Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Mohammed KN
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):229-31.
    PMID: 8350802
    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous disease caused by the filamentous bacteria, Actinomyces israelii, which was once thought to be a fungus. It is a Gram-positive, aerobic or microaerophillic, non acid-fast hyphal organism which fragments into coccoid or bacillary forms and, unlike the fungus, does not form conidia. Accessory breast tissue usually occurs along the milk lines, frequently in the axilla and rarely in the thighs. Actinomycosis of the breast is very uncommon and we report the case of a multiparous woman who had a painful lump in the axilla which, on histopathologic examination, showed actinomycosis within the accessory breast tissue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use*
  2. Shrestha N, Sharma S, Khanal B, Bhatta N, Dhakal S
    Scand. J. Infect. Dis., 2005;37(1):64-6.
    PMID: 15764193
    This is a report of the first recognized case of melioidosis in Nepal. Illness began 1 month after returning from Malaysia after a 1 y stay. The case highlights the importance of ascertaining the travel history in any patient with a suspected infectious disease in this age of global travel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  3. Liam CK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):248-9.
    PMID: 8350807
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  4. Jenkins DR, Lewis AM, Strachan CJ
    J. Infect., 1990 Sep;21(2):221-2.
    PMID: 2230183
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  5. Bodilsen J, Langgaard H, Nielsen HL
    BMJ Case Rep, 2015 Jan 16;2015.
    PMID: 25596295 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2014-207340
    A healthy Danish man presented with infected prepatellar bursitis 8 months after being involved in a car accident in Malaysia resulting in exposure of a laceration of his knee to stagnant water. Tissue samples grew Burkholderia pseudomallei and diagnostic work up revealed no secondary foci. The patient was successfully treated with surgical debridement and 3 months of oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. At 6 months follow-up the patient was without relapse.
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  6. Tappe D, Stich A, Langeheinecke A, von Sonnenburg F, Muntau B, Schäfer J, et al.
    Euro Surveill., 2014 May 29;19(21).
    PMID: 24906376
    In May 2014, six patients presented in Germany with a Sarcocystis-associated febrile myositis syndrome after returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia. During two earlier waves of infections, in 2011 and 2012, about 100 travellers returning to various European countries from the island were affected. While the first two waves were associated with travel to Tioman Island mostly during the summer months, this current series of infections is associated with travel in early spring, possibly indicating an upcoming new epidemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  7. Nimir AR, Osman E, Ibrahim IA, Saliem AM
    BMJ Case Rep, 2013;2013.
    PMID: 23580678 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2013-008803
    A 31-year-old Malaysian man was presented with an episode of seizures by the roadside, after having been recently diagnosed as HIV positive accompanied with miliary tuberculosis. On physical examination, he was oriented to person, but not to time or place. There was no neck stiffness or papilloedema. The other systemic examination was unremarkable. Chest examination revealed crepitations at the upper zone of the right lung. After diagnosis suspicion, the case was confirmed as toxoplasma encephalitis by MRI and serological tests. Patient was treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 480-2400 mg/day with folinic acid supplement for 60 days. Two months later, a repeat brain MRI showed resolution of the cerebral lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  8. Zulfiqar MA, Zaleha AM, Zulkifli I, Chia WY, Samad SA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Sep;53(3):284-7.
    PMID: 10968168
    Three children aged 3-11 years had ultrasonography of the urinary tract for the investigation of dysuria and haematuria. A bladder mass was seen in these 3 children. One child had computed tomography scan, cystoscopy and bladder biopsy because rhabdomyosarcoma was considered. The biopsy revealed an inflammatory process. The urine culture of the other 2 children revealed E. coli. On ultrasonography, the inflammatory mass may appear homogeneously hypoechoic or may contain moderate level echoes. The mucosal surface of the mass may be smooth or lobulated. It is important to consider an infective cause for a bladder mass in children because computed tomography, cystoscopy and biopsy may be avoided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  9. Boettiger DC, Sudjaritruk T, Nallusamy R, Lumbiganon P, Rungmaitree S, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Adolesc Health, 2016 Apr;58(4):451-459.
    PMID: 26803201 DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.11.006
    PURPOSE: About a third of untreated, perinatally HIV-infected children reach adolescence. We evaluated the durability and effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population.

    METHODS: Data from perinatally HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients initiated on NNRTI-based ART aged 10-19 years who had ≥6 months of follow-up were analyzed. Competing risk regression was used to assess predictors of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure (World Health Organization Stage 3/4 event or death). Viral suppression was defined as a viral load <400 copies/mL.

    RESULTS: Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8 years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from -2.3 to -1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6 months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-2.2; p = .05). Baseline CD4+ count ≤200 cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI = 1.2-8.9; p = .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI = 1.0-4.6; p = .05) were both associated with clinical failure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite late ART initiation, adolescents achieved good rates of catch-up growth, CD4+ count recovery, and virological suppression. Earlier ART initiation and routine cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in this population may help to reduce current rates of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  10. Neela V, Rankouhi SZ, van Belkum A, Goering RV, Awang R
    Int. J. Infect. Dis., 2012 Aug;16(8):e603-7.
    PMID: 22698885 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2012.04.004
    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a recently identified nosocomial pathogen in Malaysia. Despite limited pathogenicity, its rate of isolation has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns, antibiotic resistance determinants, and the epidemiology of S. maltophilia at the largest tertiary care hospital in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  11. Ngiu CS, Said MS, Periyasamy P, Low SF
    BMJ Case Rep, 2010;2010.
    PMID: 22778377 DOI: 10.1136/bcr.11.2009.2421
    Rituximab is a B-cell-depleting monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody. It is widely used in haematology and rheumatology. However, usage of rituximab in immunosupressed patient has been associated with various opportunistic infections. The authors reported a case of refractory rheumatoid arthritis treated with rituximab, which later presented with non-resolving pneumonia with pulmonary nodule. Percutaneous computer tomogram guided lung biopsy was arranged to confirm the suspicion of tuberculosis, but did not yield conclusive results. Later, she presented left-chest abscess and underwent incision and drainage. The pus culture and sensitivity confirmed pulmonary nocardiosis with chest wall dissemination. She was treated with 2-week course of trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole and responded. The authors also reviewed published cases of nocardiosis post-rituximab.
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  12. Pakianathan MR, Kamarulzaman A, Ismail R, McMillan A, Scott GR
    AIDS, 1999 Sep 10;13(13):1787-8.
    PMID: 10509585
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  13. Tan SY, Tan LH, Teo SM, Thiruventhiran T, Kamarulzaman A, Hoh HB
    Transplant. Proc., 2000 Nov;32(7):1965-6.
    PMID: 11120022
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  14. Jegede FE, Oyeyi TI, Abdulrahman SA, Mbah HA, Badru T, Agbakwuru C, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(3):e0174233.
    PMID: 28346490 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174233
    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria co-infection may present worse health outcomes in the tropics. Information on HIV/malaria co-infection effect on immune-hematological profiles is critical for patient care and there is a paucity of such data in Nigeria.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune-hematological profiles among HIV infected patients compared to HIV/malaria co-infected for ART management improvement.

    METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano. A total of 761 consenting adults attending ART clinic were randomly selected and recruited between June and December 2015. Participants' characteristics and clinical details including two previous CD4 counts were collected. Venous blood sample (4ml) was collected in EDTA tube for malaria parasite diagnosis by rapid test and confirmed with microscopy. Hematological profiles were analyzed by Sysmex XP-300 and CD4 count by Cyflow cytometry. Data was analyzed with SPSS 22.0 using Chi-Square test for association between HIV/malaria parasites co-infection with age groups, gender, ART, cotrimoxazole and usage of treated bed nets. Mean hematological profiles by HIV/malaria co-infection and HIV only were compared using independent t-test and mean CD4 count tested by mixed design repeated measures ANOVA. Statistical significant difference at probability of <0.05 was considered for all variables.

    RESULTS: Of the 761 HIV infected, 64% were females, with a mean age of ± (SD) 37.30 (10.4) years. Prevalence of HIV/malaria co-infection was 27.7% with Plasmodium falciparum specie accounting for 99.1%. No statistical significant difference was observed between HIV/malaria co-infection in association to age (p = 0.498) and gender (p = 0.789). A significantly (p = 0.026) higher prevalence (35.2%) of co-infection was observed among non-ART patients compared to (26%) ART patients. Prevalence of co-infection was significantly lower (20.0%) among cotrimoxazole users compared to those not on cotrimoxazole (37%). The same significantly lower co-infection prevalence (22.5%) was observed among treated bed net users compared to those not using treated bed nets (42.9%) (p = 0.001). Out of 16 hematology profiles evaluated, six showed significant difference between the two groups (i) packed cell volume (p = <0.001), (ii) mean cell volume (p = 0.005), (iii) mean cell hemoglobin concentration (p = 0.011), (iv) absolute lymphocyte count (p = 0.022), (v) neutrophil percentage count (p = 0.020) and (vi) platelets distribution width (p = <0.001). Current mean CD4 count cell/μl (349±12) was significantly higher in HIV infected only compared to co-infected (306±17), (p = 0.035). A significantly lower mean CD4 count (234.6 ± 6.9) was observed among respondents on ART compared to non-ART (372.5 ± 13.2), p<0.001, mean difference = -137.9).

    CONCLUSION: The study revealed a high burden of HIV and malaria co-infection among the studied population. Co-infection was significantly lower among patients who use treated bed nets as well as cotrimoxazole chemotherapy and ART. Six hematological indices differed significantly between the two groups. Malaria and HIV co-infection significantly reduces CD4 count. In general, to achieve better management of all HIV patients in this setting, diagnosing malaria, prompt antiretroviral therapy, monitoring CD4 and some hematology indices on regular basis is critical.

    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  15. Ong SCL, Alemam MMM, Zakaria NA, Abdul Halim NA
    BMJ Case Rep, 2017 Oct 19;2017.
    PMID: 29054959 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2017-222342
    Melioidosis is endemic in Southeast Asia and tropical Australia with varying clinical features from benign skin lesions to fatal septicaemia. Imaging plays an important role in evaluation of the melioid liver abscesses. A 45-year-old man with underlying diabetes presented with fever and lethargy for 2 weeks and abdominal pain for 2 days. His liver was enlarged on examination. Blood investigations revealed mild leucocytosis and raised liver enzymes. Ultrasound showed multiple multiloculated hypoechoic lesions throughout the liver and spleen. CT of abdomen confirmed that some liver lesions were made up of asymmetric locules of varying sizes (honeycomb sign), while others had hypodense centre with small symmetric peripheral locules in radial fashion (necklace sign). Blood culture was positive for Burkholderia pseudomallei He was subsequently treated with ceftazidime for a month followed by oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 3 months. Follow-up CT of abdomen a month after diagnosis and treatment showed resolving hepatic and splenic lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
  16. Shrestha N, Adhikari M, Pant V, Baral S, Shrestha A, Basnyat B, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2019 Feb 19;19(1):176.
    PMID: 30782129 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-3793-x
    BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a life-threatening infectious disease that is caused by gram negative bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei. This bacteria occurs as an environmental saprophyte typically in endemic regions of south-east Asia and northern Australia. Therefore, patients with melioidosis are at high risk of being misdiagnosed and/or under-diagnosed in South Asia.

    CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report two cases of melioidosis from Nepal. Both of them were diabetic male who presented themselves with fever, multiple abscesses and developed sepsis. They were treated with multiple antimicrobial agents including antitubercular drugs before being correctly diagnosed as melioidosis. Consistent with this, both patients were farmer by occupation and also reported travelling to Malaysia in the past. The diagnosis was made consequent to the isolation of B. pseudomallei from pus samples. Accordingly, they were managed with intravenous meropenem followed by oral doxycycline and cotrimoxazole.

    CONCLUSION: The case reports raise serious concern over the existing unawareness of melioidosis in Nepal. Both of the cases were left undiagnosed for a long time. Therefore, clinicians need to keep a high index of suspicion while encountering similar cases. Especially diabetic-farmers who present with fever and sepsis and do not respond to antibiotics easily may turn out to be yet another case of melioidosis. Ascertaining the travel history and occupational history is of utmost significance. In addition, the microbiologist should be trained to correctly identify B. pseudomallei as it is often confused for other Burkholderia species. The organism responds only to specific antibiotics; therefore, correct and timely diagnosis becomes crucial for better outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
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