Putrajaya is a new federal administrative capital of Malaysia which has been set to achieve a 70% share of all travels by public transport in the city area. However, the current modal split between the public transport and private transport is 15:85. In order to understand travelers' willingness to use the public transport, a conceptual model has been developed to determine the factors that affect them to use the public transport instead of travelling in their own cars. Various variables such as service quality, environmental impact, attitude, and behavior intention were analyzed and tested using structural equation model (SEM). Results indicate that the service quality and attitude are found to have positive effects on the behavioral intention of taking the public transport. Other than this, this study also shows that the service quality and environmental impact have some positive influences on the attitude to using the public transport. However, environmental impact has no significant, positive, and direct effect on behavioral intention. The results of this study demonstrate that the model that was developed is useful in predicting the public transport and it could provide a more complete understanding of behavioral intention towards public transport use.
A growing concern for public transit is its inability to shift passenger's mode from private to public transport. In order to overcome this problem, a more developed feeder bus network and matched schedules will play important roles. The present paper aims to review some of the studies performed on Feeder Bus Network Design and Scheduling Problem (FNDSP) based on three distinctive parts of the FNDSP setup, namely, problem description, problem characteristics, and solution approaches. The problems consist of different subproblems including data preparation, feeder bus network design, route generation, and feeder bus scheduling. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and classification of previous works are presented to highlight the main characteristics and solution methods. Finally, some of the issues and trends for future research are identified. This paper is targeted at dealing with the FNDSP to exhibit strategic and tactical goals and also contributes to the unification of the field which might be a useful complement to the few existing reviews.
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are considered an emerging technology in the industrial and educational fields. This technology is essential in the deployment of the intelligent transportation system, which is targeted to improve safety and efficiency of traffic. The implementation of VANETs can be effectively executed by transmitting data among vehicles with the use of multiple hops. However, the intrinsic characteristics of VANETs, such as its dynamic network topology and intermittent connectivity, limit data delivery. One particular challenge of this network is the possibility that the contributing node may only remain in the network for a limited time. Hence, to prevent data loss from that node, the information must reach the destination node via multi-hop routing techniques. An appropriate, efficient, and stable routing algorithm must be developed for various VANET applications to address the issues of dynamic topology and intermittent connectivity. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel routing algorithm called efficient and stable routing algorithm based on user mobility and node density (ESRA-MD). The proposed algorithm can adapt to significant changes that may occur in the urban vehicular environment. This algorithm works by selecting an optimal route on the basis of hop count and link duration for delivering data from source to destination, thereby satisfying various quality of service considerations. The validity of the proposed algorithm is investigated by its comparison with ARP-QD protocol, which works on the mechanism of optimal route finding in VANETs in urban environments. Simulation results reveal that the proposed ESRA-MD algorithm shows remarkable improvement in terms of delivery ratio, delivery delay, and communication overhead.
A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting).
Peningkatan aktiviti perbandaran dan perindustrian telah mencetuskan masalah pengurusan sisa pepejal. Sebagai usaha penyelesaian, pendekatan bersepadu telah dipilih bagi menguruskan sisa pepejal. Membangunkan dan melaksanakan rancangan pengurusan sisa pepejal bersepadu perlu melibatkan gabungan teknologi dan pilihan yang sesuai dengan keadaan dan undang-undang tempatan. Kajian ini menunjukkan Proses Analisis Hierarki (PAH) berpotensi sebagai kaedah membuat keputusan yang boleh digunakan dalam proses pemilihan teknologi pengurusan sisa pepejal. Tiga aras hierarki dibangunkan dengan matlamat di aras tertinggi, diikuti oleh kriteria dan alternatif. Dengan menggunakan teknik ini, penentuan keutamaan untuk semua teknologi pengurusan sisa pepejal yang dipertimbangkan akan ditentukan dan teknologi dengan nilai keutamaan tertinggi lebih sesuai untuk dibangunkan. Analisis sensitiviti dilakukan bagi menguji sensitiviti keputusan akhir terhadap perubahan kecil penilaian. Aplikasi PAH dalam menentukan keutamaan proses pemilihan teknologi pengurusan sisa pepejal diperjelaskan dalam kajian ini berdasarkan kepada kajian kes di Majlis Perbandaran Port Dickson. Hasil analisis menunjukkan kombinasi teknologi kitar semula dan pengkomposan sesuai diaplikasikan di daerah Port Dickson.
Recently, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions become the hottest issue in the transportation sector. The air transport sector contributes approximately 2% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft is one of the issues taken seriously by the transportation sector. However, air transportation has implemented several ways to reduce carbon emissions, and one of them is by launching a carbon offset program. This study estimates the willingness among Malaysian airline passengers to pay for a carbon offset program to have a better environmental performance. Using a double-bounded dichotomous choice of contingent valuation method (CVM) estimates how much air passengers would be willing to pay to offset carbon emissions generated by their travel. The results obtained from this study suggest that the additional fee for airline tickets will be RM86.00 can be charged to have a better environmental performance.
frequency of motorcycle accidents increases every year. In Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor (SYABAS), a substantial number of motorcycle accidents occurred between the year 2009 and 2013. The increased number of accidents serves as a wake-up call to the company to come up with a behavioural-based safety system for commuting accident. The objective of this paper is to look into the effectiveness of behavioural-based system in a company. A total of one hundred and thirty (130) respondents participated in the data-collection session for this study. From this data-collection, along with accident data from the company, a number of criteria that contributes to commuting accidents in the company is obtained. At the end of this study, the behavioural-based safety system is applied, thus showing how its implementation assists in curbing the issue of commuting accidents in the company.
The scour phenomenon around bridge piers causes great quantities of damages annually all over the world. Collars are considered as one of the substantial methods for reducing the depth and volume of scour around bridge piers. In this study, the experimental and numerical methods are used to investigate two different shapes of collars, i.e, rectangular and circular, in terms of reducing scour around a single bridge pier. The experiments were conducted in hydraulic laboratory at university of Malaya. The scour around the bridge pier and collars was simulated numerically using a three-dimensional, CFD model namely SSIIM 2.0, to verify the application of the model. The results indicated that although, both types of collars provides a considerable decrease in the depth of the scour, the rectangular collar, decreases scour depth around the pier by 79 percent, and has better performance compared to the circular collar. Furthermore, it was observed that using collars under the stream's bed, resulted in the most reduction in the scour depth around the pier. The results also show the SSIIM 2.0 model could simulate the scour phenomenon around a single bridge pier and collars with sufficient accuracy. Using the experimental and numerical results, two new equations were developed to predict the scour depth around a bridge pier exposed to circular and rectangular collars.
In 2010, Klang Valley has only 17% trips each day were completed using public transport, with the rest of the 83% trips were made through private transport. The inclination towards private car usage will only get worse if the transport policy continues to be inefficient and ineffective. Under the National Key Economic Area, the priority aimed to stimulate the increase of modal share of public transport in the Klang Valley to 50% by 2020. In the 10th Malaysia Plan, the Klang Valley Mass Rapid Transit was proposed, equipped with 141 km of MRT system, and will integrate with the existing rail networks. Nevertheless, adding kilometers into the rail system will not help, if people do not make the shift from private into public transport. This research would like to assess the possible mode shift of travellers in the Klang Valley towards using public transport, based on the utility function of available transport modes. It intends to identify the criteria that will trigger their willingness to make changes in favour of public transport as targeted by the NKEA.
Bus services naturally tend to be unstable and are not always capable of adhering to schedules without control strategies. Therefore, bus users and bus service providers face travel time variation and irregularity. After a comprehensive review of the literature, a significant gap was recognized in the field of public transportation reliability. According to literature, there is no consistency in reliability definition and indicators. Companies have their own definition of bus service reliability, and they mostly neglect the passengers' perspective of reliability. Therefore, four reliability indicators were selected in this study to fill the gap in the literature and cover both passengers' and operators' perceptions of reliability: waiting time and on-board crowding level from passengers' perspective, and headway regularity index at stops (HRIS) and bus bunching/big gap percentage from operators' perspective. The primary objective of this research is to improve the reliability of high frequency of bus service and simulation tools currently being used by the public transportation companies. Therefore, a simulation model of bus service was developed to study the strategies to alleviate it. Four different types of strategies were selected and implemented according to Route U32 (Kuala Lumpur) specifications. Model out-put showed that control strategies such as headway-based dispatching could significantly improve headway regularity by almost 62% and the waiting time by 51% on average. Both holding strategies at key stops (previous and Prefol holding) have shown an almost similar impact on reliability indicators. Waiting time was reduced by 44% and 43% after the previous and Prefol Headway strategies were adopted, respectively. However, the implementation of the component of headway-based strategies at the terminal and key stops showed the best impact on reliability, in terms of passenger waiting time. Waiting time and excess waiting time were both significantly reduced by 52.86% and 81.44%, respectively. Nevertheless, the strategies did not show any significant positive effect on the level of crowding during morning peak hours.
This study examines the association between transportation services (i.e., passenger and freight) and carbon emissions concerning the US economy. The monthly data for this study were collected for the period from 2000 M1 to 2019 M8. In this study, QARDL econometric approach as discussed by Cho et al. (2015) has been used to tests the relationship between transportation services and CO2 emissions. Due to the chaotic and nonlinear behavior of our concerning variables, it was quite difficult to gauge the principle properties of their variations. Therefore, we relied on QARDL, which has been missing in previous researches. By utilizing the QARDL method, this research assesses the long-term stability of the nexus across the quantiles to provide an econometric framework that is more flexible than the traditional ones. In particular, the authors have analyzed how the quantiles of transportation (i.e., passenger and freight) influence the quantiles of CO2 emissions (environmental degradation). The empirical evidence revealed the negative significant relationship of both the transportation system (i.e., passenger and freight) with carbon emissions; however, this relationship holds at low quantiles of freight transport, whereas the same relationship has been observed at the majority of quantiles of passenger transport. So, this depicts that the transportation system of the USA helps to reduce CO2 emissions. Therefore, to maintain this situation, the government shall introduce more technologies that are fuel-efficient and promote clean consumption, thus reducing CO2 emissions, boosting economic growth, and making green transportation services.
In light of a slow buildup in CO2 emissions since the recovery, this paper revisits the relationship between CO2 emissions and the US economy using a nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag model, in which the determinants are identified through an expanded real business cycle model. We find convincing evidence that CO2 emissions decline more rapidly during recessions than increase during expansions over the long run. Of all determinants considered, long-run asymmetry is fostered once vehicle miles traveled is controlled. This calls for a greater attention to public transportation development and vehicle miles traveled tax for slowing down stock buildup of CO2 emissions during good times.
BACKGROUND: Good coronary care begins from the patient's home, including early transportation. As such, it is recommended that the patients activate ambulances, rather than to use their own transportations to reach the hospitals. It is not known whether Malaysian patients prefer to use private transportations or ambulances when they develop chest pain.
OBJECTIVES: This study is conducted to explore the question of the choice of transportation modes among patients with acute coronary syndrome and the reasons behind their choices.
METHODS: This is a structured interview survey on patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in emergency department of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from April 2012 to September 2012.
RESULTS: Out of the 110 patients surveyed, 105 (95.5%) patients chose to use own transportation when they developed symptoms suggestive of ACS. Only 3 patients (2.7%) came to the emergency department within 1 hour of onset, and all these 3 patients chose to use ambulances as their modes of transportation. None of the patients who chose own transportation came within the first hour of symptoms onset. This is shown to be statistically significant (p<0.001). The level of education as well as past history of ischemic heart disease did not significantly influence the patients' choice of transportation.
CONCLUSION: The admonishment by various international resuscitation councils that patients with chest pain should be transported via ambulances may not be as straightforward as it seems. Numerous local and regional socio-cultural and logistic factors may need to be addressed.
A vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is an emerging and promising wireless technology aimed to improve traffic safety and provide comfort to road users. However, the high mobility of vehicles and frequent topology changes pose a considerable challenge to the reliable delivery of safety applications. Clustering is one of the control techniques used in VANET to make the frequent topology changes less dynamic. Nevertheless, research has shown that most of the existing clustering algorithms focus on cluster head (CH) election with very few addressing other critical issues such as cluster formation and maintenance. This has led to unstable clusters which could affect the timely delivery of safety applications. In this study, enhanced weight-based clustering algorithm (EWCA) was developed to address these challenges. We considered any vehicle moving on the same road segment with the same road ID and within the transmission range of its neighbour to be suitable for the cluster formation process. This was attributed to the fact that all safety messages are expected to be shared among the vehicles within the vicinity irrespective of their relative speedto avoid any hazardous situation. To elect a CH, we identified some metrics on the basis of the vehicle mobility information. Each vehicle was associated with a predefined weight value based on its relevance. A vehicle with the highest weight value was elected as the primary cluster head (PCH). We also introduced a secondary cluster head (SeCH) as a backup to the PCH to improve the cluster stability. SeCH took over the leadership whenever the PCH was not suitable for continuing with the leadership. The simulation results of the proposed approach showed a better performance with an increase of approximately40%- 45% in the cluster stability when compared with the existing approaches. Similarly, cluster formation messages were significantly minimized, hence reducing the communication overhead to the system and improving the reliable delivery of the safety applications.
Tropical seawater harbors a rich diversity of microorganisms as a result of its nutrient-rich environment, constant supply of sufficient sunlight, and warm climate. In this report, we present the complexity of the microbial diversity of the surface seawater of the Georgetown coast as determined using next-generation sequencing technology.
Preventive tests and diagnosis of in-service power transformer are important for early fault prediction and increased reliability of electricity supply. However, some existing diagnostic techniques require transformer outage before the measurement can be performed and need expert knowledge and experiences to interpret the measurement results. Other measurement techniques such as chemical analyses of insulating oil may cause significant variance to measurement results due to different practices in oil sampling, storage, handling and transportation of oil. A cost-effective measuring technique, which is simple, providing fast and an accurate measurement results, is therefore highly required. The extended application of Polarisation and Depolarisation (PDC) measurement for characterisation of different faults conditions in-service power transformer has been presented in this paper. Earlier studies on polarisation and depolarisation current of oil samples from in-service power transformer shows that depolarisation has provided significant information about the change of material properties due to faults in power transformer. In this paper, a new approach based on Depolarisation Current Ratio Index (DRI) was developed for identifying and classifying different transformer fault conditions. The DRI at time interval of 4s to 100s was analysed and the results show that DRI of depolarisation current between 5/100s and 10/100s provides higher correlation on the incipient faults in power transformer.
Monitoring the condition of transformer oil is considered to be one of the preventive maintenance measures and it is very critical in ensuring the safety as well as optimal performance of the equipment. Various oil properties and contents in oil can be monitored such as acidity, furanic compounds and color. The current method is used to determine the color index (CI) of transformer oil produces an error of 0.5 in measurement, has high risk of human handling error, additional expense such as sampling and transportations, and limited samples can be measured per day due to safety and health reasons. Therefore, this work proposes the determination of CI of transformer oil using ultraviolet-to-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Results show a good correlation between the CI of transformer oil and the absorbance spectral responses of oils from 300 nm to 700 nm. Modeled equations were developed to relate the CI of the oil with the cutoff wavelength and absorbance, and with the area under the curve from 360 nm to 600 nm. These equations were verified with another set of oil samples. The equation that describes the relationship between cutoff wavelength, absorbance and CI of the oil shows higher accuracy with root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.1961.
The study of cohesive sediment in the laboratory gives rise to a number of instrumentation problems, especially in the location of mud bed, fluid mud and hindered settling layers and in the measurement of flow velocities. This paper describes the application of medical diagnostic ultrasound technique in the cohesive sediment study conducted at the University of Liverpool, United Kingdom. This paper illustrates that the use of ultrasound technique creates a reasonably flexible environment for the study of fluid mud phenomenon in which bed formation and flow velocities can be measured easily, accurately and non-intrusively. This in turn will assist in development of computer models to predict the environmental impact, siltation rates and dredging requirements in both new and existing ports and harbour developments.
Kajian endapan berjeleket di dalam makmal mengalami pelbagai masalah peralatan, terutamanya bagi menentukan lokasi dasar lumpur, pengenapan terhalang dan pengukuran halaju aliran. Dalam makalah ini diterangkan penggunaan teknologi diagnosis perubatan ultrabunyi dalam kajian endapan berjeleket, yang dijalankan di University of Liverpool, United Kingdom. Ditunjukkan bahawa penggunaan teknologi ultrabunyi keadaan yang begitu boleh suai bagi kajian fenomenon lumpur yang pembentukan dasar dan halaju aliran dapat diukur dengan mudah, tepat dan tanpa gangguan. lni seterusnya dapat membantu di dalam pembangunan model komputer bagi menjangka kesan sekitaran, kadar enapan dan keperluan mengorek bagi pembangunan kawasan pelabuhan baru dan sedia ada.