Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Fernandez-Orozco R, Li L, Harflett C, Shewry PR, Ward JL
    J Agric Food Chem, 2010 Sep 08;58(17):9341-52.
    PMID: 20707366 DOI: 10.1021/jf102017s
    Phenolic acid content and composition have been determined in 26 wheat genotypes grown in Hungary over three consecutive years and at three additional locations (France, United Kingdom, and Poland) during the third year. Fractions comprising free, soluble conjugated, and bound phenolic acids were analyzed using HPLC with measurements being made for individual phenolic acids in each fraction. Statistically significant differences in phenolic acid content occurred across the different growing locations with the average total phenolic acid content being highest in the genotypes grown in Hungary. The growth year in Hungary also had a large impact, especially on the free and conjugated phenolic acid contents. Certain genotypes were more resistant to environmental impacts than others. Of the genotypes with high levels of total phenolic acids, Lynx, Riband, Tommi, and Cadenza were most stable with respect to their total contents, whereas Valoris, Herzog, and Malacca, also high in phenolic acid content, were least stable. Of the three fractions analyzed, the free and conjugated phenolic acids were most variable and were also susceptible to the effect of environment, whereas bound phenolic acids, which comprised the greatest proportion of the total phenolic acids, were the most stable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triticum/chemistry*
  2. Iqbal SZ, Rabbani T, Asi MR, Jinap S
    Food Chem, 2014 Aug 15;157:257-62.
    PMID: 24679779 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.129
    Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analysed in 237 breakfast cereal samples collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. According to the results, 41% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 16% and 8% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 48% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 30% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The results have shown that 53% samples of breakfast cereals were found contaminated with ZEN and 8% samples were found to be above the permissible limit of EU. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in semolina i.e. 3.60 and 4.55 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly, semolina was the highest contaminated breakfast cereal for OTA (3.90 μg/kg), while cornflakes (brand B) was found highest contaminated with ZEN (13.45 μg/kg).
    Matched MeSH terms: Triticum/chemistry*
  3. Ho LH, Abdul Aziz NA, Azahari B
    Food Chem, 2013 Aug 15;139(1-4):532-9.
    PMID: 23561142 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.01.039
    The physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the control (BCtr), commercial wheat flour (CWF) bread substituted with 10% BPF (banana pseudo-stem flour) (B10BPF) and B10BPF with added 0.8% w/w (flour weight basis) xanthan gum (XG) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (B10BPFXG and B10BPFCMC, respectively) were examined. The proximate analyses revealed that the composite bread had significantly higher moisture, ash, crude fibre, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre contents but lower protein, fat and carbohydrate contents than the BCtr. Bread incorporated with BPF resulted in a lower volume, darker crumb and lighter crust colour than the BCtr. The addition of CMC improved the bread volume. All breads containing BPF had greater total phenolics, and antioxidant properties than the control bread. Sensory evaluation indicated that the B10BPFCMC bread had the highest acceptability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triticum/chemistry*
  4. Chan KW, Khong NM, Iqbal S, Ismail M
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(6):7496-507.
    PMID: 22837707 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13067496
    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition. After subjecting the wheat and rice flour slurries to simulated gastrointestinal pH condition, both slurries were centrifuged to obtain the crude phenolic extracts for further analyses. Extraction yield, total contents of phenolic and flavonoids were determined as such (untreated) and under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition (treated). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and iron chelating activity assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity of the tested samples. In almost all of the assays performed, significant improvements in antioxidant properties (p < 0.05) were observed in both flours after treatment, suggesting that wheat and rice flours contain considerably heavy amounts of bound phenolics, and that their antioxidant properties might be improved under gastrointestinal digestive conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triticum/chemistry*
  5. Kuan YH, Liong MT
    J Agric Food Chem, 2008 Oct 8;56(19):9252-7.
    PMID: 18788708 DOI: 10.1021/jf802011j
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical, physicochemical, and functional properties of agrowastes derived from okara ( Glycine max), corn cob ( Zea mays sp.), wheat straw ( Triticum sp.), and rice husk ( Oryza sativa) for potential applications in foods. The fibrous materials (FM) were treated with alkali to yield fibrous residues (FR). Rice husk contained the highest ash content (FM, 8.56%; FR, 9.04%) and lowest lightness in color (FM, 67.63; FR, 63.46), possibly due to the abundance of mineral constituents. Corn cob contained the highest amount of soluble dietary fiber (SDF), whereas okara had the highest total dietary fiber (TDF). The high dietary fiber fractions of corn cob and okara also contributed to the highest water- and oil-holding capacities, emulsifying activities, and emulsion stabilities for both FM and FR samples. These results indicate that these agrowastes could be utilized as functional ingredients in foods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triticum/chemistry
  6. Alitheen NB, Oon CL, Keong YS, Chuan TK, Li HK, Yong HW
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2011 Jul;24(3):243-50.
    PMID: 21715255
    Cytotoxicity, the possible selective activity upon HL60 as well as the anti-proliferation effect of local health supplement wheatgrass and mixture of fibers were investigated in vitro using various cancerous cell line and normal blood cell culture. The IC(50) of wheatgrass-treated HL60 (17.5 ± 1.1, 12.5 ± 0.3, and 16 ± 0.5 microgram/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively) and fibers-treated HL60 (86.0 ± 5.5, 35.0 ± 2.5, and 52.5 ± 4.5 microgram/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively) showed that both extracts possessed optimum effect after 48 hours of treatment. No significant cytotoxic effect was observed on other type of cells. For trypan blue dye exclusion method, wheatgrass reduced the number of viable cells by 13.5% (±1.5), 47.1% (±3.6), and 64.9% (±2.7) after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure, respectively. Mixture of fibers reduced the number of viable cells by 36.4% (±2.3), 57.1% (±3.1), and 89.0% (±3.4) after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure, respectively, indicated that necrosis is also an alternative to the apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining revealed that both extracts induced apoptosis where early apoptosis had been detected concurrently with the reduction of percentage of cell viability. Cell cycle analysis revealed that in HL60, the percentage of apoptosis increased with time (wheatgrass: 16.0% ± 2.4, 45.3% ± 3.4 and 39.6% ± 4.1; mixture of fibers: 14.6% ± 1.8, 45.4% ± 2.3 and 45.9% ± 1.2) after exposure for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively at the concentration of 100 microgram/ml and showed optimum effect at 48 hours. Thus, these health products can be a potential alternative supplement for leukaemia patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triticum/chemistry*
  7. Noor Aziah AA, Komathi CA
    J Food Sci, 2009 Sep;74(7):S328-33.
    PMID: 19895499 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01298.x
    This study was intended to investigate the potential of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp as a raw material for the production of flour that could be used in composite blend with wheat flour or as a functional ingredient in food products. The peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp were soaked in sodium metabisulphite solution, sliced and dried overnight in a hot air oven, followed by milling into peeled pumpkin pulp flour (PPPF) and unpeeled pumpkin pulp flour (UPPF), respectively. The flours were then evaluated for physicochemical attributes (color, proximate compositions, and water activity) and functional properties (water holding capacity and oil holding capacity), in comparison to the commercial wheat flour. PPPF and UPPF were observed to be more attractive in terms of color than wheat flour, as indicated by the significantly higher results (P or= 0.05) was shown in water holding capacity of PPPF and wheat flour. However, the oil holding capacity of PPPF and UPPF was shown to be significantly higher (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Triticum/chemistry
  8. Nayan N, van Erven G, Kabel MA, Sonnenberg AS, Hendriks WH, Cone JW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Jun;99(8):4054-4062.
    PMID: 30737799 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9634
    BACKGROUND: White rot fungi have been used to improve the nutritive value of lignocellulose for ruminants. In feed analysis, the Van Soest method is widely used to determine the cell wall contents. To assess the reliability of this method (Method A) for determination of cell wall contents in fungal-treated wheat straw, we compared a combined monosaccharide analysis and pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) (Method B). Ruminal digestibility, measured as in vitro gas production (IVGP), was subsequently used to examine which method explains best the effect of fungal pretreatment on the digestibility of wheat straw.

    RESULTS: Both methods differed considerably in the mass recoveries of the individual cell wall components, which changed on how we assess their degradation characteristics. For example, Method B gave a higher degradation of lignin (61.9%), as compared to Method A (33.2%). Method A, however, showed a better correlation of IVGP with the ratio of lignin to total structural carbohydrates, as compared to Method B (Pearson's r of -0.84 versus -0.69). Nevertheless, Method B provides a more accurate quantification of lignin, reflecting its actual modification and degradation. With the information on the lignin structural features, Method B presents a substantial advantage in understanding the underlying mechanisms of lignin breakdown. Both methods, however, could not accurately quantify the cellulose contents - among others, due to interference of fungal biomass.

    CONCLUSION: Method A only accounts for the recalcitrant residue and therefore is more suitable for evaluating ruminal digestibility. Method B allows a more accurate quantification of cell wall, required to understand and better explains the actual modification of the cell wall. The suitability of both methods, therefore, depends on their intended purposes. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Triticum/chemistry
  9. Shahmohammadi HR, Bakar J, Rahman RA, Adzhan NM
    J Food Sci, 2014 Feb;79(2):E178-83.
    PMID: 24410375 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12324
    To improve textural attributes of puffed corn-fish snack, the effects of 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of calcium carbonate, magnesium silicate (talc), sodium bicarbonate as well as 5% and 10% of wheat bran (as the nucleating materials) on textural attributes were studied. Sensory evaluation, bulk density, expansion ratio, maximum force, and count peaks were measured using the Kramer test. The results showed that all of the additives except bran significantly enhanced the texture. Among them, talc at 0.5% was the best to enhance the density and expansion ratio. Effects of using 0.5% talc on puffed corn-fish snack microstructure were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The average cell diameter of 109 ± 48 μm and cell numbers per square centimeter of 67.4 for talc-treated products were obtained, while for nontalc-treated extrudates, average cell diameter of 798 ± 361 μm and cell numbers per square centimeter of 13.9 were found. Incorporation of 0.5% w/w of magnesium silicate reduced (7-fold) the average cell diameter while increased (4-fold) the cell number.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triticum/chemistry
  10. Wong N, Lee CY
    J Econ Entomol, 2011 Dec;104(6):2087-94.
    PMID: 22299375
    The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) with the protein content and negatively correlated (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.05) with the carbohydrate content. For T. castaneum, the suitable diets were ranked as follows: atta flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P < 0.05) than in the other diets, and the greatest number of progeny was produced from beetles reared on atta flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Triticum/chemistry
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