Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 67 in total

  1. Ibrahim MA, Zulkifli SZ, Azmai MNA, Mohamat-Yusuff F, Ismail A
    Toxicol Rep, 2020;7:1039-1045.
    PMID: 32913717 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2020.08.011
    Early-life exposure to toxic chemicals causes irreversible morphological and physiological abnormalities that may last for a lifetime. The present study aimed to determine the toxicity effect of 3,4-Dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) on Javanese medaka (Oryzias javanicus) embryos. Healthy embryos were exposed to various 3,4-DCA concentrations for acute toxicity (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg.L-1) and sublethal toxicity (0.10, 0.50, 1.25, 2.50, and 5.00 mg.L-1) for 96 h and 20 days respectively. Acute toxicity test revealed that the median lethal concentration (96h-LC50) was 32.87 mg.L-1 (95 % CI = 27.90-38.74, R2 = 0.95). Sublethal exposure revealed that 1.25 mg.L-1 at 3 days post-exposure (3 dpe) has a significant lower heartrate (120 ± 12.3 beats/min., p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute
  2. Barkia I, Ketata Bouaziz H, Sellami Boudawara T, Aleya L, Gargouri AF, Saari N
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jun;27(16):19087-19094.
    PMID: 30612348 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-4007-6
    Protein hydrolysates and bioactive peptides from various protein sources have demonstrated their effectiveness for the prevention of illness and the improvement of symptoms from several diseases. In particular, the use of microalgae to generate bioactive peptides has received a growing interest because of their potential to be cultivated on non-arable land and high nutritional value. However, scant research is available on the toxicity of peptide-based preparations. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of microalgal protein hydrolysates (MPH) from one marine species of microalgae (Bellerochea malleus) to determine the feasibility of their use for functional food applications. Results showed that the oral administration of MPH at three doses (D1, 100 mg kg-1 BW; D2, 400 mg kg-1 BW; and D3, 2000 mg kg-1 BW) to male Wistar rats did not induce any adverse effects or mortality up to13 days of treatment. Data analysis of relative organ weights and biochemical and hematological parameters did not show any significant differences between control and treated groups at the three doses investigated. Data from histopathological observations did not reveal any signs of major toxicity at the doses D1 and D2. However, mild signs of inflammation and necrosis were observed in the kidney of rats fed MPH at D3. All together, these results reveal the overall safety of MPH and provide new evidence for advocating their use for functional food or nutraceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute
  3. Nurhidanatasha Abu Bakar, Zainal Abidin Abu Hasan, Nurul Izza Nordin, Bohari Mohamad Yamin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2007;36:39-44.
    Ferrocene plays an important role in chemistry and industry. The structure and bonding discovered in ferrocene has led to new developments in organometallic chemistry, and the discovery of entirely new organometallic compounds. The high stability of this compound is also related to its interesting electrochemical properties that makes it effective electrochemical, reduction and combustion catalysts. Nevertheless, ferrocenyl derivatives are also capable of enhancing the activity of certain biological compounds. Indeed, recently ferrocene and its derivatives have been incorporated into antimalarial agents. Therefore, the evaluation of the possible toxic effects of ferrocene derivative called ferrocenium tetrachloroantimonate (C10H10FeSbCl4 or FC) on acute and subchronic toxicity tests using different dose concentrations according to the body weight for different time interval was carried out in an in vivo model. Results showed that FC was acutely toxic with the LD50 value of 194.70 mg/kg body weight (BW) with signs of toxicity associated with respiratory depression. In the 28-day acute toxicity test, the dose of 100 mg/kg BW resulted in 60 % mortality with signs of gross toxicity, adverse pharmacological effects or abnormal behaviors during the 28 days observation. While in the 90-day subchronic toxicity test at the lower dose of 10 mg/kg BW, however, showed no significant differences (p>0.05) in the mortality rates, and showed no sign of toxicity. These results indicated that FC had different toxicity levels, and mice appeared to tolerate well at the lower dose of 10 mg/kg BW.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute
  4. Marimuthu K, Muthu N, Xavier R, Arockiaraj J, Rahman MA, Subramaniam S
    PLoS One, 2013;8(10):e75545.
    PMID: 24098390 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075545
    Buprofezin is an insect growth regulator and widely used insecticide in Malaysia. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of buprofezin on the embryo and larvae of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as a model organism. The embryos and larvae were exposed to 7 different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L) of buprofezin. Each concentration was assessed in five replicates. Eggs were artificially fertilized and 200 eggs and larvae were subjected to a static bath treatment for all the concentrations. The mortality of embryos was significantly increased with increasing buprofezin concentrations from 5 to 100 mg/L (p< 0.05). However, the mortality was not significantly different (p<0.05) among the following concentrations: 0 (control), 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L. Data obtained from the buprofezin acute toxicity tests were evaluated using probit analysis. The 24 h LC50 value (with 95% confidence limits) of buprofezin for embryos was estimated to be 6.725 (3.167-15.017) mg/L. The hatching of fish embryos was recorded as 68.8, 68.9, 66.9, 66.4, 26.9, 25.1 and 0.12% in response to 7 different concentrations of buprofezin, respectively. The mortality rate of larvae significantly (p<0.05) increased with increasing buprofezin concentrations exposed to 24-48 h. The 24 and 48 h LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of buprofezin for the larvae was estimated to be 5.702 (3.198-8.898) and 4.642 (3.264-6.287) mg/L respectively. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the LC50 values obtained at 24 and 48 h exposure times. Malformations were observed when the embryos and larvae exposed to more than 5 mg/L. The results emerged from the study suggest that even the low concentration (5 mg/L) of buprofezin in the aquatic environment may have adverse effect on the early embryonic and larval development of African catfish.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute*
  5. Shuhaimi-Othman M, Nadzifah Y, Nur-Amalina R, Umirah NS
    Chemosphere, 2013 Mar;90(11):2631-6.
    PMID: 23246727 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.11.030
    Freshwater quality criteria for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), and manganese (Mn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia, which were Macrobrachiumlanchesteri (prawn), two fish -Poeciliareticulata and Rasborasumatrana, Melanoidestuberculata (snail), Stenocyprismajor (ostracod), Chironomusjavanus (midge larvae), Naiselinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynusmelanostictus (tadpole), to determine 96-h LC50 values for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn. The final acute values (FAVs) for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn were 2.5, 3.0, 977.8, and 78.3 μgL(-1), respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a Criterion Maximum Concentration (CMC) and a criterion Continuous Concentration (CCC) for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn of 1.3, 1.5, 488.9, and 39.1 μgL(-1) and 0.3, 0.36, 117.8, and 9.4 μgL(-1), respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that R.sumatrana, M.lanchesteri, C.javanus, and N.elinguis were the most sensitive to Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute*
  6. Christapher PV, Parasuraman S, Asmawi MZ, Murugaiyah V
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2017 Jun;86:33-41.
    PMID: 28229903 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.02.005
    Medicinal plant preparations may contain high levels of toxic chemical constituents to potentially cause serious harm to animals and/or humans. Thus, toxicity studies are important to assess the toxic effects of plant derived products. Polygonum minus is used traditionally for different ailments in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to establish the acute and subchronic toxicity profile of the methanol extract of P. minus leaves. The acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract of P. minus is safe even at the highest dose tested of 2000 mg/kg in female Sprague Dawley rats. There were no behavioural or physiological changes and gross pathological abnormalities observed. The subchronic toxicity study of methanol extract of P. minus at 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg were conducted in both sexes of Sprague Dawley rats. There were no changes observed in the extract treated animal's body weight, food and water intake, motor coordination, behaviour and mental alertness. The values of haematological and biochemical parameters were not different between the treated and control animals. The relative organ weights of extract-treated animals did not differ with that of control animals. Based on the present findings, the methanol extract of P. minus leaves could be considered safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute*
  7. Amin ZA, Ali HM, Alshawsh MA, Darvish PH, Abdulla MA
    PMID: 26557855 DOI: 10.1155/2015/317693
    Antrodia camphorata is a parasitic fungus from Taiwan, it has been documented to possess a variety of pharmacological and biological activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of Antrodia camphorata ethanol extract to accelerate the rate of wound healing closure and histology of wound area in experimental rats. The safety of Antrodia camphorata was determined in vivo by the acute toxicity test and in vitro by fibroblast cell proliferation assay. The scratch assay was used to evaluate the in vitro wound healing in fibroblast cells and the excision model of wound healing was tested in vivo using four groups of adult Sprague Dawley rats. Our results showed that wound treated with Antrodia camphorata extract and intrasite gel significantly accelerates the rate of wound healing closure than those treated with the vehicle. Wounds dressed with Antrodia camphorata extract showed remarkably less scar width at wound closure and granulation tissue contained less inflammatory cell and more fibroblast compared to wounds treated with the vehicle. Masson's trichrom stain showed granulation tissue containing more collagen and less inflammatory cell in Antrodia camphorata treated wounds. In conclusion, Antrodia camphorata extract significantly enhanced the rate of the wound enclosure in rats and promotes the in vitro healing through fibroblast cell proliferation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute
  8. Leong YH, Isa ASM, Mohamed Mahmood M, Moey CEJ, Utar Z, Soon YI, et al.
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2018 Jun;95:280-288.
    PMID: 29567329 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.03.011
    This study aimed to investigate the oral acute and subacute toxicity of Poly [3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate], P(3HB-co-4HB) in the form of nanoparticles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute oral administration of P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles was performed as a single dose up to 2000 mg/kg in six female rats for 14 days. Subacute toxicity study via oral administration for 28 days at doses of 0 (control), 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg in rats (10 rats in each group, female:male = 1:1) was conducted. The estimated lethal dose (LD50) of P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles was >2000 mg/kg. No mortality, unusual changes in behaviour, adverse clinical signs, abnormal changes in body weights or food consumption were observed on all animals treated with P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles during 14 days of the acute toxicity study. In the subacute test, there was no mortality and toxicologically significant changes in clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, clinical biochemistry, urinalysis, macroscopic findings, organ weights as well as histopathological examination were observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute
  9. Mohd Tamsir N, Mohd Esa N, Shafie NH, Hussein MZ, Hamzah H, Abdullah MA
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Aug 23;20(17).
    PMID: 31450737 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20174114
    A nanocomposite, phytic acid-chitosan-magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IP6-CS-MNPs) has been used to treat colon cancer in vitro, previously. However, its potential toxicity in vivo has yet to be elucidated. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the acute effects of oral administration of IP6-CS-MNPs in mice. In this study, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w) of IP6-CS-MNPs were orally administered to two different groups of BALB/c mice, once. Additionally, the mice in the control group were given only deionized water. After 14 days of post-IP6-CS-MNPs administration, in a similar way to the untreated mice, the treated mice showed no sign of mortality and abnormalities. However, the serum urea level of mice receiving 2000 mg/kg b.w of IP6-CS-MNPs was significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05). The mice that received 1000 mg/kg IP6-CS-MNPs showed a significantly higher level of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) compared to the control group. However, there were no significant histopathological changes seen in the liver and kidneys of treated mice compared to the untreated group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute
  10. Basirun AA, Ahmad SA, Sabullah MK, Yasid NA, Daud HM, Khalid A, et al.
    3 Biotech, 2019 Feb;9(2):64.
    PMID: 30729088 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-019-1592-0
    The present study is aimed to evaluate the effects of sub-acute toxicity testing of copper sulphate (CuSO4), on behavioural, histological and biochemical changes of the Oreochromis mossambicus (black tilapia) blood tissues. The effects were assessed according to the previous results on sub-acute toxicity test after exposing fish to several concentrations (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/L). The observations of scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope studies revealed severe histopathological changes on the surface and the cellular changes in blood tissues, respectively. The morphological alterations in blood involved irregular structure of red blood cell and blood clot formation. CuSO4 affected the biochemical alteration of the blood cholinesterase also known as serum cholinesterase (ChE). Blood ChE inhibited up to 80% of activity when exposed to 10.0 mg/L CuSO4. The findings from this study can further improve the quality standards of aquaculture industry and the fundamental basis in selecting suitable strains among freshwater fish species to be used as bioindicator.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute
  11. Foo RQ, Ahmad S, Lai KS, Idrus Z, Yusoff K, Liang JB
    Front Physiol, 2020;11:555122.
    PMID: 33071816 DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2020.555122
    One of the beneficial effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) is their anti-inflammatory effects on host animals. While conventional animal studies require that analysis be done after samples have been taken from the host, zebrafish larvae are optically transparent upon hatching and this provides an opportunity for observations to be made within the living zebrafish larvae. This study aimed to take advantage of the optical transparency of zebrafish larvae to study the nitric oxide (NO) reducing effects of NDOs through the use of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Salmonella enterica serovar (ser.) Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) to induce cardiac NO production. Prior to running the above experiment, an acute toxicity assay was conducted in order to determine the appropriate concentration of oligosaccharides to be used. The oligosaccharides tested consisted of oligosaccharides which were extracted from palm kernel cake with a degree of polymerization (DP) equal to or less than six (OligoPKC), commercial mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) and commercial fructooligosaccharide (FOS). Acute toxicity test results revealed that the OligoPKC has a LC50 of 488.1 μg/ml while both MOS and FOS were non-toxic up to 1,000 μg/ml. Results of the in vivo NO measurements revealed that all three NDOs were capable of significantly reducing NO levels in LPS stimulated zebrafish embryos. In summary, at 250 μg/ml, OligoPKC was comparable to MOS and better than FOS at lowering NO in LPS induced zebrafish larvae. However, at higher doses, OligoPKC appears toxic to zebrafish larvae. This implies that the therapeutic potential of OligoPKC is limited by its toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute
  12. Kue CS, Tan KY, Lam ML, Lee HB
    Exp. Anim., 2015;64(2):129-38.
    PMID: 25736707 DOI: 10.1538/expanim.14-0059
    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a preclinical model widely used for vascular and anti-vascular effects of therapeutic agents in vivo. In this study, we examine the suitability of CAM as a predictive model for acute toxicology studies of drugs by comparing it to conventional mouse and rat models for 10 FDA-approved anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, carmustine, camptothecin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cisplatin, aloin, mitomycin C, actinomycin-D, melphalan). Suitable formulations for intravenous administration were determined before the average of median lethal dose (LD50) and median survival dose (SD(50)) in the CAM were measured and calculated for these drugs. The resultant ideal LD(50) values were correlated to those reported in the literature using Pearson's correlation test for both intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection in rodents. Our results showed moderate correlations (r(2)=0.42 - 0.68, P<0.005-0.05) between the ideal LD(50) values obtained using the CAM model with LD(50) values from mice and rats models for both intravenous and intraperitoneal administrations, suggesting that the chick embryo may be a suitable alternative model for acute drug toxicity screening before embarking on full toxicological investigations in rodents in development of anticancer drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods*
  13. Yuet Ping K, Darah I, Chen Y, Sreeramanan S, Sasidharan S
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:182064.
    PMID: 24386634 DOI: 10.1155/2013/182064
    Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5,000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1,000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute*
  14. Pour BM, Latha LY, Sasidharan S
    Molecules, 2011 May 03;16(5):3663-74.
    PMID: 21540795 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16053663
    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of Lantana camara methanol extract.

    METHODS: In order to evaluate the toxicity of Lantana camara, the acute toxicity of the methanolic extract on adult mice and cytotoxicity test on Vero cell line were investigated. A fixed large dose of 2 g/kg body weight of L. camara leaf extract was administrated by a single oral gavage according to the OECD procedure.

    RESULTS: In 2 weeks, L. camara leaf extract showed no obvious acute toxicity. While female mice lost body weight after being treated with single dose of leaf extract in acute toxicity test, male ones lost organ mass, particularly for heart and kidney. The biochemical liver function tests showed significantly elevated TBIL and ALT in the L. camara leaf extract treated female mice group compared with the control group. Cytotoxicity effect of leaf extract of L. camara was estimated through a MTT assay. Cytotoxicity tests on Vero cell line disclosed that leaf extract at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL inhibited the growth of cells 2.5 times less than did Triton 100 × 1%. More interestingly, the cytotoxicity initiated to decline at elevated concentrations of this extract.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of both tests confirm that L. camara shows a pro toxic effect.

    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods*
  15. Salam NA, Naeem MA, Malik NS, Riaz M, Shahiq-Uz-Zaman -, Masood-Ur-Rehman -, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2020 Jan;33(1(Supplementary)):269-279.
    PMID: 32122858
    The main objective of the present study was to explore the potential of matrix tablets as extended release dosage form of tianeptine, using HMPC K100 as a polymer. HPMC K100 extended the release of the drug from formulation due to the gel-like structure. Direct compression method was adopted to compress the tablets using different concentrations of polymer. Tablets were evaluated for pre-compression and post-compression parameters. Drug release study showed that tablet extends the release of drug with the increasing concentration of polymer. Drug, polymers and tablets were analyzed and/or characterized for compatibility, degradation, thermal stability, amorphous or crystalline nature via FTIR, DSC, TGA, XRD studies. SEM study predicted that tablets had a uniform structure. HPMC K100 based tablets were similar to that of the reference product. Acute toxicity study conducted on Swiss albino mice showed that matrix tablets were safe and non-toxic, as no changes in physical activity and functions of organs were observed. Biochemical and histopathological study revealed lack of any kind of abnormality in liver and renal function. Moreover, necrotic changes were absent at organ level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods*
  16. Jaćević V, Nepovimova E, Kuča K
    Chemico-biological interactions, 2019 Aug 01;308:312-316.
    PMID: 31153983 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.05.035
    K-oximes were developed as modern drug candidates acting as AChE reactivators. In this study, it has been investigated which interspecies and intergender differences changes could be observed in Wistar rats and Swiss mice, both genders, after the treatment with increasing doses of selected acetylcholinesterase reactivators - asoxime, obidoxime, K027, K048, and K075. After the 24 h, a number of died animals was counted and the median lethal dose (LD50) for each oxime was calculated. By using the intramuscular route of administration, asoxime and K027 had the least toxicity in female rats (640.21 mg/kg and 686.08 mg/kg), and in female mice (565.75 mg/kg and 565.74 mg/kg), respectively. Moreover, asoxime and K027 showed 3, 4 or 8 times less acute toxicity in comparison to K048, obidoxime and K075, respectively. Beyond, K075 had the greatest toxicity in male rats (81.53 mg/kg), and in male mice (57.34 mg/kg), respectively. Our results can help to predict likely adverse toxic effects, target organ systems and possible outcome in the event of massive human overexposure, and in establishing risk categories or in dose selection for the initial repeated dose toxicity tests to be conducted for each oxime.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods*
  17. Al Batran R, Al-Bayaty F, Al-Obaidi MM, Abdulla MA
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:594012.
    PMID: 23844365 DOI: 10.1155/2013/594012
    The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on hyperlipidemia induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into five groups as follows: group 1 (vehicle) and four experimental groups (groups 2, 3, 4, and 5) were challenged orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 (0.2 mL of 1.5 ×10(12) bacterial cells/mL in 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)) five times a week for one month to induce hyperlipidemia. Then, group 3 received a standard oral treatment with simvastatin 100 mg/kg, and groups 4 and 5 received oral treatment with andrographolide 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively, for another month. The results showed that total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were reduced significantly in groups treated with andrographolide. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level was low in treated groups, while antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly increased in these groups (P < 0.05). Liver tissues of the groups treated with andrographolide reduce the accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatic tissue cells. An acute toxicity test did not show any toxicological symptoms in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute*
  18. Sasidharan S, Darah I, Noordin MK
    N Biotechnol, 2010 Sep 30;27(4):390-6.
    PMID: 20170762 DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2010.02.002
    Methanol extract of the Gracilaria changii has been screened for antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial activities were carried out using disc diffusion assay and broth dilution method against P. aeruginosa. The methanol extract of G. changii showed a good antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa with MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) value of 6.25mg/ml. Exposure of P. aeruginosa cells to 6.25mg/ml of methanol extract of G. changii resulted in complete inhibition of the bacterial cells. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alterations in morphology and cytology of the bacterial cells. The main reason for this deterioration was discussed. The effect of the methanol extract on the growth profile for the bacteria was also done and confirmed the bactericidal effect of the G. changii methanol extract on P. aeruginosa by changing the normal growth profile of P. aeruginosa. In an acute toxicity study using mice, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of the extract was greater than 2000 mg/kg, and we found no pathological changes in macroscopic examination by necropsy of mice treated with extract. We conclude that G. changii might be safely used as an antimicrobial agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute*
  19. Lakshmanan H, Raman J, David P, Wong KH, Naidu M, Sabaratnam V
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Dec 24;194:1051-1059.
    PMID: 27816657 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.10.084
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hericium erinaceus is a culinary-medicinal mushroom and has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic for stomach disorders, ulcers and gastrointestinal ailments.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the potential toxic effects of the aqueous extract from the fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus in rats by a sub-chronic oral toxicity study.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this sub-chronic toxicity study, rats were orally administered with the aqueous extract of H. erinaceus (HEAE) at doses of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 90 days. Body weights were recorded on a weekly basis and general behavioural changes were observed. The blood samples were subjected to haematological, biochemical, serum electrolyte, and antioxidant enzyme estimations. The rats were sacrificed and organs were processed and examined for histopathological changes.

    RESULTS: No mortality or morbidity was observed in all the treated and control rats. The results showed that the oral administration of HEAE daily at three different doses for 90 days had no adverse effect on the general behaviour, body weight, haematology, clinical biochemistry, and relative organ weights. Histopathological examination at the end of the study showed normal architecture except for few non-treatment related histopathological changes observed in liver, heart and spleen.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this sub-chronic toxicity study provides evidence that oral administration of HEAE is safe up to 1000mg/kg and H. erinaceus consumption is relatively non-toxic.

    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods
  20. Khoo LW, Foong Kow AS, Maulidiani M, Lee MT, Tan CP, Shaari K, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 29;23(9).
    PMID: 30158427 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092172
    The present study aims for the first time to provide the in vivo acute toxicological profile of the highest dose of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau water leaf extract according to the Organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) 423 guidelines through conventional toxicity and advanced proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) serum and urinary metabolomics evaluation methods. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg bw of C. nutans water extract was administered to Sprague Dawley rats, and they were observed for 14 days. Conventional toxicity evaluation methods (physical observation, body and organ weight, food and water consumption, hematology, biochemical testing and histopathological analysis) suggested no abnormal toxicity signs. Serum ¹H-NMR metabolome revealed no significant metabolic difference between untreated and treated groups. Urinary ¹H-NMR analysis, on the other hand, revealed alteration in carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism in extract-treated rats after 2 h of extract administration, but the metabolic expression collected after 24 h and at Day 5, Day 10 and Day 15 indicated that the extract-treated rats did not accumulate any toxicity biomarkers. Importantly, the outcomes further suggest that single oral administration of up to 5000 mg/kg bw of C. nutans water leaf extract is safe for consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods*
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