their potential for sex discrimination among different populations showed differing results due to individual variations and the complex influence of genetic, growth, and environmental factors on their morphology.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement
  11. Mathew, Thomas
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2011;32(1):28-40.
    MyJurnal
    It is the aim of all clinicians to accomplish biological tooth movement, which implies the use of low, continuous force. Constant unrelented search for a better wire, which can deliver optimal orthodontic force, has led to the invention of a lot of orthodontic wires such as Stainless steel, Beta Titanium, Nickel Titanium and multi stranded wires. In this study, the loading and unloading properties of 0.016 inch, 0.016x0.022 inch and 0.017x0.025 inch dimensions of stainless steel, conventional NiTi, Super elastic NiTi, and TMA arch wires were determined by means of a modified three point bending test for two inter bracket widths of 5 mm and 6.5 mm for deflection of 1 to 3 mm. The applied forces dependence on cross-sectional size differs from the linear-elastic prediction in super elastic NiTi wires. The stainless steel wires had the highest force values on all the three dimensions and cross section. On loading and unloading, TMA wires had force values in-between stainless steel, conventional NiTi and super elastic NiTi. The conventional NiTi had much lower force values compared to stainless steel and TMA and were linearly progressing compared to Super elastic NiTi. On loading and unloading the super elastic NiTi had force values in the range of conventional NiTi and had constant forces on higher deflection. The studies showed that the force value was comparatively higher in 5 mm inter bracket width than the 6.5 mm inter bracket width for all the cross section and dimension of wires.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement
  12. Ellias MF, Zainal Ariffin SH, Karsani SA, Abdul Rahman M, Senafi S, Megat Abdul Wahab R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:647240.
    PMID: 22919344 DOI: 10.1100/2012/647240
    Orthodontic treatment has been shown to induce inflammation, followed by bone remodelling in the periodontium. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva. This study aims to identify salivary proteins that change in expression during orthodontic tooth movement. These differentially expressed proteins can potentially serve as protein biomarkers for the monitoring of orthodontic treatment and tooth movement. Whole saliva from three healthy female subjects were collected before force application using fixed appliance and at 14 days after 0.014'' Niti wire was applied. Salivary proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) over a pH range of 3-10, and the resulting proteome profiles were compared. Differentially expressed protein spots were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed; however, only eight were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Four of these proteins-Protein S100-A9, immunoglobulin J chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, and CRISP-3-have known roles in inflammation and bone resorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement*
  13. Abdul Wahab RM, Zainal Ariffin SH, Yeen WW, Ahmad NA, Senafi S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:236427.
    PMID: 22629122 DOI: 10.1100/2012/236427
    Three specific orthodontic tooth movement genes, that is, FCRL1, HSPG2, and LAMB2 were detected at upper first premolar (with appliance) dental pulp tissue by using GeneFishing technique as compared to lower first premolar (without appliance). These three differentially expressed genes have the potential as molecular markers during orthodontic tooth movement by looking at molecular changes of pulp tissue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement*
  14. Alazzawi MMJ, Husein A, Alam MK, Hassan R, Shaari R, Azlina A, et al.
    Prog Orthod, 2018 Apr 16;19(1):10.
    PMID: 29658096 DOI: 10.1186/s40510-018-0208-2
    BACKGROUND: Quality bone regeneration, which leads to the improvement of bone remodeling, is essential for orthodontic treatment. In order to improve bone regeneration and increase the amount of tooth movement, different techniques have been implemented. The object of this study is to compare the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), and their combination on bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement.

    METHODS: Eighty (80) male, 6-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were grouped in to four groups, the first group was irradiated with (940 nm) diode laser, second group with LIPUS, and third group with combination of both LLLT and LIPUS. A forth group used was a control group in an incomplete block split-mouth design. The LLLT and LIPUS were used to treat the area around the moving tooth once a day on days 0-7, then the experiment was ended in each experimental endpoint (1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days). For amount of tooth movement, models were imaged and analyzed. Histological examination was performed after staining with (hematoxylin and eosin) and (alizarin red and Alcian Blue) stain. One step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR was also performed to elucidate the gene expression of RANK, RANKL, OPG, and RUNX-2.

    RESULTS: The amount of tooth movement, the histological bone remodeling, and the RT-PCR were significantly greater in the treatment groups than that in the control group. Among the treatment groups, the combination group was the highest and the LIPUS group was the lowest.

    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that LLLT and LIPUS can enhance the velocity of tooth movement and improve the quality of bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement*
  15. Qamruddin I, Alam MK, Mahroof V, Fida M, Khamis MF, Husein A
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2017 Nov;152(5):622-630.
    PMID: 29103440 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.03.023
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation applied at 3-week intervals on orthodontic tooth movement and pain associated with orthodontic tooth movement using self-ligating brackets.

    METHODS: Twenty-two patients (11 male, 11 female; mean age, 19.8 ± 3.1 years) with Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion were recruited for this split-mouth clinical trial; they required extraction of maxillary first premolars bilaterally. After leveling and alignment with self-ligating brackets (SmartClip SL3; 3M Unitek, St Paul, Minn), a 150-g force was applied to retract the canines bilaterally using 6-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs on 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel archwires. A gallium-aluminum-arsenic diode laser (iLas; Biolase, Irvine, Calif) with a wavelength of 940 nm in a continuous mode (energy density, 7.5 J/cm2/point; diameter of optical fiber tip, 0.04 cm2) was applied at 5 points buccally and palatally around the canine roots on the experimental side; the other side was designated as the placebo. Laser irradiation was applied at baseline and then repeated after 3 weeks for 2 more consecutive follow-up visits. Questionnaires based on the numeric rating scale were given to the patients to record their pain intensity for 1 week. Impressions were made at each visit before the application of irradiation at baseline and the 3 visits. Models were scanned with a CAD/CAM scanner (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland).

    RESULTS: Canine retraction was significantly greater (1.60 ± 0.38 mm) on the experimental side compared with the placebo side (0.79 ± 0.35 mm) (P <0.05). Pain was significantly less on the experimental side only on the first day after application of LLLI and at the second visit (1.4 ± 0.82 and 1.4 ± 0.64) compared with the placebo sides (2.2 ± 0.41 and 2.4 ± 1.53).

    CONCLUSIONS: Low-level laser irradiation applied at 3-week intervals can accelerate orthodontic tooth movement and reduce the pain associated with it.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement*
  16. Qamruddin I, Alam MK, Mahroof V, Fida M, Khamis MF, Husein A
    Pain Res Manag, 2021;2021:6690542.
    PMID: 34055122 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6690542
    Objective: To assess the effect of low-level laser applied at 3 weeks intervals on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and pain using conventional brackets (CB).

    Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with Angle's class II div 1 (10 males and 10 females; aged 20.25 ± 3.88 years) needing bilateral extractions of maxillary first bicuspids were recruited. Conventional brackets MBT of 0.022 in slot (McLaughlin Bennett Trevisi) prescription braces (Ortho Organizers, Carlsbad, Calif) were bonded. After alignment and levelling phase, cuspid retraction began with nitinol closed coil spring on 19 × 25 stainless steel archwire, wielding 150 gram force. 7.5 J/cm2 energy was applied on 10 points (5 buccal and 5 palatal) on the canine roots on the investigational side using gallium-aluminum-arsenic diode laser (940 nm wavelength, iLase™ Biolase, Irvine, USA) in a continuous mode. Target tissues were irradiated once in three weeks for 9 weeks at a stretch (T0, T1, and T2). Patients were given a feedback form based on the numeric rating scale (NRS) to record the pain intensity for a week. Silicon impressions preceded the coil activation at each visit (T0, T1, T2, and T3), and the casts obtained were scanned with the Planmeca CAD/CAM™ (Helsinki, Finland) scanner.

    Results: The regimen effectively accelerated (1.55 ± 0.25 mm) tooth movement with a significant reduction in distress on the investigational side as compared to the placebo side (94 ± 0.25 mm) (p < 0.05).

    Conclusions: This study reveals that the thrice-weekly LLLT application can accelerate OTM and reduce the associated pain.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement/statistics & numerical data*
  17. Sia S, Shibazaki T, Koga Y, Yoshida N
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2009 Jan;135(1):36-41.
    PMID: 19121498 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2007.01.034
    This study was designed to determine the optimum vertical height of the retraction force on the power arm that is required for efficient anterior tooth retraction during space closure with sliding mechanics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement/instrumentation; Tooth Movement/methods*
  18. Kamin S
    Singapore Dent J, 1989 Dec;14(1):13-5.
    PMID: 2487468
    An important relationship should exist between the periodontist and restorative dentist. Periodontics and restorative dentistry should not be divisible and all forms of restorations, from a simple filling to a complex precision-retained bridge, should be performed with the health and biology of the periodontium in mind. A very crucial concept which should be borne in the mind of every restorative dentist is the concept of biologic width.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement
  19. Qamruddin I, Alam MK, Mahroof V, Karim M, Fida M, Khamis MF, et al.
    Pain Res Manag, 2021;2021:6624723.
    PMID: 34035871 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6624723
    Objective: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a noninvasive modality to stimulate bone remodeling (BR) and the healing of hard and soft tissues. This research evaluates the biostimulatory effect of LIPUS on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and associated pain, when applied at 3-week intervals.

    Methods: Twenty-two patients (11 males and 11 females; mean age 19.18 ± 2.00 years) having Angle's Class II division 1 malocclusion needing bilateral extractions of maxillary first bicuspids were recruited for this split-mouth randomized clinical trial. After the initial stage of alignment and leveling with contemporary edgewise MBT (McLaughlin-Bennett-Trevisi) prescription brackets (Ortho Organizers, Carlsbad, Calif) of 22 mil, followed by extractions of premolars bilaterally, 6 mm nickel-titanium spring was used to retract the canines separately by applying 150 g force on 0.019 × 0.025-in stainless steel working archwires. LIPUS (1.1 MHz frequency and 30 mW/cm2 intensity output) was applied for 20 minutes extraorally and reapplied after 3 weeks for 2 more successive visits over the root of maxillary canine on the experimental side whereas the other side was placebo. A numerical rating scale- (NRS-) based questionnaire was given to the patients on each visit to record their weekly pain experience. Impressions were also made at each visit before the application of LIPUS (T1, T2, and T3). Models were scanned with a CAD/CAM scanner (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland). Mann-Whitney U test was applied for comparison of canine movement and pain intensity between both the groups.

    Results: No significant difference in the rate of canine movement was found among the experimental (0.90 mm ± 0.33 mm) and placebo groups (0.81 mm ± 0.32 mm). There was no difference in pain reduction between experimental and placebo groups (p > 0.05).

    Conclusion: Single-dose application of LIPUS at 3-week intervals is ineffective in stimulating the OTM and reducing associated treatment pain.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tooth Movement/adverse effects*
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