Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 54 in total

  1. Alshaibani MM, Jalil J, Sidik NM, Edrada-Ebel R, Zin NM
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2016;10:1817-27.
    PMID: 27330275 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S101212
    BACKGROUND: Zingiber spectabile, commonly known as Beehive Ginger, is used as an ethnobotanical plant in many countries as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain, and as a cure for swelling, sores and cuts. This is the first report of isolation of Streptomyces strain from the root of this plant. Strain Universiti Kebangsaan 25 (SUK 25) has a very high activity to produce secondary metabolites against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates due to acquired multidrug resistance genes and causes medication failure in some clinical cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence exhibited that the most closely related strain was Streptomyces omiyaensis NBRC 13449T (99.0% similarity).

    AIM: This study was conducted to carry out the extraction, identification, and biological evaluation of active metabolites isolated from SUK 25 against three MRSA strains, namely, MRSA ATCC 43300, MRSA ATCC 33591, and MRSA ATCC 49476.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thronton's media. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance.

    RESULTS: During screening procedure, SUK 25 exhibited good antimicrobial potential against several strains of MRSA. The best biological activity was shown from fraction number VII and its subfractions F2 and F3 with minimum inhibitory concentration values at 16 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively. These two subfractions were identified as diketopiperazine cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol.

    CONCLUSION: On the basis of obtained results, SUK 25 isolated from Z. spectabile can be regarded as a new valuable source to produce secondary metabolites against bacteria, especially MRSA.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan/analogs & derivatives*; Tryptophan/isolation & purification; Tryptophan/pharmacology; Tryptophan/chemistry
  2. Ball HJ, Jusof FF, Bakmiwewa SM, Hunt NH, Yuasa HJ
    Front Immunol, 2014;5:485.
    PMID: 25346733 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00485
    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that have independently evolved to catalyze the first step in tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP). The depletion of tryptophan and formation of KP metabolites modulates the activity of the mammalian immune, reproductive, and central nervous systems. IDO and TDO enzymes can have overlapping or distinct functions depending on their expression patterns. The expression of TDO and IDO enzymes in mammals differs not only by tissue/cellular localization but also by their induction by distinct stimuli. To add to the complexity, these genes also have undergone duplications in some organisms leading to multiple isoforms of IDO or TDO. For example, many vertebrates, including all mammals, have acquired two IDO genes via gene duplication, although the IDO1-like gene has been lost in some lower vertebrate lineages. Gene duplications can allow the homologs to diverge and acquire different properties to the original gene. There is evidence for IDO enzymes having differing enzymatic characteristics, signaling properties, and biological functions. This review analyzes the evolutionary convergence of IDO and TDO enzymes as tryptophan-catabolizing enzymes and the divergent evolution of IDO homologs to generate an enzyme family with diverse characteristics not possessed by TDO enzymes, with an emphasis on the immune system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan; Tryptophan Oxygenase
  3. Salleh SF, Kamaruddin A, Uzir MH, Karim KA, Mohamed AR
    Arch Microbiol, 2016 Mar;198(2):101-13.
    PMID: 26521065 DOI: 10.1007/s00203-015-1164-6
    This work investigates the effect of heterocyst toward biohydrogen production by A. variabilis. The heterocyst frequency was artificially promoted by adding an amino acid analog, in this case DL-7-azatryptophan into the growth medium. The frequency of heterocyst differentiation was found to be proportional to the concentration of azatryptophan (0-25 µM) in the medium. Conversely, the growth and nitrogenase activity were gradually suppressed. In addition, there was also a distinct shortening of the cells filaments and detachment of heterocyst from the vegetative cells. Analysis on the hydrogen production performance revealed that both the frequency and distribution of heterocyst in the filaments affected the rate of hydrogen production. The highest hydrogen production rate and yield (41 µmol H2 mg chl a(-1) h(-1) and 97 mL H2 mg chl a(-1), respectively) were achieved by cells previously grown in 15 µM of azatryptophan with 14.5 % of heterocyst frequency. The existence of more isolated heterocyst has been shown to cause a relative loss in nitrogenase activity thus lowering the hydrogen production rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan
  4. Islahudin F, Pleass RJ, Avery SV, Ting KN
    J Antimicrob Chemother, 2012 Oct;67(10):2501-5.
    PMID: 22763566 DOI: 10.1093/jac/dks253
    OBJECTIVES: Recent work with the yeast model revealed that the antiprotozoal drug quinine competes with tryptophan for uptake via a common transport protein, causing cellular tryptophan starvation. In the present work, it was hypothesized that similar interactions may occur in malaria patients receiving quinine therapy.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: A direct observational study was conducted in which plasma levels of drug and amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine) were monitored during quinine treatment of malaria patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections.

    RESULTS: Consistent with competition for uptake from plasma into cells, plasma tryptophan and tyrosine levels increased ≥2-fold during quinine therapy. Plasma quinine levels in individual plasma samples were significantly and positively correlated with tryptophan and tyrosine in the same samples. Control studies indicated no effect on phenylalanine. Chloroquine treatment of Plasmodium vivax-infected patients did not affect plasma tryptophan or tyrosine. During quinine treatment, plasma tryptophan was significantly lower (and quinine significantly higher) in patients experiencing adverse drug reactions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Plasma quinine levels during therapy are related to patient tryptophan and tyrosine levels, and these interactions can determine patient responses to quinine. The study also highlights the potential for extrapolating insights directly from the yeast model to human malaria patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan/antagonists & inhibitors*; Tryptophan/metabolism
  5. Herpandi, Huda, N., Rosma, A., Wan Nadiah W. A.
    Protein-rich by-products from the canning industry, especially dark flesh of skipjack, have limited uses due to several factors such as darken color, susceptibility to oxidation and off flavour. Protein hydrolysates from skipjack dark flesh was produced with different type of industrial proteases (Alcalase®2.4L FG, Protamex®, Neutrase®1.5MG and Flavourzyme®500MG) for 60, 120, 180 and 240 min with level of proteases used of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% per weight of raw material. The degree of hydrolysis and free tryptophan content of hydrolysate were investigated. The results shows longer time with higher concentration of enzyme has increased the degree of hydrolysis. Alcalase®2.4L FG had the highest degree of hydrolysis among all proteases followed by Protamex®, Flavourzyme®500MG and Neutrase® 1.5MG. All enzymes increase free tryptophan content linearly with the increament of protease enzyme level. The longer the hydrolysis time, the higher the content of free tryptophan produced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan
  6. Mohamad Sobri MF, Abd-Aziz S, Abu Bakar FD, Ramli N
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jun 04;21(11).
    PMID: 32512945 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21114035
    β-glucosidases (Bgl) are widely utilized for releasing non-reducing terminal glucosyl residues. Nevertheless, feedback inhibition by glucose end product has limited its application. A noticeable exception has been found for β-glucosidases of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 1, which exhibit tolerance and even stimulation by glucose. In this study, using local isolate Trichoderma asperellum UPM1, the gene encoding β-glucosidase from GH family 1, hereafter designated as TaBgl2, was isolated and characterized via in-silico analyses. A comparison of enzyme activity was subsequently made by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The presence of N-terminal signature, cis-peptide bonds, conserved active site motifs, non-proline cis peptide bonds, substrate binding, and a lone conserved stabilizing tryptophan (W) residue confirms the identity of Trichoderma sp. GH family 1 β-glucosidase isolated. Glucose tolerance was suggested by the presence of 14 of 22 known consensus residues, along with corresponding residues L167 and P172, crucial in the retention of the active site's narrow cavity. Retention of 40% of relative hydrolytic activity on ρ-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (ρNPG) in a concentration of 0.2 M glucose was comparable to that of GH family 1 β-glucosidase (Cel1A) from Trichoderma reesei. This research thus underlines the potential in the prediction of enzymatic function, and of industrial importance, glucose tolerance of family 1 β-glucosidases following relevant in-silico analyses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan
  7. Islahudin F, Tindall SM, Mellor IR, Swift K, Christensen HE, Fone KC, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2014 Jan 09;4:3618.
    PMID: 24402577 DOI: 10.1038/srep03618
    The major antimalarial drug quinine perturbs uptake of the essential amino acid tryptophan, and patients with low plasma tryptophan are predisposed to adverse quinine reactions; symptoms of which are similar to indications of tryptophan depletion. As tryptophan is a precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), here we test the hypothesis that quinine disrupts serotonin function. Quinine inhibited serotonin-induced proliferation of yeast as well as human (SHSY5Y) cells. One possible cause of this effect is through inhibition of 5-HT receptor activation by quinine, as we observed here. Furthermore, cells exhibited marked decreases in serotonin production during incubation with quinine. By assaying activity and kinetics of the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2), we showed that quinine competitively inhibits TPH2 in the presence of the substrate tryptophan. The study shows that quinine disrupts both serotonin biosynthesis and function, giving important new insight to the action of quinine on mammalian cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan Hydroxylase/antagonists & inhibitors
  8. Zainudin MAM, Poojary MM, Jongberg S, Lund MN
    Food Chem, 2019 Nov 30;299:125132.
    PMID: 31299519 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125132
    Protein oxidation of beef patties stored in high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging for 9 days was investigated. Meat was either stored in the dark, under light, or in the dark with addition of FeCl2/H2O2/myoglobin (forced oxidation). SDS-PAGE analysis showed high degree of protein polymerization for meat exposed to light, compared to the other samples. Light exposure induced reducible (disulfide) and non-reducible cross-links, while mainly disulfides were formed in meat stored in the dark. Light exposure was responsible for 58% loss of free thiols (Cys residues). No significant loss of other amino acid residues was observed and none of the most common oxidation products of tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine were detected. Intrinsic fluorescence measurements of tryptophan showed 27% loss in samples exposed to light, which was ascribed to loss of protein solubility via protein polymerization rather than tryptophan oxidation. Protein carbonyls were mainly detected in forced oxidized samples at Day 0.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan/chemistry
  9. Lim YH, Foo HL, Loh TC, Mohamad R, Abdul Rahim R
    Molecules, 2020 Feb 11;25(4).
    PMID: 32054138 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25040779
    Tryptophan is one of the most extensively used amino acids in livestock industry owing to its effectiveness in enhancing the growth performance of animals. Conventionally, the production of tryptophan relies heavily on genetically modified Escherichia coli but its pathogenicity is a great concern. Our recent study demonstrated that a lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Pediococcus acidilactici TP-6 that isolated from Malaysian food was a promising tryptophan producer. However, the tryptophan production must enhance further for viable industrial application. Hence, the current study evaluated the effects of medium components and optimized the medium composition for tryptophan production by P. acidilactici TP-6 statistically using Plackett-Burman Design, and Central Composite Design. The optimized medium containing molasses (14.06 g/L), meat extract (23.68 g/L), urea (5.56 g/L) and FeSO4 (0.024 g/L) significantly enhanced the tryptophan production by 150% as compared to the control de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. The findings obtained in this study revealed that rapid evaluation and effective optimization of medium composition governing tryptophan production by P. acidilactici TP-6 were feasible via statistical approaches. Additionally, the current findings reveal the potential of utilizing LAB as a safer alternative tryptophan producer and provides insight for future exploitation of various amino acid productions by LAB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan/biosynthesis*
  10. Juneta-Nor AS, Noordin NM, Azra MN, Ma HY, Husin NM, Ikhwanuddin M
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2020 10 13;21(10):823-834.
    PMID: 33043647 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B2000126
    Ecdysis is a common phenomenon that happens throughout the life phase of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. It is vital to better understand the correlation between cannibalism and biochemical compound that exists during the moulting process. The objective of the present study was to determine the amino acid profile released by M. rosenbergii during the ecdysis process that promotes cannibalism. To accomplish this, changes in amino acid levels (total amino acid (TAA) and free amino acid (FAA)) of tissue muscle, exoskeleton, and sample water of culture medium from the moulting (E-stage) and non-moulting (C-stage) prawns were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Comparison study revealed that among the TAA compounds, proline and sarcosine of tissues from moulting prawn were found at the highest levels. The level of FAA from water that contains moulting prawns (E-stage) was dominated by tryptophan and proline. Significant values obtained in the present study suggested that these amino acid compounds act as a chemical cue to promote cannibalism in M. rosenbergii during ecdysis. The knowledge of compositions and compounds that were released during the moulting process should be helpful for better understanding of the mechanism and chemical cues that play roles on triggering cannibalism, and also for future dietary manipulation to improve feeding efficiencies and feeding management, which indirectly impacts productivity and profitability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan/chemistry
  11. Wei GZ, Martin KA, Xing PY, Agrawal R, Whiley L, Wood TK, et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2021 07 06;118(27).
    PMID: 34210797 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021091118
    While modulatory effects of gut microbes on neurological phenotypes have been reported, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that indole, a tryptophan metabolite produced by tryptophanase-expressing gut microbes, elicits neurogenic effects in the adult mouse hippocampus. Neurogenesis is reduced in germ-free (GF) mice and in GF mice monocolonized with a single-gene tnaA knockout (KO) mutant Escherichia coli unable to produce indole. External administration of systemic indole increases adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in these mouse models and in specific pathogen-free (SPF) control mice. Indole-treated mice display elevated synaptic markers postsynaptic density protein 95 and synaptophysin, suggesting synaptic maturation effects in vivo. By contrast, neurogenesis is not induced by indole in aryl hydrocarbon receptor KO (AhR-/-) mice or in ex vivo neurospheres derived from them. Neural progenitor cells exposed to indole exit the cell cycle, terminally differentiate, and mature into neurons that display longer and more branched neurites. These effects are not observed with kynurenine, another AhR ligand. The indole-AhR-mediated signaling pathway elevated the expression of β-catenin, Neurog2, and VEGF-α genes, thus identifying a molecular pathway connecting gut microbiota composition and their metabolic function to neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Our data have implications for the understanding of mechanisms of brain aging and for potential next-generation therapeutic opportunities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan/metabolism*
  12. Hang CY, Kitahashi T, Parhar IS
    J. Comp. Neurol., 2014 Dec 1;522(17):3847-60.
    PMID: 25043553 DOI: 10.1002/cne.23645
    In addition to vision, light information is used to regulate a range of animal physiology. Such nonimage-forming functions of light are mediated by nonvisual photoreceptors expressed in distinct neurons in the retina and the brain in most vertebrates. A nonvisual photoreceptor vertebrate ancient long opsin (VAL-opsin) possesses two functional isoforms in the zebrafish, encoded by valopa and valopb, which has received little attention. To delineate the neurochemical identities of valop cells and to test for colocalization of the valop isoforms, we used in situ hybridization to characterize the expression of the valop genes along with that of neurotransmitters and a neuropeptide known to be present at the sites of valop expression. Double labeling showed that the thalamic valop population coexpresses valopa and valopb. All the thalamic valop cells overlapped with a GABAergic cell mass that continues from the anterior nucleus to the intercalated thalamic nucleus. A novel valopa cell population found in the superior raphe was serotonergic in nature. A valopb cell population in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus was identified as containing thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Valopb cells localized in the hindbrain intermediate reticular formation were noncholinergic in nature (nonmotorneurons). Thus, the presence of valop cell populations in different brain regions with coexpression of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides and the colocalization of valop isoforms in the thalamic cell population indicate regulatory and functional complexity of VAL-opsin in the brain of the zebrafish.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan Hydroxylase/genetics; Tryptophan Hydroxylase/metabolism
  13. Mohd Din AR, Iliyas Ahmad F, Wagiran A, Abd Samad A, Rahmat Z, Sarmidi MR
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2016 Jan;23(1):S69-77.
    PMID: 26858569 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.10.022
    A new and rapid protocol for optimum callus production and complete plant regeneration has been assessed in Malaysian upland rice (Oryza sativa) cv. Panderas. The effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) on the regeneration frequency of Malaysian upland rice (cv. Panderas) was investigated. Mature seeds were used as a starting material for callus induction experiment using various concentrations of 2,4-D and NAA. Optimal callus induction frequency at 90% was obtained on MS media containing 2,4-D (3 mg L(-1)) and NAA (2 mg L(-1)) after 6 weeks while no significant difference was seen on tryptophan and glutamine parameters. Embryogenic callus was recorded as compact, globular and light yellowish in color. The embryogenic callus morphology was further confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. For regeneration, induced calli were treated with various concentrations of Kin (0.5-1.5 mg L(-1)), BAP, NAA and 0.5 mg L(-1) of TDZ. The result showed that the maximum regeneration frequency (100%) was achieved on MS medium containing BAP (0.5 mg L(-1)), Kin (1.5 mg L(-1)), NAA (0.5 mg L(-1)) and TDZ (0.5 mg L(-1)) within four weeks. Developed shoots were successfully rooted on half strength MS free hormone medium and later transferred into a pot containing soil for acclimatization. This cutting-edge finding is unique over the other existing publishable data due to the good regeneration response by producing a large number of shoots.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan
  14. Ling W, Liew G, Li Y, Hao Y, Pan H, Wang H, et al.
    Adv. Mater. Weinheim, 2018 Jun;30(23):e1800917.
    PMID: 29633379 DOI: 10.1002/adma.201800917
    The combination of novel materials with flexible electronic technology may yield new concepts of flexible electronic devices that effectively detect various biological chemicals to facilitate understanding of biological processes and conduct health monitoring. This paper demonstrates single- or multichannel implantable flexible sensors that are surface modified with conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) such as copper-MOF and cobalt-MOF with large surface area, high porosity, and tunable catalysis capability. The sensors can monitor important nutriments such as ascorbicacid, glycine, l-tryptophan (l-Trp), and glucose with detection resolutions of 14.97, 0.71, 4.14, and 54.60 × 10-6 m, respectively. In addition, they offer sensing capability even under extreme deformation and complex surrounding environment with continuous monitoring capability for 20 d due to minimized use of biological active chemicals. Experiments using live cells and animals indicate that the MOF-modified sensors are biologically safe to cells, and can detect l-Trp in blood and interstitial fluid. This work represents the first effort in integrating MOFs with flexible sensors to achieve highly specific and sensitive implantable electrochemical detection and may inspire appearance of more flexible electronic devices with enhanced capability in sensing, energy storage, and catalysis using various properties of MOFs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan
  15. Soga T, Nakajima S, Parhar IS
    Front Neuroanat, 2020;14:599540.
    PMID: 33776659 DOI: 10.3389/fnana.2020.599540
    Repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) is highly expressed in the dorsal raphe where serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurons are located. REST works as a transcription factor for the 5-HT receptor and tryptophan hydroxylase two-gene expression. We hypothesized that REST is co-expressed in 5-HT neurons, which, if demonstrated, would be useful to understand the mechanism of 5-HT dysfunction-related disorders such as negative emotions and depression. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the expression of the REST gene in the brain (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain) of adult male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using rt-PCR. Besides, using immunocytochemistry, co-localization of the REST gene was examined in 5-HT neurons and with neuronal-/glial-cell markers. We found a high expression of the REST gene in the midbrain region of the dorsal raphe, an area of 5-HT neurons. Double-label immunocytochemistry showed neuron-specific expression of REST co-localized in 5-HT neurons in the dorsal and ventral parts of the periventricular pretectal nucleus, paraventricular organ, and dorsal and medial raphe nucleus. Since midbrain 5-HT neurons express REST, we speculate that REST may control 5-HT neuronal activity related to negative emotions, including depression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan Hydroxylase
  16. Yap PG, Gan CY
    Foods, 2021 Mar 22;10(3).
    PMID: 33810046 DOI: 10.3390/foods10030675
    Nature-derived tyrosinase inhibitors are of great industrial interest. Three monophenolase inhibitor peptides (MIPs) and three diphenolase inhibitor peptides (DIPs) from a previous study were investigated for their in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects, mode of inhibition, copper-chelating activity, sun protection factor (SPF) and antioxidant activities. DIP1 was found to be the most potent tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 = 3.04 ± 0.39 mM), which could be due to the binding interactions between its aromatic amino acid residues (Y2 and D7) with tyrosinase hotspots (H85, V248, H258, H263, F264, R268, V283 and E322) and its ability to chelate copper ion within the substrate-binding pocket. The conjugated planar rings of tyrosine and tryptophan may interact with histidine within the active site to provide stability upon enzyme-peptide binding. This postulation was later confirmed as the Lineweaver-Burk analysis had identified DIP1 as a competitive inhibitor and DIP1 also showed 36.27 ± 1.17% of copper chelating activity. In addition, DIP1 provided the highest SPF value (11.9 ± 0.04) as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (5.09 ± 0.13 mM FeSO4), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) (11.34 ± 0.90%) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (29.14 ± 1.36%) free radical scavenging activities compared to other peptides. These results demonstrated that DIP1 could be a multifunctional anti-tyrosinase agent with pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan
  17. Faridah HS, Goh YM, Noordin MM, Liang JB
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2020 Dec;33(12):1965-1974.
    PMID: 32164059 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.19.0964
    OBJECTIVE: This study consisted of two stages; the first was to determine the effect of extrusion and sieving treatments on the chemical properties of palm kernel cake (PKC), and accordingly, a follow-up experiment (second stage) was conducted to determine and compare the apparent metabolizable energy (AME), and protein and amino acid digestibility of extruded and sieved PKC.

    METHODS: Two physical treatments, namely extrusion (using temperature profiles of 90°C/100°C/100°C, 90°C/100°C/110°C, and 90°C/100°C/120°C) and sieving (to 8 particles sizes ranging from >8.00 to 0.15 mm) were carried out to determine their effects on chemical properties, primarily crude protein (CP) and fiber contents of PKC. Based on the results from the above study, PKC that extruded with temperature profile 90/100/110°C and of sieved size between 1.5 to 0.15 mm (which made up of near 60% of total samples) were used to determine treatments effect on AME and CP and amino acid digestibility. The second stage experiment was conducted using 64 male Cobb 500 chickens randomly assigned to 16 cages (4 cages [or replicates] per treatment) to the following four dietary groups: i) basal (control) diet, ii) basal diet containing 20% untreated PKC, iii) basal diet containing 20% extruded PKC (EPKC), and iv) basal diet containing 20% sieved PKC (SPKC).

    RESULTS: Extrusion and sieving had no effect on CP and ash contents of PKC, however, both treatments reduced (p<0.05) crude fiber by 21% and 19%, respectively. Overall, extrusion and sieving reduced content of most of the amino acids except for aspartate, glutamate, alanine and lysine which increased, while serine, cysteine and tryptophan remained unchanged. Extrusion resulted in 6% increase (p<0.05) in AME and enhanced CP digestibility (p<0.05) by 32%, as compared to the untreated PKC while sieving had no effect on AME but improved CP digestibility by 39% which was not significantly different from that by extrusion.

    CONCLUSION: Extrusion is more effective than sieving and serves as a practical method to enhance AME and digestibility of CP and several amino acids in broiler chickens.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan
  18. Liu G, Chong HX, Chung FY, Li Y, Liong MT
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jun 29;21(13).
    PMID: 32610495 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21134608
    We have previously reported that the administration of Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 for 12 weeks reduced stress and anxiety in stressed adults as compared to the placebo group, in association with changes along the brain neurotransmitters pathways of serotonin and dopamine-norepinephrine. We now aim to evaluate the effects of DR7 on gut functions, gut microbiota compositional changes, and determine the correlations between microbiota changes and the pathways of brain neurotransmitters. The administration of DR7 prevented an increase of defecation frequency over 12 weeks as compared to the placebo (p = 0.044), modulating the increase of stress-induced bowel movement. Over 12 weeks, alpha diversity of gut microbiota was higher in DR7 than the placebo group across class (p = 0.005) and order (p = 0.018) levels, while beta diversity differed between groups at class and order levels (p < 0.001). Differences in specific bacterial groups were identified, showing consistency at different taxonomic levels that survived multiplicity correction, along the phyla of Bacteroides and Firmicutes and along the classes of Deltaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Bacteroidetes, Bacteroidia, and Bacteroidales which were reduced in abundance in the placebo group showed opposing correlation with gene expression of dopamine beta hydrolase (DBH, dopamine pathway; p < 0.001), while Bacteroidia and Bacteroidales showed correlation with tryptophan hydroxylase-II (TPH2, serotonin pathway; p = 0.001). A correlation was observed between DBH and Firmicutes (p = 0.002), Clostridia (p < 0.001), Clostridiales (p = 0.001), Blautia (p < 0.001), and Romboutsia (p < 0.001), which were increased in abundance in the placebo group. Blautia was also associated with TDO (p = 0.001), whereas Romboutsia had an opposing correlation with TPH2 (p < 0.001). Deltaproteobacteria and Desulfovibrionales which were decreased in abundance in the placebo group showed opposing correlation with DBH (p = 0.001), whereas Bilophila was associated with TPH2 (p = 0.001). Our present data showed that physiological changes induced by L. plantarum DR7 could be associated with changes in specific taxa of the gut microbiota along the serotonin and dopamine pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan Hydroxylase
  19. Mohd Roby BH, Muhialdin BJ, Abadl MMT, Mat Nor NA, Marzlan AA, Lim SAH, et al.
    J Food Sci, 2020 Aug;85(8):2286-2295.
    PMID: 32691422 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15302
    This study aimed to produce sourdough bread using an encapsulated kombucha sourdough starter culture without the addition of baker's yeast. The bioactive metabolites of kombucha sourdough starter and sourdough starter without kombucha were identified using 1 H-NMR analysis with multivariate analysis. The physical properties, including loaf volume, specific loaf volume, firmness, and water activity were determined following standard methods. The shelf life and consumer acceptability of the bread were also being evaluated. The principal component analyses showed the presence of 15 metabolites in kombucha sourdough starter. The major compounds that contributed to the differences from sourdough starter without kombucha were alpha-aminobutyric acid, alanine, acetic acid, riboflavin, pyridoxine, anserine, tryptophan, gluconic acid, and trehalose. The encapsulated kombucha sourdough starter increased the loaf volume (976.7 ± 25.2 mL) and specific loaf volume (4.38 ± 0.12 mL/g) compared to yeast bread. Thus, significant (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan
  20. Sakurama K, Nishi K, Chuang VTG, Hashimoto M, Yamasaki K, Otagiri M
    Biol Pharm Bull, 2020;43(6):1023-1026.
    PMID: 32475912 DOI: 10.1248/bpb.b20-00205
    Aripiprazole (ARP) is one of antipsychotics and binds to human serum albumin (HSA) with a high affinity. In this study, we investigated the binding characteristics of ARP to oxidized HSA as observed in chronic disease conditions. Oxidized HSAs were prepared using chloramine-T (CT-HSA) or metal-catalyzed oxidation system (MCO-HSA) in vitro, respectively. An increase in the carbonyl content was confirmed in oxidized HSAs. From the results of circular dichroism (CD) and tryptophan fluorescence spectra, no significant structural change of oxidized HSAs was observed. These results indicate that prepared HSAs are mildly oxidized and well reflects the status of HSA during chronic diseases. However, oxidized HSAs were observed to have a significant decrease in binding to ARP. The results of the induced CD spectrum suggested that ARP bound to oxidized HSAs with a similar orientation. These results suggest that oxidation of HSA during chronic disease state significantly affected the microenvironment of the binding site for ARP and binding capacity of HSA to ARP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tryptophan
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