Neopolystoma liewi sp. n. is described from the conjunctival cavity of the Malayan box turtle Cuora amboinensis (Daudin, 1802), in Peninsular Malaysia. This is the first record of Neopolystoma in Malaysia and the fourth polystomatid species described from C. amboinensis. Of the 27 Malayan box turtles examined, 8 were found to be infected. A maximum of 2 parasites per eye and 4 individuals per host was recorded. N. liewi sp. n. differs from all other members of the genus by possessing few and short genital spines and small marginal hooks. The oncomiracidium has 64 ciliated cells arranged symmetrically about the sagittal axis.
A new sanguinicolid blood fluke, Parasanguinicola vastispina, is described from sea bass Lates calcarifer cultured in Malaysia. It is distinguished by its massive armature and widely spaced genital pores, the female pore being pre-ovarian. P. vastispina inhabits the branchial arteries, dorsal aorta, mesenteric venules and renal artery of its host. No pathological effect was observed in infected fish.
Thirteen bats, Tadarida mops de Blainville, collected from the Ampang district in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were found positive for the trematodes Castroia kamariae sp. nov. and Limatulum kuziai sp. nov. Two distinct but morphologically similar forms of Castroia kamariae were recovered. The morphological type is apparently determined by its location in the host intestine.
A total of 2,337 rodents trapped from various parts of Peninsular Malaysia were dissected and studied for the distribution and prevalence of parasitic infections. Four new rodent hosts for Sarcocystis in Malaysia are reported (Bandicota indica, Rattus sabanus Rattus argentiventer and Rattus norvegicus). Sarcocystis was found in 17.2 percent of the rodents examined. Rattus annandalei, Rattus tiomanicus and Rattus norvegicus are new hosts of Syphacia muris in Peninsular Malsysia. Rattus sabanus was found to be infected with Zonorchis borneonenis. Brachylaima ratti Baugh, 1962 was recovered from the small intestine of Rattus rattus diardii for the first time in Malaysia. The prevalence and distribution of other parasites are also discussed.
One new and three previously described species of Trianchoratus Price et Berry, 1966 were collected from the gills of Channa lucius (Cuvier) and Channa striata (Bloch) from the Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and Endau-Rompin, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. They are Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp.n., T. malayensis Lim, 1986 and T. pahangensis Lim, 1986 from C. lucius, and T. ophicephali Lim, 1986 from C. striata. The new species differs from the Trianchoratus species hitherto described from channids and anabantoids in having two ventral anchors with a long curved inner root and one dorsal anchor with a curved inner root and lacking an outer root. A table summarizing the known species of heteronchocleidins (Trianchoratus, Eutrianchoratus and Heteronchocleidus) and Sundanonchus reported from fish hosts of different families (Channidae, Helostomatidae, Anabantidae and Osphronemidae) is provided.
Neodiplostomum (Conodiplostomum) ramachandrani Betterton, 1976 has been reported from four species of rodent hosts: Echinosorex gymnurus (Raffles): Rattus whiteheadi (Thos); R. muelleri (Jentink) and Callosciurus notatus (Boddaert). A comparison of trematodes recovered from these hosts revealed patterns of host-induced morphological variation taking place. Because N. (Conodiplostomum) ramachandrani shows little generic difference from Fibricola intermedius (Pearson, 1959) Sudarikov, 1960 it is transferred to the genus Fibricola and is now designated Fibricola ramachandrani (Betterton, 1976) Palmieri, Krishnasamy and Sullivan.
Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. and Ligophorus kederai n. sp. are described from Liza subviridis Valenciennes, 1836 and Valamugil buchanani Bleeker, 1854, respectively. Ligophorus kederai n. sp. has fenestrated ventral anchors, while in L. belanaki n. sp. the ventral anchor is not fenestrated. Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. is similar to L. careyensis, one of its coexisting congeners, in the overall shape and size of hard parts, but differs in having a flat median piece in the structure of the AMP (antero-median protuberance of the ventral bar), copulatory organ with non-ornamented initial part and longer vaginal tube, compared to raised median piece in the AMP, ornamented initial part and comparatively shorter vaginal tube in L. careyensis. Ligophorus kederai n. sp. is similar to L. fenestrum, a coexisting congener, in having fenestrated ventral anchors, but differs in having longer points and narrower base. Ligophorus fenestrum, unlike L. kederai n. sp., also possesses fenestrated dorsal anchors. The principal component analysis (PCA) scatterplots indicate that the two new and eight known Ligophorus species from Malaysian mugilids can be differentiated based on the morphometries of their anchors, ventral bars and copulatory organ separately and when combined together. Numerical taxonomy (NT) analyses based on Jaccard's Index of Similarity and neighbour-joining clustering, is used to facilitate comparison of these two new species with the 50 known Ligophorus based on morphological and metric characters. The two new species are different from each other and the other 50 species in the overall shapes and sizes of hard parts, as indicated by the NT analyses.
Six species of strigeoid trematodes are reported from Malaysia. One new genus and 3 new species are described: Apatemon (Apatemon( jamesi sp. n (Strigeidae); cercaria Cotylurus sullivani sp. n. (Strigeidae); Neodiplostomum (Neodiplostomum) sp. (Diplostomatidae); Fibricola ramachandrani (Diplostomatidae); Pseudoscolopacitrema otteri gen. n. et sp. n. (Diplostomatidae); and cercaria Cyathocotyle malayi sp. n. (Cyathocotylidae). The life cycles of A. jamesi and C. malayi have also been investigated.
One hundred and fifty one house rats, Rattus rattus diardii from five different localities, Jinjang, Dato Keramat, Kuala Lumpur, Sungai Besi and Selayang Baru, were examined for parasites. Nineteen species of parasites were recovered. Hymenolepis diminuta and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis are the predominant species. The dominancy of the parasite species in the rats differed in each locality: Hymenolepis diminuta in Dato Keramat and Kuala Lumpur; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in Sungai Besi; Gongylomena neoplasticum in Jinjang and Selayang Baru. The influences of human habitats on the parasite fauna of house rats are discussed.
Two new and two previously described species of diplectanid monogeneans (Heteroplectanum flabelliforme n. sp., Diplectanum sumpit n. sp., D. jaculator Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969 and D. toxotes Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969) were collected from archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix off the Island of Langkawi, Kedah and off Perak, Malaysia. The reproductive systems and squamodiscs of D. jaculator and D. toxotes are described for the first time. D. sumpit n. sp. differs from D. toxotes and D. jaculator in a having a small curved copulatory tube with a distinct accessory piece, compared to the long, tubular copulatory tube of D. jaculator and the slender tube of D. toxotes. D. sumpit n. sp. also differs from D. toxotes in having a larger ventral bar and larger squamodiscs. H. flabelliforme n. sp. differs from all known Heteroplectanum species in the shape and size of the squamodiscs, the arrangement of the sclerites in the squamodiscs, the extremely large ventral bar and the short, curved, non-spinous copulatory tube.
Haliotrema susanae sp. nov. is described from the gills of the pinecone soldierfish, Myripristis murdjan off Langkawi Island, Malaysia. This species is differentiated from other Haliotrema species especially those from holocentrids in having a male copulatory organ with bract-like extensions at the initial of the copulatory tube, grooved dorsal anchors and ventral anchors with longer shafts. The maximum likelihood (ML) analysis based on partial 28S rDNA sequences of H. susanae sp. nov. and 47 closely related monogeneans showed that H. susanae sp. nov. is recovered within a monophyletic clade consisting of only species from the genus Haliotrema. It is also observed that H. susanae sp. nov. forms a clade with H. cromileptis and H. epinepheli which coincides with a similar grouping by Young based on solely morphological characteristics. The morphological and molecular results validate the identity of H. susanae sp. nov. as belonging to the genus Haliotrema.
Cruoricola lates are found throughout sea bass (Lates calcarifer), most commonly in the mesenteric blood vessels, kidney, pericardial vessels, and eye. Eggs of C. lates were predominantly found in the gills, ventricle, hepatopancreas, and kidneys, but only develop to miracidia regularly in the gills and heart. Single miracidia escaping appear to cause little damage, but groups induce an inflammatory response and haemorrhage. Endocardial macrophages encapsulate eggs trapped between trabeculae in the heart. The reaction to eggs in the kidneys, hepatopancreas and spleen consists of fibrocytic encapsulation. Infection at the levels observed in this study were insufficient to cause lethal pathological changes, but could result in reduced food conversion ratios or impaired immunological capacity.
2 captive sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) were evaluated because of acute onset of vomiting, mucoid diarrhea, lethargy, and anorexia 1 week after eating live trout from a northern California reservoir.