Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 88 in total

  1. Razali NNM, Ng CT, Fong LY
    Planta Med, 2019 Nov;85(16):1203-1215.
    PMID: 31539918 DOI: 10.1055/a-1008-6138
    Centella asiatica, a triterpene-rich medicinal herb, is traditionally used to treat various types of diseases including neurological, dermatological, and metabolic diseases. A few articles have previously reviewed a broad range of pharmacological activities of C. asiatica, but none of these reviews focuses on the use of C. asiatica in cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to summarize recent findings on protective effects of C. asiatica and its active constituents (asiatic acid, asiaticoside, madecassic acid, and madecassoside) in cardiovascular diseases. In addition, their beneficial effects on conditions associated with cardiovascular diseases were also reviewed. Articles were retrieved from electronic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar using keywords "Centella asiatica," "asiatic acid," "asiaticoside," "madecassic acid," and "madecassoside." The articles published between 2004 and 2018 that are related to the aforementioned topics were selected. A few clinical studies published beyond this period were also included. The results showed that C. asiatica and its active compounds possess potential therapeutic effects in cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular disease-related conditions, as evidenced by numerous in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. C. asiatica and its triterpenes have been reported to exhibit cardioprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In conclusion, more clinical and pharmacokinetic studies are needed to support the use of C. asiatica and its triterpenes as therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases. Besides, elucidation of the molecular pathways modulated by C. asiatica and its active constituents will help to understand the mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective action of C. asiatica.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology*; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology
  2. Saiful Yazan L, Armania N
    Pharm Biol, 2014 Jul;52(7):890-7.
    PMID: 24766363 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2013.872672
    Dillenia (Dilleniaceae) is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants in tropical and subtropical trees of Southern Asia, Australasia, and the Indian Ocean Islands. Until now, only eight Dillenia species have been reported to be used traditionally in different countries for various medical purposes. Out of eight species, D. pentagyna (Roxb), D. indica (Linn.) and D. suffruticosa (Griffith Ex. Hook. F. & Thomsom Martelli) have been reported to be used to treat cancerous growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology*; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  3. Bachok MF, Yusof BN, Ismail A, Hamid AA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2014;23(3):369-76.
    PMID: 25164446 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.3.01
    Ulam refers to a group of traditional Malaysian plants commonly consumed as a part of a meal, either in the raw form or after a short blanching process. Many types of ulam are thought to possess blood glucose-lowering properties, but relatively little is known on the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. This review aims to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. A literature review was conducted using multiple databases with no time restriction. Eleven studies were retrieved based on a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. In these 11 studies, only Momordica charantia, locally known as "peria katak", was extensively studied, followed by Centella asiatica, locally known as "daun pegaga", and Alternanthera sessilis, locally known as "kermak putih". Of the 11 studies, 9 evaluated the effectiveness of M. charantia on blood glucose parameters, and 7 of which showed significant improvement in at least one parameter of blood glucose concentration. The remaining 2 studies reported nonsignificant improvements in blood glucose parameters, despite having high-quality study design according to Jadad scale. None of the studies related to C. asiatica and A. sessilis showed significant improvement in blood glucose-related parameters. Current clinical evidence does not support the popular claim that ulam has glucose-lowering effects, not even for M. charantia. Hence, further clinical investigation is needed to verify the glucose modulation effect of M. charantia, C. asiatica, and A. sessilis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  4. Puttarak P, Dilokthornsakul P, Saokaew S, Dhippayom T, Kongkaew C, Sruamsiri R, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 09 06;7(1):10646.
    PMID: 28878245 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-09823-9
    Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. has been used as an herbal brain tonic for mental disorders and enhancing memory, but no review of the overall evidence of C. asiatica and cognitive function has been conducted. This study aims to determine the effects of C. asiatica on cognitive function and its related properties. The current systematic review includes five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted to determine the effect of C. asiatica alone and six RCTs conducted to determine the effect of C. asiatica-containing products. Meta-analysis indicated that there are no significant differences in all cognitive function domains of C. asiatica when compared to placebo. However, it could improve mood by increasing alert scores [SMD: 0.71 (95% CI; 0.01 to 1.41); I2 = 30.5%] and decreasing anger scores at 1 hour after treatment [SMD: -0.81 (95%CI; -1.51 to -0.09); I2 = 36.6%]. None of the studies reported adverse effects of C. asiatica. In conclusion, there is not strong evidence to support the use of C. asiatica for cognitive function improvement in each cognitive domain. C. asiatica could improve alertness and relieve anger. However, some limitations should be aware including dose regimen, plant preparation, standardization, and product variation. Future well-designed clinical trials using suitable doses of standardized C. asiatica are still needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  5. Cheng PG, Teoh TC, Rizman-Idid M
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2021;23(7):63-77.
    PMID: 34375519 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2021038682
    In this study, crude extracts of Ganoderma lucidum (NGCs) were compared to the crude extracts of G. lucidum that has antler-like fruiting bodies (AGCs) for their cytotoxicity, inhibitory effects on the attachment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120) to cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), identification and molecular docking simulations of chemical compounds to predict the best ligand inhibitor and the binding mechanism. Results showed that AGCs had a higher percentage of inhibition (54.3% ± 6.2%) at 150 ppm and higher cytotoxicity (half maximal cytotoxic concentration [CC50] < 300 ppm) than NGCs (CC50 < 400 ppm). Quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (LC-MS) results successfully identified 32 chemical compounds in AGCs and NGCs, comprising mostly ganoderic acids (62%) and their derivatives. Molecular docking simulations of ganolucidic acid A/D and ganoderic acid A/B predicted the strongest binding affinity via hydrogen bonding, suggesting the inhibition of HIV-1 gp120 attachment to CD4. The highest and lowest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and LUMO, respectively) gap energies of ganoderic acids tended to have less negative HOMO energy and smaller HOMO-LUMO gap energy, implying increased interactions of ligands to the gp120 protein receptor. AGCs showed higher inhibition against HIV-1 gp120 than NGCs due to a higher abundance of ganoderic and ganolucidic acids, whereby both acids contributed the highest number of hydrogen bonds and polar interactions from the hydroxyl and carboxylic functional groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology
  6. Jusril NA, Muhamad Juhari ANN, Abu Bakar SI, Md Saad WM, Adenan MI
    Molecules, 2020 Jul 24;25(15).
    PMID: 32721993 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25153353
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease and the most cause of dementia in elderly adults. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important beneficial target for AD to control cholinergic signaling deficit. Centella asiatica (CA) has proven to be rich with active ingredients for memory enhancement. In the present study, the chemical profiling of three accession extracts of CA namely SECA-K017, SECA-K018, and, SECA-K019 were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Four biomarker triterpene compounds were detected in all CA accessions. Quantitative analysis reveals that madecassoside was the highest triterpene in all the CA accessions. The biomarker compounds and the ethanolic extracts of three accessions were investigated for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity using Ellman's spectrophotometer method. The inhibitory activity of the triterpenes and accession extracts was compared with the standard AChE inhibitor eserine. The results from the in vitro study showed that the triterpene compounds exhibited an AChE inhibitory activity with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values between 15.05 ± 0.05 and 59.13 ± 0.18 µg/mL. Asiatic acid was found to possess strong AChE inhibitory activity followed by madecassic acid. Among the CA accession extracts, SECA-K017 and SECA-K018 demonstrated a moderate AChE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 481.5 ± 0.13 and 763.5 ± 0.16 µg/mL, respectively from the in silico docking studies, it is observed that asiatic acid and madecassic acid showed very good interactions with the active sites and fulfilled docking parameters against AChE. The present study suggested that asiatic acid and madecassic acid in the CA accessions could be responsible for the AChE inhibitory action and could be used as markers to guide further studies on CA as potential natural products for the treatment of AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  7. Abdullah NH, Thomas NF, Sivasothy Y, Lee VS, Liew SY, Noorbatcha IA, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2016 Feb 14;17(2):143.
    PMID: 26907251 DOI: 10.3390/ijms17020143
    The mammalian hyaluronidase degrades hyaluronic acid by the cleavage of the β-1,4-glycosidic bond furnishing a tetrasaccharide molecule as the main product which is a highly angiogenic and potent inducer of inflammatory cytokines. Ursolic acid 1, isolated from Prismatomeris tetrandra, was identified as having the potential to develop inhibitors of hyaluronidase. A series of ursolic acid analogues were either synthesized via structure modification of ursolic acid 1 or commercially obtained. The evaluation of the inhibitory activity of these compounds on the hyaluronidase enzyme was conducted. Several structural, topological and quantum chemical descriptors for these compounds were calculated using semi empirical quantum chemical methods. A quantitative structure activity relationship study (QSAR) was performed to correlate these descriptors with the hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. The statistical characteristics provided by the best multi linear model (BML) (R² = 0.9717, R²cv = 0.9506) indicated satisfactory stability and predictive ability of the developed model. The in silico molecular docking study which was used to determine the binding interactions revealed that the ursolic acid analog 22 had a strong affinity towards human hyaluronidase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  8. Zulkipli NN, Zakaria R, Long I, Abdullah SF, Muhammad EF, Wahab HA, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Sep 02;25(17).
    PMID: 32887218 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25173991
    Natural products remain a popular alternative treatment for many ailments in various countries. This study aimed to screen for potential mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors from Malaysian natural substance, using the Natural Product Discovery database, and to determine the IC50 of the selected mTOR inhibitors against UMB1949 cell line. The crystallographic structure of the molecular target (mTOR) was obtained from Protein Data Bank, with Protein Data Bank (PDB) ID: 4DRI. Everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, was used as a standard compound for the comparative analysis. Computational docking approach was performed, using AutoDock Vina (screening) and AutoDock 4.2.6 (analysis). Based on our analysis, asiaticoside and its derivative, asiatic acid, both from Centella asiatica, revealed optimum-binding affinities with mTOR that were comparable to our standard compound. The effect of asiaticoside and asiatic acid on mTOR inhibition was validated with UMB1949 cell line, and their IC50 values were 300 and 60 µM, respectively, compared to everolimus (29.5 µM). Interestingly, this is the first study of asiaticoside and asiatic acid against tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) disease model by targeting mTOR. These results, coupled with our in silico findings, should prompt further studies, to clarify the mode of action, safety, and efficacy of these compounds as mTOR inhibitors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology*; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  9. Chung PY
    Phytomedicine, 2020 Jul 15;73:152933.
    PMID: 31103429 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2019.152933
    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen both in community-acquired and healthcare-associated infections, and has successfully evolved numerous strategies for resisting the action to practically all antibiotics. Resistance to methicillin is now widely described in the community setting (CMRSA), thus the development of new drugs or alternative therapies is urgently necessary. Plants and their secondary metabolites have been a major alternative source in providing structurally diverse bioactive compounds as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of bacterial infections. One of the classes of natural secondary metabolites from plants with the most bioactive compounds are the triterpenoids, which comprises structurally diverse organic compounds. In nature, triterpenoids are often found as tetra- or penta-cyclic structures.

    AIM: This review highlights the anti-staphylococcal activities of pentacyclic triterpenoids, particularly α-amyrin (AM), betulinic acid (BA) and betulinaldehyde (BE). These compounds are based on a 30-carbon skeleton comprising five six-membered rings (ursanes and lanostanes) or four six-membered rings and one five-membered ring (lupanes and hopanes).

    METHODS: Electronic databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed and Scopus were used to search scientific contributions until March 2018, using relevant keywords. Literature focusing on the antimicrobial and antibiofilms of effects of pentacyclic triterpenoids on S. aureus were identified and summarized.

    RESULTS: Pentacyclic triterpenoids can be divided into three representative classes, namely ursane, lupane and oleananes. This class of compounds have been shown to exhibit analgesic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial activities. In studies of the antimicrobial activities and targets of AM, BA and BE in sensitive and multidrug-resistant S. aureus, these compounds acted synergistically and have different targets from the conventional antibiotics.

    CONCLUSION: The inhibitory mechanisms of S. aureus in novel targets and pathways should stimulate further researches to develop AM, BA and BE as therapeutic agents for infections caused by S. aureus. Continued efforts to identify and exploit synergistic combinations by the three compounds and peptidoglycan inhibitors, are also necessary as alternative treatment options for S. aureus infections.

    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology*; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology
  10. Shamsee ZR, Al-Saffar AZ, Al-Shanon AF, Al-Obaidi JR
    Mol Biol Rep, 2019 Feb;46(1):381-390.
    PMID: 30426385 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-018-4482-3
    Lantana camara is an important medicinal plant that contains many active compounds, including pentacyclic triterpenoids, with numerous biological activities. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-oxidant, anti-tumour, and cell cycle arrest properties of chemical compounds extracted from L. camara leaves. Four compounds were identified after subjecting the plant methanolic extract to LC-MS/MS analysis: lantadene A, lantadene B, icterogenin, and lantadene C. Potential antioxidant activity was examined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and compared with vitamin C as a control. Lantadene A and B were confirmed to possess the highest scavenging activity, while icterogenin and lantadene C exhibited a lesser antioxidant effect. All extracted compounds exerted a dose-dependent reduction in MCF-7 cell viability; however, lantadene B showed the highest anti-cancer activity, with an IC50 of 112.2 μg mL-1, and was therefore used in subsequent experiments. The results also confirmed the significant release of caspase 9 in a dose-dependent pattern following treatment of MCF-7 cells with a range of lantadene B concentrations. Lantadene B was found to induce MCF-7 cell cycle arrest in G1, blocking the G1/S transition with a maximum significant (p ≤ 0.01) cell count of 80.35% at 25 µg mL-1. No significant changes were observed in S phase, but a decrease in the MCF-7 population was exhibited in G2/M phase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  11. Susanti D, Amiroudine MZ, Rezali MF, Taher M
    Nat Prod Res, 2013 Mar;27(4-5):417-24.
    PMID: 22988818 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2012.725399
    Friedelin and lanosterol have been isolated from twigs of Garcinia prainiana. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were examined for their effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the MTT assay, it was found that the compounds had no cytotoxic effects up to 25 µM. Adipocyte differentiation analysis was carried out by Oil Red O staining method. In the presence of adipogenic cocktail (MDI), it was found that friedelin and lanosterol enhanced intracellular fat accumulation by 2.02 and 2.18-fold, respectively, compared with the vehicle-treated cells. Deoxyglucose uptake assay was used to examine the insulin sensitivity of adipocytes in the presence of the compounds. It was found that friedelin was able to stimulate glucose uptake up to 1.8-fold compared with insulin-treated cells. It was suggested that friedelin and lanosterol may be beneficial to mimic insulin action that would be useful in the treatment of diabetes type 2 patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  12. Awang K, Loong XM, Leong KH, Supratman U, Litaudon M, Mukhtar MR, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2012 Dec;83(8):1391-5.
    PMID: 23098876 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2012.10.004
    A study on the leaves of Aglaia exima led to the isolation of one new and seven known compounds: six triterpenoids and two steroids. Their structures were elucidated and analyzed mainly by using spectroscopic methods; 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry, UV spectrometry and X-ray. All the triterpenoids and steroids were measured in vitro for their cytotoxic activities against eight cancer cell lines; lung (A549), prostate (DU-145), skin (SK-MEL-5), pancreatic (BxPC-3), liver (Hep G2), colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7) and (MDA-MB-231). The new cycloartane triterpenoid, 24(E)-cycloart-24-ene-26-ol-3-one 1, showed potent cytotoxic activity against colon (HT-29) cancer cell line (IC(50) 11.5μM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology
  13. Chung PY, Navaratnam P, Chung LY
    PMID: 21658242 DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-10-25
    There has been considerable effort to discover plant-derived antibacterials against methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which have developed resistance to most existing antibiotics, including the last line of defence, vancomycin. Pentacyclic triterpenoid, a biologically diverse plant-derived natural product, has been reported to show anti-staphylococcal activities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between three pentacyclic triterpenoid and standard antibiotics (methicillin and vancomycin) against reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  14. Yunianto I, Das S, Mat Noor M
    Clin Ter, 2010;161(3):235-9.
    PMID: 20589353
    Antifertility agents with safety and effectiveness in terms of minimum side effects have always been a subject of debate. Many studies have been conducted on plants to observe the antifertility effect, but majority of them were toxic. Pegaga or Centella asiatica L. is one of the popular herb traditionally consumed raw amongst people in Malaysia. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica L. extract on rat testis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  15. Chung PY, Chung LY, Navaratnam P
    Res. Microbiol., 2013 May;164(4):319-26.
    PMID: 23385141 DOI: 10.1016/j.resmic.2013.01.005
    Staphylococcus aureus has become a serious concern in hospitals and community due to rapid adaptation to existing antimicrobial agents. Betulinaldehyde [3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-28-al (BE)] belongs to pentacyclic triterpenoids that are based on a 30-carbon skeleton comprising four six-membered rings and one five-membered ring. In a preliminary study, BE exhibited antimicrobial activity against reference strains of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. However, the response mechanism of S. aureus to this compound is not known. In this study, the global gene expression patterns of both the reference strains in response to sub-inhibitory concentrations of BE were analyzed using DNA microarray to identify gene targets, particularly essential targets in novel pathways, i.e. not targeted by currently used antibiotics, or novel targets in existing pathways. The transcriptome analysis revealed repression of genes in the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and ribosome pathways in both the reference strains. Other pathways such as cell division, two-component systems, ABC transporters, fatty acid biosynthesis and peptidoglycan biosynthesis were affected only in the reference strain of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The findings suggest that BE regulates multiple desirable targets which could be further explored in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of S. aureus infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  16. Fong LY, Ng CT, Zakaria ZA, Baharuldin MT, Arifah AK, Hakim MN, et al.
    Phytother Res, 2015 Oct;29(10):1501-8.
    PMID: 26171791 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5404
    The increase in endothelial permeability often promotes edema formation in various pathological conditions. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a pro-atherogenic cytokine, impairs endothelial barrier function and causes endothelial dysfunction in early stage of atherosclerosis. Asiaticoside, one of the triterpenoids derived from Centella asiatica, is known to possess antiinflammatory activity. In order to examine the role of asiaticoside in preserving the endothelial barrier, we assessed its effects on endothelial hyperpermeability and disruption of actin filaments evoked by TNF-α in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). TNF-α caused an increase in endothelial permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran. Asiaticoside pretreatment significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced increased permeability. Asiaticoside also prevented TNF-α-induced actin redistribution by suppressing stress fiber formation. However, the increased F to G actin ratio stimulated by TNF-α was not changed by asiaticoside. Cytochalasin D, an actin depolymerizing agent, was used to correlate the anti-hyperpermeability effect of asiaticoside with actin cytoskeleton. Surprisingly, asiaticoside failed to prevent cytochalasin D-induced increased permeability. These results suggest that asiaticoside protects against the disruption of endothelial barrier and actin rearrangement triggered by TNF-α without a significant change in total actin pool. However, asiaticoside seems to work by other mechanisms to maintain the integrity of endothelial barrier rather than stabilizing the F-actin organization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  17. Jamila N, Khan N, Khan I, Khan AA, Khan SN
    Nat Prod Res, 2016 Jun;30(12):1388-97.
    PMID: 26158779 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1060594
    The dichloromethane bark extract of Garcinia hombroniana yielded one new cycloartane triterpene; (22Z,24E)-3β-hydroxycycloart-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (1) together with five known compounds: garcihombronane G (2), garcihombronane J (3), 3β acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,24-dien-26-oic acid (4), (22Z, 24E)-3β, 9α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (5) and 3β, 23α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-8,14,24-trien-26-oic acid (6). Their structures were established by the spectral techniques of NMR and ESI-MS. These compounds together with some previously isolated compounds; garcihombronane B (7), garcihombronane D (8) 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (9), volkensiflavone (10), 4''-O-methyll-volkensiflavone (11), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (12), volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (13), Morelloflavone (14), 3''-O-methyl-morelloflavone (15) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (16) were evaluated for cholinesterase enzymes inhibitory activities using acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. In these activities, compounds 1-9 showed good dual inhibition on both the enzymes while compounds 10-16 did not reasonably contribute to both the cholinesterases inhibitory effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology
  18. Matsumoto T, Kitagawa T, Teo S, Anai Y, Ikeda R, Imahori D, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2018 10 26;81(10):2187-2194.
    PMID: 30335380 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.8b00341
    A methanol extract of the dried leaves of Lansium domesticum showed antimutagenic effects against 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5 H-pyrido[4,3- b]indole (Trp-P-1) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- bI]pyridine (PhIP) using the Ames assay. Nine new onoceranoid-type triterpenoids, lansium acids I-IX (1-9), and nine known compounds (10-16) were isolated from the extract. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were determined via their electronic circular dichroism spectra. Several isolated onoceranoid-type triterpeneoids showed antimutagenic effects in an in vitro Ames assay. Moreover, oral intake of a major constituent, lansionic acid (10), showed antimutagenic effects against PhIP in an in vivo micronucleus test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  19. Chua LK, Lim CL, Ling APK, Chye SM, Koh RY
    Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 2019 Mar;74(1):18-27.
    PMID: 30535971 DOI: 10.1007/s11130-018-0704-z
    Cancer is a preventable and treatable disease, however, the incidence rates are on the rise. Classical treatment modalities for cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, these are associated with detrimental side effects such as nausea and emesis. Therefore, researchers currently vest interest in complementary and alternative medicines for cancer treatment and prevention. Plants such as Syzygium sp. are a common basis of complementary medicines due to its abundance of bioactive phytochemicals. Numerous natural compounds derived from Syzygium sp., such as phenolics, oleanolic acids, and betulinic acids, and dimethyl cardamonins, were reported to have anticancer effects. Many possess the ability to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the vast potential Syzygium sp. harbours as a source of anticancer natural compounds due to its abundance, easy acceptability, affordability and safety for regular consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology
  20. Wong JH, Reza F, Muthuraju S, Chuang HG, Zhang J, Senik MH, et al.
    J Integr Neurosci, 2020 Jun 30;19(2):217-227.
    PMID: 32706186 DOI: 10.31083/j.jin.2020.02.50
    Centella asiatica is notable for its wide range of biological activities beneficial to human health, particularly its cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects. The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors are ionotropic glutamate receptors mediating fast excitatory neurotransmission essential in long-term potentiation widely thought to be the cellular mechanism of learning and memory. The method of whole-cell patch-clamp was used to study the effect of the acute application of Centella asiatica extract on the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-mediated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in the entorhinal cortex of rat brain slices. The respective low dose of test compounds significantly increased the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents while having no significant effects on the frequency. The findings suggested that Centella asiatica extract increased the response of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors at the postsynaptic level, revealing the potential role of Centella asiatica in modulating the glutamatergic responses in the entorhinal cortex of rat brain slices to produce cognitive enhancement effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triterpenes/pharmacology*
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