The environmental footprints of H2productionviacatalytic gasification of wheat straw using straw-derived biochar catalysts were examined. The functional unit of 1 kg of H2was adopted in the system boundaries, which includes 5 processes namely biomass collection and pre-treatment units (P1), biochar catalyst preparation using fast pyrolysis unit (P2), two-stage pyrolysis-gasification unit (P3), products separation unit (P4), and H2distribution to downstream plants (P5). Based on the life-cycle assessment, the hot spots in this process were identified, the sequence was as follows: P4 > P2 > P1 > P3 > P5. The end-point impacts score for the process was found to be 93.4017 mPt. From benchmarking analysis, the proposed straw-derived biochar catalyst was capable of offering almost similar catalytic performance with other metal-based catalysts with a lower environmental impact.
Mycotoxin contamination in rice is less reported, compared to that in wheat or maize, however, some Fusarium fungi occasionally infect rice in the paddy field. Fumonisins are mycotoxins mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides, which often ruins maize. Rice adherent fungus Gibberella fujikuroi is taxonomically near to F. verticillioides, and there are sporadic reports of fumonisin contamination in rice from Asia, Europe and the United States. Therefore, there exists the potential risk of fumonisin contamination in rice as well as the need for the validated analytical method for fumonisins in rice. Although both natural and spiked reference materials are available for some Fusarium mycotoxins in matrices of wheat and maize, there are no reference materials for Fusarium mycotoxins in rice. In this study, we have developed a method for the preparation of a reference material containing fumonisins in Thai rice. A ShakeMaster grinding machine was used for the preparation of a mixed material of blank Thai rice and F. verticillioides-infected Thai rice. The homogeneity of the mixed material was confirmed by one-way analysis of variance, which led this material to serve as an in-house reference material. Using this reference material, several procedures to extract fumonisins from Thai rice were compared. Accordingly, we proved the applicability of an effective extraction procedure for the determination of fumonisins in Japanese rice.
For estimation of grain yield in wheat, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is considered as a potential screening tool. Field experiments were conducted to scrutinize the response of NDVI to yield behavior of different wheat cultivars and nitrogen fertilization at agronomic research area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (UAF) during the two years 2008-09 and 2009-10. For recording the value of NDVI, Green seeker (Handheld-505) was used. Split plot design was used as experimental model in, keeping four nitrogen rates (N1 = 0 kg ha(-1), N2 = 55 kg ha(-1), N3 = 110 kg ha(-1), and N4 = 220 kg ha(-1)) in main plots and ten wheat cultivars (Bakkhar-2001, Chakwal-50, Chakwal-97, Faisalabad-2008, GA-2002, Inqlab-91, Lasani-2008, Miraj-2008, Sahar-2006, and Shafaq-2006) in subplots with four replications. Impact of nitrogen and difference between cultivars were forecasted through NDVI. The results suggested that nitrogen treatment N4 (220 kg ha(-1)) and cultivar Faisalabad-2008 gave maximum NDVI value (0.85) at grain filling stage among all treatments. The correlation among NDVI at booting, grain filling, and maturity stages with grain yield was positive (R(2) = 0.90; R(2) = 0.90; R(2) = 0.95), respectively. So, booting, grain filling, and maturity can be good depictive stages during mid and later growth stages of wheat crop under agroclimatic conditions of Faisalabad and under similar other wheat growing environments in the country.
Phenolic acid content and composition have been determined in 26 wheat genotypes grown in Hungary over three consecutive years and at three additional locations (France, United Kingdom, and Poland) during the third year. Fractions comprising free, soluble conjugated, and bound phenolic acids were analyzed using HPLC with measurements being made for individual phenolic acids in each fraction. Statistically significant differences in phenolic acid content occurred across the different growing locations with the average total phenolic acid content being highest in the genotypes grown in Hungary. The growth year in Hungary also had a large impact, especially on the free and conjugated phenolic acid contents. Certain genotypes were more resistant to environmental impacts than others. Of the genotypes with high levels of total phenolic acids, Lynx, Riband, Tommi, and Cadenza were most stable with respect to their total contents, whereas Valoris, Herzog, and Malacca, also high in phenolic acid content, were least stable. Of the three fractions analyzed, the free and conjugated phenolic acids were most variable and were also susceptible to the effect of environment, whereas bound phenolic acids, which comprised the greatest proportion of the total phenolic acids, were the most stable.
Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) is a potential source of new genetic diversity for the improvement of hexaploid bread wheat. Emmer wheat was crossed and backcrossed to bread wheat and 480 doubled haploids (DHs) were produced from BC1F1 plants with hexaploid appearance derived from 19 crossses. These DHs were screened under well-watered conditions (E1) in 2013 to identify high-yielding materials with similar phenology. One-hundred and eighty seven DH lines selected on this basis, 4 commercial bread wheat cultivars and 9 bread wheat parents were then evaluated in extensive field experiments under two contrasting moisture regimes in north-western NSW in 2014 and 2015. A significant range in the water-use-efficiency of grain production (WUEGrain) was observed among the emmer derivatives. Of these, 8 hexaploid lines developed from 8 different emmer wheat parents had significantly improved intrinsic water-use-efficiency (WUEintr) and instantaneous water-use-efficiency (WUEi) compared to their bread wheat recurrent parents. Accurate and large scale field-based phenotyping was effective in identifying emmer wheat derived lines with superior performance to their hexaploid bread wheat recurrent parents under moisture stress.
Understanding the impacts of climate change on crop yield is important for improving crop growth and yield formation in northwestern China. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between meteorological dryness/wetness conditions and spring wheat yield in the Ili river basin (IRB). The climate and yield data from 1961 to 2013 were collected to analyze characteristics and correlations between these two variables using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), yield detrending method, modified Mann-Kendall test and Spearman correlation analysis. Main results were as follows: (1) correlations between monthly SPEI values (MSV) and climatic yield of spring wheat indicated that the dryness/wetness condition in May was a key factor affecting yield in the whole region; (2) although the MSV in May and yield fluctuated from negative to positive values in time, the severely and extremely dryness events were in good agreement with the higher yield losses; (3) each increase of 0.5 MSV in May promoted over 3% increase of yield in most part of IRB; however, the larger variability of MSV in May resulted in larger yield fluctuations; and (4) the Tibetan Plateau index in April showed significant correlations with the MSV in May and yield, which provided a precursory signal for decision-makers to better understand potential yield fluctuations.
A large amount of ammonia volatilization from the agricultural system causes environmental problems and increases production costs. Conservation agriculture has emerged as an alternate and sustainable crop production system. Therefore, in the present study, ammonia losses from different agricultural practices were evaluated for the wheat crop under different tillage practices. The results of the present study showed that the cumulative emission of ammonia flux from the wheat field varied from 6.23 to 24.00 kg ha-1 (P ≤ 0.05) in conservation tillage (CA) and 7.03 to 26.58 kg ha-1 (P ≤ 0.05) in conventional tillage (CT) among different treatments. Application of basal 80% nitrogen resulted in the highest ammonia flux in conventional and conservation tillage practices. The ammonia volatilization followed the following trend: urea super granules with band placement > neem-coated urea with band placement > neem-coated urea with broadcast before irrigation > neem-coated urea with broadcast after irrigation > slow-release N fertilizer (urea stabilized with DCD and N(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide) with band placement. The conservation agricultural practices involving conservation tillage appear to be a sustainable approach for minimizing ammonia volatilization and improving wheat productivity.
Aluminum (Al) sensitive wheat cultivar kalyansona was grown for 14 d in a range of Ca solution (125, 625, and 2500 μM) plus other nutrients without Al. At 14 d after Ca treatment, half of these plants were harvested (H1), and the rest of the plants were exposed to 100 μM Al for additional 6 d and harvested (H2). Severe Al injury was found only in the plants with the lowest supply of Ca before Al treatment. Aluminum concentration in the apoplastic fluid was very high at 125 μM Ca probably because the plasma membrane of some of the cells was destroyed due to the attack of 100 μM Al. Aluminum content in roots decreased with increasing supply of Ca before Al treatment. Calcium content decreased drastically at harvest (H2) in the plants with 100 μM Al. Under Al stress conditions, the plant responded to Al in different ways due to not only the different Ca supply but also the variation of Ca content in the plant tissues. Actually, the plants having the largest Ca content in the roots before Al treatment can receive less Al injury during Al treatment. To substantiate this idea, a companion study was conducted to investigate the effects of 2500 μM Ca supply during, before, and after 100 μM Al treatment on root growth. The results indicated clearly that exogenous Ca supply before Al treatment is able to alleviate Al injury but less effective than Ca supply during Al treatment.
Fusarium is one of the most important pathogenic and toxigenic fungi widely distributed all over the world, including Iran. Fusarium species are found frequently in stored agriculture products especially wheat. The objective of this study was to identify Fusarium species associated with stored wheat seeds and their pathogenicity on root and head of wheat in Kermanshah, the leading province in wheat production in Iran. In this survey 75 seed samples of stored wheat were collected from 10 different regions during 2006-2008 and tested for the presence of Fusarium. Fusarium spp. were found in 51 (68%) of 75 samples. A total of 580 Fusarium strains were isolated, identified and preserved. All these strains belong to 20 Fusarium spp. according to morphological characters. Each conidial suspension of selected strains representing all species was evaluated for their pathogenicity on roots and spikes of healthy wheat var. Fallat in the greenhouse. F. graminearum, F. crookwellense, F. trichothecioides, F. culmorum and F. verticillioides were the most pathogenic to wheat's head. Foot rot assessment revealed that F. pseudograminearum and F. culmorum were the most damaging species. Of the Fusarium isolates, F. graminearum was the most prevalent followed by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. This is the first comprehensive report on identity and distribution of Fusarium spp. from stored wheat seeds in Iran while F. nelsonii was reported for the first time from wheat seeds in Iran.
Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process.
Aphids are major pests of wheat crop in Pakistan inflicting considerable economic losses. A better knowledge of landscape scale spatial distribution of aphids and their natural enemies could be used to improve integrated pest management programs. Therefore, the present study aimed to document spatio-temporal variations in populations of wheat aphids and their natural enemies in Pakistan. The 2-year survey study was carried out at ten experimental farms located in five districts of four contrasted agro-ecological zones of eastern Pakistan (Punjab area) i.e. District Chakwal in arid zone, Gujranwala in rice-cropped zone, Faisalabad in central mixed-cropped zone, and Khanewal and Multan in cotton-cropped zone. The dominant aphid species i.e. Schizaphis graminum, Rhopalosiphum padi, R. maidis and Sitobion avenae varied significantly among the five districts surveyed. The population of S. graminum was observed more abundant in arid, R. padi in rice, S. avenae in aird and rice, and R. maidis in cotton-I zones. Aphids ended their population dynamics on 25th March in central mixed-cropped zone and 12th April in other three zones. Various species of natural enemies, mainly Coccinella septumpunctata, C. undecimpunctata, Menochilus sexmaculata, Chrysoperla carnea, Syrphidae and parasitoid mummies were inconsistently observed in four agro-ecological zones. The population of C. septumpunctata, was observed more abundant in rice zone, C. undecimpunctata and C. carnea in cotton-I and arid zones, M. sexmaculata in cotton-I and II zones, Syrphidae in cotton-I zone and parasitoid mummies in rice and arid zones. There were no clear relationships between aphid and the natural enemy populations. The present study may serve as a baseline regarding distribution of wheat aphids and their natural enemies and the results provided insights for further studies on the potential top-down (natural enemies) versus bottom-up (fertilization and irrigation regimes) forces in management of wheat aphids in eastern Pakistan.
Bacteria that surround plant roots and exert beneficial effects on plant growth are known as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). In addition to the plant growth-promotion, PGPR also imparts resistance against salinity and oxidative stress and needs to be studied. Such PGPR can function as dynamic bioinoculants under salinity conditions. The present study reports the isolation of phytase positive multifarious Klebsiella variicola SURYA6 isolated from wheat rhizosphere in Kolhapur, India. The isolate produced various plant growth-promoting (PGP), salinity ameliorating, and antioxidant traits. It produced organic acid, yielded a higher phosphorous solubilization index (9.3), maximum phytase activity (376.67 ± 2.77 U/mL), and copious amounts of siderophore (79.0%). The isolate also produced salt ameliorating traits such as indole acetic acid (78.45 ± 1.9 µg/mL), 1 aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (0.991 M/mg/h), and exopolysaccharides (32.2 ± 1.2 g/L). In addition to these, the isolate also produced higher activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (13.86 IU/mg protein), catalase (0.053 IU/mg protein), and glutathione oxidase (22.12 µg/mg protein) at various salt levels. The isolate exhibited optimum growth and maximum secretion of these metabolites during the log-phase growth. It exhibited sensitivity to a wide range of antibiotics and did not produce hemolysis on blood agar, indicative of its non-pathogenic nature. The potential of K. variicola to produce copious amounts of various PGP, salt ameliorating, and antioxidant metabolites make it a potential bioinoculant for salinity stress management.
The textural and sensorial properties of the cookies prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with two types of unripe banana flour (UBF) were studied. The green matured unripe banana (Musa x paradisiaca var. Tanduk and Musa acuminata var. Emas) was used to partially substitute the usage of wheat flour at 0% (control), 25% and 50% level in the formulated plain cookies. Textural (hardness) and sensorial properties were conducted on all samples. Substitution of UBF to formulation of cookies had increased the hardness of cookies (ranging from 967 N to 1665 N) compared to the control except for substitution of Emas banana flour (EBF) at 50% which was not significantly difference (p > 0.05) with control sample. The substitution of 25% of Tanduk banana flour (TBF) showed the highest mean score in overall acceptability (6.81 ± 1.18) compared to all treated samples. TBF substitution is feasible up to 50% substitution while for EBF, the substitution only up to 25% level in this study.
In this study, physicochemical and sensory qualities of substituting jering seed flour into wheat chapatis (unleavened Indian flat bread) were evaluated at different proportions (5, 10, 15, 20 and 100% of jering seed flour). Chapati prepared with 100% of wheat flour was served as control. Results showed wheat-jering composite chapatis had significantly higher protein (12.68-15.55%), ash (1.78-2.32%) and carbohydrate contents (50.78-54.50%) than that of wheat chapatis which served as control (11.49, 1.77% and 51.62%, respectively). As for the fat content, this ranged from 1.19% to 1.03%, corresponding to the levels of jering seed flour substitution. In terms of physical characteristics, the puffed height and extensibility of the composite chapatis decreased progressively as the level of jering seed flour substitution increased. On the other hand, the peak load required to rupture chapatis showed an inverse trend. It increased significantly from 3.26 to 15.96 N. Further, the colour values of composite chapatis showed significant changes when the level of jering seed flour substitution was increased. The L* and b* values decreased while a* value increased. Regarding sensory properties, control wheat chapatis had better acceptability than the composite chapatis. However, all the composite chapatis had significantly higher nutritional values. Based on the generated results, novel chapatis could be formulated by substituting wheat with jering seed flour.
Proximate compositions, culinary and sensory properties of noodles prepared from proportionate combinations of breadfruit starch and wheat flour were investigated. Breadfruit starch (BS) isolated from matured breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) was used to produce noodles in combination with hard red wheat flour (WF) at a ratio of 100% WF:0% BS, 80% WF:20% BS, 60% WF:40% BS, 40% WF:60% BS, 20% WF:80% BS. The protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and moisture contents of the Breadfruit starch-Wheat flour (BSWF) noodles prepared from the above blends ranged from 0.65 to 10.88%, 0.35 to 3.15%, 1.28 to 2.25%, 1.18 to 1.45% and 4.65 to 5.45%, respectively. The contents of protein, fat, ash and crude fibre increased as the percentage breadfruit starch decreased. However, values of moisture content did not follow the same trend, instead higher values were found for 100% BS:0% WF (5.35%) and 20% BS:80% WF (5.45%). The cooking yield of the BSWF noodles ranged from 21.02 (60% BS:40% WF) to 23.75 g (100% BS:0% WF), cooking loss ranged from 5.49 (20% BS:80% WF) to 9.19% (100% BS:0% WF), while swelling index ranged from 3.1 (20% BS:80% WF) to 3.4 (100% BS:0% WF). Throughout the study, noodles produced from blends of 20% breadfruit starch and 80% wheat flour showed superior proximate, culinary and sensory attributes.
Biscuit is a popular food product where it is produced using wheat flour, sugar and fat as its main ingredients. Wheat flour is the major material used in biscuit production and within the flour starch is the principal component. The details of starch properties such as pasting properties, gelatinisation properties, crystallinity were discussed in this review. Starch is the major structural element in many foods, with the fat or sugar also playing key roles. Sugar gives sweetness, colour, add volumes and influence the texture of a biscuit. Besides that, it shows significant impact on starch gelatinization properties. Fat plays an important role in biscuit production and the type of fat used determines the quality of the final product. In this article, the functional properties of major ingredients of biscuit were also reviewed with emphasis on wheat flour, sugar and fat.
Based on an improved C-banding technique, the C-banding patterns of all 11 diploid Aegilops species were described and compared. All diploid species exhibit characteristically different patterns which enable the chromosomes of any complement to be identified individually. These patterns confirm existing genome symbols and provide further evidence for the suggested changes in genome symbols of Ae. umbellulata and Ae. sharonensis, U and S(sh) respectively. Furthermore, Ae. uniaristata should be given a separate symbol, probably N. Aegilops speltoides and Ae. sharonensis could be possible donors to the B genome of wheat. Interspecific divergence in these diploid species has been accompanied by either amplification or deletion as well as massive repatterning of heterochromatin from the centromere to the telomere.
This paper investigates the application of visco-hyperelastic model to soft rubberlike material, that is gluten. Gluten is a major protein in wheat flour dough (a mixture of flour and water) which exists as long network fibers and undergo large deformation under uniaxial tension and compression. The visco-hyperelastic model is represented by a combination of the viscoelastic Prony series and the hyperelastic extended tube model. Calibration of the visco-hyperelastic model to gluten tests result suggests that gluten can be modelled as a finite viscoelastic material.
This research aims to study the wet torrefaction (WT) and saccharification of sorghum distillery residue (SDR) towards hydrochar and bioethanol production. The experiments are designed by Box-Behnken design from response surface methodology where the operating conditions include sulfuric acid concentration (0, 0.01, and 0.02 M), amyloglucosidase concentration (36, 51, and 66 IU), and saccharification time (120, 180, and 240 min). Compared to conventional dry torrefaction, the hydrochar yield is between 13.24 and 14.73%, which is much lower than dry torrefaction biochar (yield >50%). The calorific value of the raw SDR is 17.15 MJ/kg, which is significantly enhanced to 22.36-23.37 MJ/kg after WT. When the sulfuric acid concentration increases from 0 to 0.02 M, the glucose concentration in the product increases from 5.59 g/L to 13.05 g/L. The prediction of analysis of variance suggests that the best combination to maximum glucose production is 0.02 M H2SO4, 66 IU enzyme concentration, and 120 min saccharification time, and the glucose concentration is 30.85 g/L. The maximum bioethanol concentration of 19.21 g/L is obtained, which is higher than those from wheat straw (18.1 g/L) and sweet sorghum residue (16.2 g/L). A large amount of SDR is generated in the kaoliang liquor production process, which may cause environmental problems if it is not appropriately treated. This study fulfills SDR valorization for hydrochar and bioenergy to lower environmental pollution and even achieve a circular economy.
Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analysed in 237 breakfast cereal samples collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. According to the results, 41% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 16% and 8% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 48% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 30% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The results have shown that 53% samples of breakfast cereals were found contaminated with ZEN and 8% samples were found to be above the permissible limit of EU. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in semolina i.e. 3.60 and 4.55 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly, semolina was the highest contaminated breakfast cereal for OTA (3.90 μg/kg), while cornflakes (brand B) was found highest contaminated with ZEN (13.45 μg/kg).