MATERIAL AND METHODS: qRT-PCR and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate mRNA and protein expression of XCR1 and hLtn. Recombinant hLtn variants (wild-type, CC3 and W55D mutant) were designed, expressed, purified and evaluated using proliferation, adhesion and chemotaxis assays. XCR1 and hLtn expression regulation by fibroblasts was determined using indirect co-culture. XCR1 and hLtn expression in primary and metastatic OSCC tissue was assessed using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: hLtn caused a significant decrease in OCCL XCR1 surface protein expression. hLtn CC3 mutant was highly functional facilitating proliferation and migration. Conditioned media from primary cancer-associated and senescent fibroblasts significantly upregulated XCR1 and hLtn mRNA expression in OCCL. Immunohistochemistry revealed higher XCR1 and hLtn expression in metastatic tumour deposits and surrounding stroma compared to primary OSCC tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: The development of hLtn biological mutants, regulation of XCR1 expression by its ligand hLtn and crosstalk with fibroblasts are novel findings suggesting an important role for the XCR1/hLtn axis within the OSCC tumour microenvironment. These discoveries build upon previous studies and suggest that the hLtn/XCR1 axis has a significant role in stromal crosstalk and OSCC progression.
METHODS: Cell counting kit 8(CCK8), 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), transwell and wound healing assays were conducted to study the influence of ZnC in the proliferating, invading and migrating processes of CRC cell lines (HCT116, LOVO) in vitro. The antitumor activity ZnC as well as its effects on tumor immune microenvironment were then assessed using CRC subcutaneous tumors in the C57BL/6 mouse model.
RESULTS: According to CCK8, EdU, transwell and wound healing assays, ZnC inhibited CRC cell lines in terms of proliferation, invasion and migration. ZnC could inhibit miR-570 for up-regulating PD-L1 expression. In vivo experiments showed that gavage (100 mg/kg, once every day) of ZnC inhibited the tumor growth of CRC, and the combination of ZnC and anti-PD1 therapy significantly improved the efficacy exhibited by anti-PD1 in treating CRC. In addition, mass cytometry results showed that immunosuppressive cells including regulatory T cells (tregs), bone marrow-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and M2 macrophages decreased whereas CD8+ T cells elevated after adding ZnC.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals that ZnC slows the progression of CRC by inhibiting CRC cells in terms of proliferation, invasion and migration, meanwhile up-regulating PD-L1 expression via inhibiting miR-570. The ZnC-anti-PD1 co-treatment assists in synergically increasing anti-tumor efficacy in CRC therapy.
MAIN BODY: This review highlights the roles of CSCs in tumour initiation, progression and metastasis with a focus on the cellular and molecular regulators that influence their phenotypical changes and behaviours in the different stages of cancer progression. We delineate the cross-talks between CSCs with the tumour microenvironment that support their intrinsic properties including survival, stemness, quiescence and their cellular and molecular adaptation in response to therapeutic pressure. An insight into the distinct roles of CSCs in promoting angiogenesis and metastasis has been captured based on in vitro and in vivo evidences.
CONCLUSION: Given dynamic cellular events along the cancer progression and contributions of resistance nature by CSCs, understanding their molecular and cellular regulatory mechanism in a heterogeneous nature, provides significant cornerstone for the development of CSC-specific therapeutics.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ameloblastoma cases comprising unicystic ameloblastoma (n=19) and solid/multicystic ameloblastoma (n=20) were subjected to IHC staining for IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. A semi-quantitative method was used to evaluate the expression levels of these cytokines according to cell types in the tumoural parenchyma and stroma.
RESULTS: Major findings were upregulations of IL-1α and IL-6 in SMA compared to UA. Both cytokines were heterogeneously detected in the tumoural parenchyma and stroma. Within the neoplastic epithelial compartment, IL-1α expression was more frequently detected in PA-like cells in UA whereas it was more frequently encountered in SR-like cells in SMA. IL-6 demonstrated higher expression levels in the stromal compartment of SMA. IL-1β and IL-8 were markedly underexpressed in both tumour subsets.
CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of IL-1α in SMA suggests that this growth factor might play a role in promoting bone resorption and local invasiveness in this subtype. The expression levels of IL-1α and IL-6 in three cellular localizations indicate that parenchymal-stromal components of ameloblastoma interact reciprocally via IL-1α and IL-6 to create a microenvironment conducive for tumour progression.