Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 126 in total

  1. Hussain RMF, Kim HK, Khurshid M, Akhtar MT, Linthorst HJM
    Metabolomics, 2018 01 31;14(3):25.
    PMID: 30830336 DOI: 10.1007/s11306-018-1317-0
    INTRODUCTION: WRKY proteins belong to a plant-specific class of transcription factors. Seventy-four WKRY genes have been identified in Arabidopsis and many WRKY proteins are known to be involved in responses to stress, especially to biotic stress. They may act either as transcriptional activators or as repressors of genes that play roles in the stress response. A number of studies have proposed the connection of Arabidopsis WRKY transcription factors in induced pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, although no direct evidence has been presented for specific WRKY-PR promoter interactions.

    OBJECTIVE: We previously identified AtWRKY50 as a transcriptional activator of SAR gene PR1. Although PR1 accumulates to high levels in plants after attack by pathogens, its function is still elusive. Here we investigated the effects of overexpression of several WRKY proteins, including AtWRKY50, on the metabolome of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    METHODS: The influence of overexpression of WRKY proteins on the metabolites of Arabidopsis was investigated by using an NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomic approach. The 1H NMR data was analysed using the multivariate data analysis methods, such as principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and partial least square-discriminant analysis.

    RESULTS: The results showed that the metabolome of transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtWRKY50 was different from wild type Arabidopsis and transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing other WRKY genes. Amongst other metabolites, sinapic acid and 1-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucose especially appeared to be the most prominent discriminating metabolites, accumulating to levels 2 to 3 times higher in the AtWRKY50 overexpressor lines.

    CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a possible involvement of AtWRKY50 in secondary metabolite production in Arabidopsis, in particular of hydroxycinnamates such as sinapic acid and 1-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucose.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics
  2. Ma A, Yousoof S, Grigg JR, Flaherty M, Minoche AE, Cowley MJ, et al.
    Genet Med, 2020 10;22(10):1623-1632.
    PMID: 32499604 DOI: 10.1038/s41436-020-0854-x
    PURPOSE: Ocular anterior segment disorders (ASDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and genetic diagnosis often remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate the value of a combined analysis protocol using phenotypic, genomic, and pedigree structure data to achieve a genetic conclusion.

    METHODS: We utilized a combination of chromosome microarray, exome sequencing, and genome sequencing with structural variant and trio analysis to investigate a cohort of 41 predominantly sporadic cases.

    RESULTS: We identified likely causative variants in 54% (22/41) of cases, including 51% (19/37) of sporadic cases and 75% (3/4) of cases initially referred as familial ASD. Two-thirds of sporadic cases were found to have heterozygous variants, which in most cases were de novo. Approximately one-third (7/22) of genetic diagnoses were found in rarely reported or recently identified ASD genes including PXDN, GJA8, COL4A1, ITPR1, CPAMD8, as well as the new phenotypic association of Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly with a homozygous ADAMTS17 variant. The remainder of the variants were in key ASD genes including FOXC1, PITX2, CYP1B1, FOXE3, and PAX6.

    CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the benefit of detailed phenotypic, genomic, variant, and segregation analysis to uncover some of the previously "hidden" heritable answers in several rarely reported and newly identified ocular ASD-related disease genes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics
  3. Arunachalam A, Lakshmanan DK, Ravichandran G, Paul S, Manickam S, Kumar PV, et al.
    Med Oncol, 2021 Sep 04;38(10):122.
    PMID: 34482423 DOI: 10.1007/s12032-021-01573-z
    A limited number of overexpressed transcription factors are associated with cancer progression in many types of cancer. BTB and CNC homology 1 (BACH1) is the first mammalian heme-binding transcription factor that belongs to the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) family and a member of CNC (cap 'n' collar). It forms heterodimers with the small musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma (MAF) proteins and stimulates or suppresses the expression of target genes under a very low intracellular heme concentration. It possesses a significant regulatory role in heme homeostasis, oxidative stress, cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis progression. This review discusses the current knowledge about how BACH1 regulates cancer metastasis in various types of cancer and other carcinogenic associated factors such as oxidative stress, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Overall, from the reported studies and outcomes, it could be realized that BACH1 is a potential pharmacological target for discovering new therapeutic anticancer drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/genetics*
  4. Khairul-Anuar MA, Mazumdar P, Othman RY, Harikrishna JA
    Ann Bot, 2022 Sep 26;130(4):579-594.
    PMID: 35980362 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcac103
    BACKGROUND: Flower pigment and shape are determined by the coordinated expression of a set of structural genes during flower development. R2R3-MYB transcription factors are known regulators of structural gene expression. The current study focused on two members of this large family of transcription factors that were predicted to have roles in pigment biosynthesis and organ shape development in orchids.

    METHODS: Phylogenetic analysis was used to identify candidate Dendrobium catenatum R2R3-MYB (DcaMYB) sequences associated with pigment and cell shape development. Gene silencing of candidate DhMYBs in Dendrobium hybrid by direct application of dsRNA to developing flowers was followed by observation of gene expression level and flower phenotypes. Silencing of the structural gene chalcone synthase was used as a comparative control.

    KEY RESULTS: Ten candidate flower-associated DcaMYBs were identified. Flowers treated with dsRNA of DhMYB22 and DhMYB60 sequences were less pigmented and had relatively low expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (F3'H and DFR), lower total anthocyanin concentration and markedly lower levels of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Petals of DhMYB22-treated flowers and sepals of DhMYB60-treated flowers showed the greatest colour difference relative to the same organs in untreated flowers. DhMYB22-treated flowers had relatively narrow and constricted lips, while DhMYB60-treated flowers had narrow and constricted sepals. No significant difference in shape was observed for DhCHS-treated or untreated flowers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that DhMYB22 and DhMYB60 regulate pigment intensity and floral organ shape in Dendrobium. This is a first report of MYB regulation of floral organ shape in orchids.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics
  5. Hii EPW, Ramanathan A, Pandarathodiyil AK, Wong GR, Sekhar EVS, Binti Talib R, et al.
    Head Neck Pathol, 2023 Mar;17(1):218-232.
    PMID: 36344906 DOI: 10.1007/s12105-022-01481-2
    BACKGROUND: Homeobox genes play crucial roles in tooth morphogenesis and development and thus mutations in homeobox genes cause developmental disorders such as odontogenic lesions. The aim of this scoping review is to identify and compile available data from the literatures on the topic of homeobox gene expression in odontogenic lesions.

    METHOD: An electronic search to collate all the information on studies on homeobox gene expression in odontogenic lesions was carried out in four databases (PubMed, EBSCO host, Web of Science and Cochrane Library) with selected keywords. All papers which reported expression of homeobox genes in odontogenic lesions were considered.

    RESULTS: A total of eleven (11) papers describing expression of homeobox genes in odontogenic lesions were identified. Methods of studies included next generation sequencing, microarray analysis, RT-PCR, Western blotting, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The homeobox reported in odontogenic lesions includes LHX8 and DLX3 in odontoma; PITX2, MSX1, MSX2, DLX, DLX2, DLX3, DLX4, DLX5, DLX6, ISL1, OCT4 and HOX C in ameloblastoma; OCT4 in adenomatoid odontogenic tumour; PITX2 and MSX2 in primordial odontogenic tumour; PAX9 and BARX1 in odontogenic keratocyst; PITX2, ZEB1 and MEIS2 in ameloblastic carcinoma while there is absence of DLX2, DLX3 and MSX2 in clear cell odontogenic carcinoma.

    CONCLUSIONS: This paper summarized and reviews the possible link between homeobox gene expression in odontogenic lesions. Based on the current available data, there are insufficient evidence to support any definite role of homeobox gene in odontogenic lesions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics
  6. Abdullah-Zawawi MR, Ahmad-Nizammuddin NF, Govender N, Harun S, Mohd-Assaad N, Mohamed-Hussein ZA
    Sci Rep, 2021 10 04;11(1):19678.
    PMID: 34608238 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-99206-y
    Transcription factors (TFs) form the major class of regulatory genes and play key roles in multiple plant stress responses. In most eukaryotic plants, transcription factor (TF) families (WRKY, MADS-box and MYB) activate unique cellular-level abiotic and biotic stress-responsive strategies, which are considered as key determinants for defense and developmental processes. Arabidopsis and rice are two important representative model systems for dicot and monocot plants, respectively. A comprehensive comparative study on 101 OsWRKY, 34 OsMADS box and 122 OsMYB genes (rice genome) and, 71 AtWRKY, 66 AtMADS box and 144 AtMYB genes (Arabidopsis genome) showed various relationships among TFs across species. The phylogenetic analysis clustered WRKY, MADS-box and MYB TF family members into 10, 7 and 14 clades, respectively. All clades in WRKY and MYB TF families and almost half of the total number of clades in the MADS-box TF family are shared between both species. Chromosomal and gene structure analysis showed that the Arabidopsis-rice orthologous TF gene pairs were unevenly localized within their chromosomes whilst the distribution of exon-intron gene structure and motif conservation indicated plausible functional similarity in both species. The abiotic and biotic stress-responsive cis-regulatory element type and distribution patterns in the promoter regions of Arabidopsis and rice WRKY, MADS-box and MYB orthologous gene pairs provide better knowledge on their role as conserved regulators in both species. Co-expression network analysis showed the correlation between WRKY, MADs-box and MYB genes in each independent rice and Arabidopsis network indicating their role in stress responsiveness and developmental processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics*; MEF2 Transcription Factors/genetics*
  7. Lee HN, Mostovoy Y, Hsu TY, Chang AH, Brem RB
    G3 (Bethesda), 2013 Dec 09;3(12):2187-94.
    PMID: 24142925 DOI: 10.1534/g3.113.008011
    Comparative genomic studies have reported widespread variation in levels of gene expression within and between species. Using these data to infer organism-level trait divergence has proven to be a key challenge in the field. We have used a wild Malaysian population of S. cerevisiae as a test bed in the search to predict and validate trait differences based on observations of regulatory variation. Malaysian yeast, when cultured in standard medium, activated regulatory programs that protect cells from the toxic effects of high iron. Malaysian yeast also showed a hyperactive regulatory response during culture in the presence of excess iron and had a unique growth defect in conditions of high iron. Molecular validation experiments pinpointed the iron metabolism factors AFT1, CCC1, and YAP5 as contributors to these molecular and cellular phenotypes; in genome-scale sequence analyses, a suite of iron toxicity response genes showed evidence for rapid protein evolution in Malaysian yeast. Our findings support a model in which iron metabolism has diverged in Malaysian yeast as a consequence of a change in selective pressure, with Malaysian alleles shifting the dynamic range of iron response to low-iron concentrations and weakening resistance to extreme iron toxicity. By dissecting the iron scarcity specialist behavior of Malaysian yeast, our work highlights the power of expression divergence as a signpost for biologically and evolutionarily relevant variation at the organismal level. Interpreting the phenotypic relevance of gene expression variation is one of the primary challenges of modern genomics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics; Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/genetics
  8. Kumarasamy V, Kuppusamy UR, Samudi C, Kumar S
    Parasitol Res, 2013 Oct;112(10):3551-5.
    PMID: 23933809 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-013-3538-5
    Blastocystis sp. is a commonly found intestinal microorganism and was reported to cause many nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. Various subtypes have been previously reported, and the pathogenicity of different subtypes of Blastocystis is unclear and remains as a controversial issue. A recent study has shown that the Blastocystis antigen isolated from an unknown subtype could facilitate the proliferation of colon cancer cells. Current study was conducted to compare the effect of solubilized antigen isolated from five different subtypes of Blastocystis on colon cancer cells, HCT116. A statistically significant proliferation of these cells was observed when exposed to 1.0 μg/ml solubilized antigen isolated from subtype 3 Blastocystis (37.22%, p < 0.05). Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the upregulation of Th2 cytokines especially transforming growth factor beta in subtype 3-treated cancer cells (p < 0.01, 3.71-fold difference). Of interest, subtype 3 Blastocystis antigen also caused a significantly higher upregulation of cathepsin B (subtypes 1 and 2, p < 0.01; subtypes 4 and 5, p < 0.001; 6.71-fold difference) which lead to the postulation that it may enhance the exacerbation of existing colon cancer cells by weakening the cellular immune response. The dysregulation of IFN-γ and p53 expression also suggest Blastocystis as a proponent of carcinogenesis. Therefore, it is very likely for subtype 3 Blastocystis to have higher pathogenic potential as it caused an increased propagation of cancer cells and substantial amount of inflammatory reaction compared to other subtypes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics
  9. Chia WK, Sharifah NA, Reena RM, Zubaidah Z, Clarence-Ko CH, Rohaizak M, et al.
    Cancer Genet. Cytogenet., 2010 Jan 1;196(1):7-13.
    PMID: 19963130 DOI: 10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2009.08.001
    At the present time, the differentiation between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and adenoma can be made only postoperatively and is based on the presence of capsular or vascular invasion. The ability to differentiate preoperatively between the malignant and benign forms of follicular thyroid tumors assumes greater importance in any clinical setting. The PAX8-PPARG translocation has been reported to occur in the majority of FTC. In this study, a group of 60 follicular thyroid neoplasms [18 FTC, 1 Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC), 24 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTA), 5 Hurthle cell adenomas (HCA), and 12 follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinomas (FV-PTC)] were analyzed to determine the prevalence of the PAX8-PPARG translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The PAX8-PPARG translocation was detected in 2/18 FTC (11.1%). In addition, 2/18 (11.1%) FTC and 1/5 (20%) HCA showed 3p25 aneusomy only. The frequency of the translocation detected in the study was lower compared to the earlier studies conducted in Western countries. This might be attributed to the ethnic background and geographic location. Detection of either the PAX8-PPARG translocation or the 3p25 aneusomy in FTC indicates that these are independent genetic events. It is hereby concluded that 3p25 aneusomy or PAX8-PPARG translocation may play an important role in the molecular pathogenesis of follicular thyroid tumors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Paired Box Transcription Factors/genetics*
  10. Akolkar DB, Asaduzzaman M, Kinoshita S, Asakawa S, Watabe S
    Gene, 2016 Jan 1;575(1):21-8.
    PMID: 26297555 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2015.08.031
    Pax3 and Pax7 are the regulators and markers of muscle progenitors and satellite cells that contribute to the embryonic development and postembryonic growth of skeletal muscle in vertebrates, as well as to its repair and regeneration. However, information regarding them in vertebrate genome model, torafugu Takifugu rubripes, has remained unknown. Therefore, as an initial step, here we characterized Pax3 and Pax7 from torafugu and investigated their expression patterns during different developmental stages by RT-PCR. In silico analysis with the Fugu genome database (ver. 4.0) yielded two distinct genes each for Pax3 (Pax3a and Pax3b) and Pax7 (Pax7a and Pax7b). The 75th amino acid, glutamine (Gln75), from the N-terminus was replaced by proline in the paired box domain (PD) of Pax3a. One single cDNA clone encoding Pax3a had deletion of Gln75 in PD, suggesting the presence of alternatively spliced variants (Q+/Q-). This was further supported by identification of two adjacent alternative 3' splice acceptor sites which produce Pax3b Q+ (aagCAGGGA) and Q- (aagcagGGA) variants. Interestingly, torafugu Pax7a, but not Pax7b, had an insert encoding five amino acid residues (SGEAS) in a C-terminal region of PD in two out of three cDNA clones. Genomic analysis showed two alternate splice donor sites at exon 4 of Pax7a. In synteny analysis, torafugu Pax3a showed syntenic relationship with the corresponding regions in other teleosts only, whereas Pax3b and Pax7b showed high syntenic relationship with the corresponding regions of both mammals and other teleosts. RT-PCR revealed that expression of Pax3a and Pax3b transcripts was restricted to embryonic stages only, whereas those of Pax7a and Pax7b was continued to be expressed in larvae and importantly those of Pax7a were found in adult skeletal muscles. Therefore, Pax3 appears to be most important for primary myogenesis and Pax7 for secondary myogenesis and growth by hyperplasia in fish. In this regard, the transcripts of torafugu Pax3 and Pax7 genes might be used for further investigation as a marker for identification of muscle precursor cells during different phases of growth, and this ambiguity is the next target of our research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Paired Box Transcription Factors/genetics
  11. Pucker B, Pandey A, Weisshaar B, Stracke R
    PLoS One, 2020;15(10):e0239275.
    PMID: 33021974 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0239275
    The R2R3-MYB genes comprise one of the largest transcription factor gene families in plants, playing regulatory roles in plant-specific developmental processes, defense responses and metabolite accumulation. To date MYB family genes have not yet been comprehensively identified in the major staple fruit crop banana. In this study, we present a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of the MYB genes from Musa acuminata DH-Pahang (A genome). A total of 285 R2R3-MYB genes as well as genes encoding three other classes of MYB proteins containing multiple MYB repeats were identified and characterised with respect to structure and chromosomal organisation. Organ- and development-specific expression patterns were determined from RNA-Seq data. For 280 M. acuminata MYB genes for which expression was found in at least one of the analysed samples, a variety of expression patterns were detected. The M. acuminata R2R3-MYB genes were functionally categorised, leading to the identification of seven clades containing only M. acuminata R2R3-MYBs. The encoded proteins may have specialised functions that were acquired or expanded in Musa during genome evolution. This functional classification and expression analysis of the MYB gene family in banana establishes a solid foundation for future comprehensive functional analysis of MaMYBs and can be utilized in banana improvement programmes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics*
  12. Loh SC, Othman AS, Veera Singham G
    Sci Rep, 2019 10 04;9(1):14296.
    PMID: 31586098 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-50800-1
    Hevea brasiliensis remains the primary crop commercially exploited to obtain latex, which is produced from the articulated secondary laticifer. Here, we described the transcriptional events related to jasmonic acid (JA)- and linolenic acid (LA)-induced secondary laticifer differentiation (SLD) in H. brasiliensis clone RRIM 600 based on RNA-seq approach. Histochemical approach proved that JA- and LA-treated samples resulted in SLD in H. brasiliensis when compared to ethephon and untreated control. RNA-seq data resulted in 86,614 unigenes, of which 2,664 genes were differentially expressed in JA and LA-induced secondary laticifer harvested from H. brasiliensis bark samples. Among these, 450 genes were unique to JA and LA as they were not differentially expressed in ethephon-treated samples compared with the untreated samples. Most transcription factors from the JA- and LA-specific dataset were classified under MYB, APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF), and basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene families that were involved in tissue developmental pathways, and we proposed that Bel5-GA2 oxidase 1-KNOTTED-like homeobox complex are likely involved in JA- and LA-induced SLD in H. brasiliensis. We also discovered alternative spliced transcripts, putative novel transcripts, and cis-natural antisense transcript pairs related to SLD event. This study has advanced understanding on the transcriptional regulatory network of SLD in H. brasiliensis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics
  13. Sarpan N, Taranenko E, Ooi SE, Low EL, Espinoza A, Tatarinova TV, et al.
    Plant Cell Rep, 2020 Sep;39(9):1219-1233.
    PMID: 32591850 DOI: 10.1007/s00299-020-02561-9
    KEY MESSAGE: Several hypomethylated sites within the Karma region of EgDEF1 and hotspot regions in chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 5 may be associated with mantling. One of the main challenges faced by the oil palm industry is fruit abnormalities, such as the "mantled" phenotype that can lead to reduced yields. This clonal abnormality is an epigenetic phenomenon and has been linked to the hypomethylation of a transposable element within the EgDEF1 gene. To understand the epigenome changes in clones, methylomes of clonal oil palms were compared to methylomes of seedling-derived oil palms. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data from seedlings, normal, and mantled clones were analyzed to determine and compare the context-specific DNA methylomes. In seedlings, coding and regulatory regions are generally hypomethylated while introns and repeats are extensively methylated. Genes with a low number of guanines and cytosines in the third position of codons (GC3-poor genes) were increasingly methylated towards their 3' region, while GC3-rich genes remain demethylated, similar to patterns in other eukaryotic species. Predicted promoter regions were generally hypomethylated in seedlings. In clones, CG, CHG, and CHH methylation levels generally decreased in functionally important regions, such as promoters, 5' UTRs, and coding regions. Although random regions were found to be hypomethylated in clonal genomes, hypomethylation of certain hotspot regions may be associated with the clonal mantling phenotype. Our findings, therefore, suggest other hypomethylated CHG sites within the Karma of EgDEF1 and hypomethylated hotspot regions in chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 5, are associated with mantling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics
  14. Al-Absi B, Noor SM, Saif-Ali R, Salem SD, Ahmed RH, Razif MF, et al.
    Tumour Biol., 2017 Apr;39(4):1010428317697573.
    PMID: 28381164 DOI: 10.1177/1010428317697573
    Studies have shown an association between ARID5B gene polymorphisms and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the association between ARID5B variants and acute lymphoblastic leukemia among the Arab population still needs to be studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ARID5B variants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Yemeni children. A total of 14 ARID5B gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 289 Yemeni children, of whom 136 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 153 were controls, using the nanofluidic Dynamic Array (Fluidigm 192.24 Dynamic Array). Using logistic regression adjusted for age and gender, the risks of acute lymphoblastic leukemia were presented as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. We found that nine SNPs were associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia under additive genetic models: rs7073837, rs10740055, rs7089424, rs10821936, rs4506592, rs10994982, rs7896246, rs10821938, and rs7923074. Furthermore, the recessive models revealed that six SNPs were risk factors for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: rs10740055, rs7089424, rs10994982, rs7896246, rs10821938, and rs7923074. The gender-specific impact of these SNPs under the recessive genetic model revealed that SNPs rs10740055, rs10994982, and rs6479779 in females, and rs10821938 and rs7923074 in males were significantly associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Under the dominant model, SNPs rs7073837, rs10821936, rs7896246, and rs6479778 in males only showed striking association with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The additive model revealed that SNPs with significant association with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were rs10821936 (both males and females); rs7073837, rs10740055, rs10994982, and rs4948487 (females only); and rs7089424, rs7896246, rs10821938, and rs7923074 (males only). In addition, the ARID5B haplotype block (CGAACACAA) showed a higher risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The haplotype (CCCGACTGC) was associated with protection against acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In conclusion, our study has shown that ARID5B variants are associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Yemeni children with several gender biases of ARID5B single nucleotide polymorphisms reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics*
  15. Wong YC, Teh HF, Mebus K, Ooi TEK, Kwong QB, Koo KL, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2017 06 21;18(1):470.
    PMID: 28637447 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-017-3855-7
    BACKGROUND: The oil yield trait of oil palm is expected to involve multiple genes, environmental influences and interactions. Many of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to oil yield are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a microarray approach to study the gene expression profiles of mesocarp tissue at different developmental stages, comparing genetically related high- and low- oil yielding palms to identify genes that contributed to the higher oil-yielding palm and might contribute to the wider genetic improvement of oil palm breeding populations.

    RESULTS: A total of 3412 (2001 annotated) gene candidates were found to be significantly differentially expressed between high- and low-yielding palms at at least one of the different stages of mesocarp development evaluated. Gene Ontologies (GO) enrichment analysis identified 28 significantly enriched GO terms, including regulation of transcription, fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolic processes. These differentially expressed genes comprise several transcription factors, such as, bHLH, Dof zinc finger proteins and MADS box proteins. Several genes involved in glycolysis, TCA, and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways were also found up-regulated in high-yielding oil palm, among them; pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component Subunit Beta (PDH), ATP-citrate lyase, β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases I (KAS I), β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases III (KAS III) and ketoacyl-ACP reductase (KAR). Sucrose metabolism-related genes such as Invertase, Sucrose Synthase 2 and Sucrose Phosphatase 2 were found to be down-regulated in high-yielding oil palms, compared to the lower yield palms.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that a higher carbon flux (channeled through down-regulation of the Sucrose Synthase 2 pathway) was being utilized by up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, TCA and fatty acid biosynthesis leading to enhanced oil production in the high-yielding oil palm. These findings are an important stepping stone to understand the processes that lead to production of high-yielding oil palms and have implications for breeding to maximize oil production.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics
  16. Yeoh SH, Satake A, Numata S, Ichie T, Lee SL, Basherudin N, et al.
    Mol Ecol, 2017 Oct;26(19):5074-5085.
    PMID: 28749031 DOI: 10.1111/mec.14257
    Elucidating the physiological mechanisms of the irregular yet concerted flowering rhythm of mass flowering tree species in the tropics requires long-term monitoring of flowering phenology, exogenous and endogenous environmental factors, as well as identifying interactions and dependencies among these factors. To investigate the proximate factors for floral initiation of mast seeding trees in the tropics, we monitored the expression dynamics of two key flowering genes, meteorological conditions and endogenous resources over two flowering events of Shorea curtisii and Shorea leprosula in the Malay Peninsula. Comparisons of expression dynamics of genes studied indicated functional conservation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and LEAFY (LFY) in Shorea. The genes were highly expressed at least 1 month before anthesis for both species. A mathematical model considering the synergistic effect of cool temperature and drought on activation of the flowering gene was successful in predicting the observed gene expression patterns. Requirement of both cool temperature and drought for floral transition suggested by the model implies that flowering phenologies of these species are sensitive to climate change. Our molecular phenology approach in the tropics sheds light on the conserved role of flowering genes in plants inhabiting different climate zones and can be widely applied to dissect the flowering processes in other plant species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics
  17. Ooi SE, Sarpan N, Abdul Aziz N, Nuraziyan A, Ong-Abdullah M
    Plant Reprod, 2019 06;32(2):167-179.
    PMID: 30467592 DOI: 10.1007/s00497-018-0350-5
    KEY MESSAGE: Transcriptomes generated by laser capture microdissected abnormal staminodes revealed adoption of carpel programming during organ initiation with decreased expression of numerousHSPs,EgDEF1, EgGLO1but increasedLEAFYexpression. The abnormal mantled phenotype in oil palm involves a feminization of the male staminodes into pseudocarpels in pistillate inflorescences. Previous studies on oil palm flowering utilized entire inflorescences or spikelets, which comprised not only the male and female floral organs, but the surrounding tissues as well. Laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA sequencing was conducted to investigate the specific transcriptomes of male and female floral organs from normal and mantled female inflorescences. A higher number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in abnormal versus normal male organs compared with abnormal versus normal female organs. In addition, the abnormal male organ transcriptome closely mimics the transcriptome of abnormal female organ. While the transcriptome of abnormal female organ was relatively similar to the normal female organ, a substantial amount of female DEGs encode HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN genes (HSPs). A similar high amount (20%) of male DEGs encode HSPs as well. As these genes exhibited decreased expression in abnormal floral organs, mantled floral organ development may be associated with lower stress indicators. Stamen identity genes EgDEF1 and EgGLO1 were the main floral regulatory genes with decreased expression in abnormal male organs or pseudocarpel initials. Expression of several floral transcription factors was elevated in pseudocarpel initials, notably LEAFY, FIL and DL orthologs, substantiating the carpel specification programming of abnormal staminodes. Specific transcriptomes thus obtained through this approach revealed a host of differentially regulated genes in pseudocarpel initials compared to normal male staminodes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics*
  18. Hall HN, Bengani H, Hufnagel RB, Damante G, Ansari M, Marsh JA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2022;17(11):e0268149.
    PMID: 36413568 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0268149
    Classical aniridia is a congenital and progressive panocular disorder almost exclusively caused by heterozygous loss-of-function variants at the PAX6 locus. We report nine individuals from five families with severe aniridia and/or microphthalmia (with no detectable PAX6 mutation) with ultrarare monoallelic missense variants altering the Arg51 codon of MAB21L1. These mutations occurred de novo in 3/5 families, with the remaining families being compatible with autosomal dominant inheritance. Mice engineered to carry the p.Arg51Leu change showed a highly-penetrant optic disc anomaly in heterozygous animals with severe microphthalmia in homozygotes. Substitutions of the same codon (Arg51) in MAB21L2, a close homolog of MAB21L1, cause severe ocular and skeletal malformations in humans and mice. The predicted nucleotidyltransferase function of MAB21L1 could not be demonstrated using purified protein with a variety of nucleotide substrates and oligonucleotide activators. Induced expression of GFP-tagged wildtype and mutant MAB21L1 in human cells caused only modest transcriptional changes. Mass spectrometry of immunoprecipitated protein revealed that both mutant and wildtype MAB21L1 associate with transcription factors that are known regulators of PAX6 (MEIS1, MEIS2 and PBX1) and with poly(A) RNA binding proteins. Arg51 substitutions reduce the association of wild-type MAB21L1 with TBL1XR1, a component of the NCoR complex. We found limited evidence for mutation-specific interactions with MSI2/Musashi-2, an RNA-binding proteins with effects on many different developmental pathways. Given that biallelic loss-of-function variants in MAB21L1 result in a milder eye phenotype we suggest that Arg51-altering monoallelic variants most plausibly perturb eye development via a gain-of-function mechanism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics
  19. Jagadeeshan S, Prasad M, Badarni M, Ben-Lulu T, Liju VB, Mathukkada S, et al.
    Cancer Res, 2023 Apr 04;83(7):1031-1047.
    PMID: 36753744 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-22-2586
    The survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) diagnosed with cervical lymph node (cLN) or distant metastasis is low. Genomic alterations in the HRAS oncogene are associated with advanced tumor stage and metastasis in HNC. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which mutated HRAS (HRASmut) facilitates HNC metastasis could lead to improved treatment options for patients. Here, we examined metastasis driven by mutant HRAS in vitro and in vivo using HRASmut human HNC cell lines, patient-derived xenografts, and a novel HRASmut syngeneic model. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations indicated that HRASmut was sufficient to drive invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Targeted proteomic analysis showed that HRASmut promoted AXL expression via suppressing the Hippo pathway and stabilizing YAP1 activity. Pharmacological blockade of HRAS signaling with the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib activated the Hippo pathway and reduced the nuclear export of YAP1, thus suppressing YAP1-mediated AXL expression and metastasis. AXL was required for HRASmut cells to migrate and invade in vitro and to form regional cLN and lung metastases in vivo. In addition, AXL-depleted HRASmut tumors displayed reduced lymphatic and vascular angiogenesis in the primary tumor. Tipifarnib treatment also regulated AXL expression and attenuated VEGFA and VEGFC expression, thus regulating tumor-induced vascular formation and metastasis. Our results indicate that YAP1 and AXL are crucial factors for HRASmut-induced metastasis and that tipifarnib treatment can limit the metastasis of HNC tumors with HRAS mutations by enhancing YAP1 cytoplasmic sequestration and downregulating AXL expression.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Mutant HRAS drives metastasis of head and neck cancer by switching off the Hippo pathway to activate the YAP1-AXL axis and to stimulate lymphovascular angiogenesis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics
  20. Mohamad Shah NS, Salahshourifar I, Sulong S, Wan Sulaiman WA, Halim AS
    BMC Genet, 2016 Feb 11;17:39.
    PMID: 26868259 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-016-0345-x
    BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are one of the most common birth defects worldwide. It occurs as a result of genetic or environmental factors. This study investigates the genetic contribution to nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate through the analysis of family pedigrees. Candidate genes associated with the condition were identified from large extended families from the Malay population.

    RESULTS: A significant nonparametric linkage (NPL) score was detected in family 100. Other suggestive NPL and logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores were attained from families 50, 58, 99 and 100 under autosomal recessive mode. Heterogeneity LOD (HLOD) score ≥ 1 was determined for all families, confirming genetic heterogeneity of the population and indicating that a proportion of families might be linked to each other. Several candidate genes in linkage intervals were determined; LPHN2 at 1p31, SATB2 at 2q33.1-q35, PVRL3 at 3q13.3, COL21A1 at 6p12.1, FOXP2 at 7q22.3-q33, FOXG1 and HECTD1 at 14q12 and TOX3 at 16q12.1.

    CONCLUSIONS: We have identified several novel and known candidate genes for nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate through genome-wide linkage analysis. Further analysis of the involvement of these genes in the condition will shed light on the disease mechanism. Comprehensive genetic testing of the candidate genes is warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transcription Factors/genetics; Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics
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