Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

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  1. Daood U, Aati S, Akram Z, Yee J, Yong C, Parolia A, et al.
    Biomater Sci, 2021 Jul 27;9(15):5344-5358.
    PMID: 34190236 DOI: 10.1039/d1bm00555c
    The aim of this study was to characterize multiscale interactions between high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and dentin collagen and associated matrix-metalloproteinases, in addition to the analysis of the effect of HIFU on bacterial biofilms and biological properties. Dentin specimens were subjected to 5, 10 or 20 s HIFU. XPS spectra were acquired and TEM was performed on dentin slabs. Collagen orientation was performed using Raman spectroscopy. Calcium measurements in human dental pulpal cells (hDPCs) were carried out after 7 and 14 days. For macrophages, CD36+ and CD163+ were analysed. Biofilms were analyzed using CLSM. Tandem mass spectroscopy was performed for the detection of hydroxyproline sequences along with human MMP-2 quantification. Phosphorus, calcium, and nitrogen were detected in HIFU specimens. TEM images demonstrated the collagen network appearing to be fused together in the HIFU 10 and 20 s specimens. The band associated with 960 cm-1 corresponds to the stretching ν1 PO43-. The control specimens showed intensive calcium staining followed by HIFU 20 s > HIFU 10 s > HIFU 5 s specimens. Macrophages in the HIFU specimens co-expressed CD80+ and CD163+ cells. CLSM images showed the HIFU treatment inhibiting bacterial growth. SiteScore propensity determined the effect of HIFU on the binding site with a higher DScore representing better site exposure on MMPs. Multiscale mapping of dentin collagen after HIFU treatment showed no deleterious alterations on the organic structure of dentin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  2. Hashemi Moosavi M, Mousavi Khaneghah A, Javanmardi F, Hadidi M, Hadian Z, Jafarzadeh S, et al.
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2021 Nov;79:105755.
    PMID: 34562735 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105755
    Innovative technologies for the pasteurization of food products have increased due to the global demand for higher-quality food products. In this regard, the current article aimed to provide an overview regarding the latest research on US application in the decontamination of fungi in food products and highlight the parameters influencing the effectiveness of this method. Therefore, the related article with inactivation of fungi and mycotoxins by ultrasound among last four years (2018-2021) by using terms such as 'mycotoxin,' 'inactivation,' 'ultrasound,' 'decontamination' among some international databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Google Scholar" was retrieved. Ultrasound (US) is considered a non-thermal decontamination method for food products. In US, the release of energy due to the acoustic phenomenon destroys microorganisms. This technology is advantageous as it is inexpensive, eco-friendly, and does not negatively affect food products' food structure and organoleptic properties. The influence of the US on food structure and organoleptic properties dramatically depends on the intensity and energy density applied In addition, it can preserve higher levels of ascorbic acid, lycopene, and chlorophyll in sonicated food products. The treatment conditions, including frequency, intensity, duration, temperature, and processing pressure, influence the effectiveness of decontamination. However, US displays synergistic or antagonistic effects on bacteria, yeasts, molds, and mycotoxins when combined with other types of decontamination methods such as chemical and thermal approaches. Thus, further research is needed to clarify these effects. Overall, the application of US methods in the food industry for decreasing the microbial content of food products during processing has been applied. However, the use of US with other techniques needs to be studied further.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  3. Liew SQ, Ngoh GC, Yusoff R, Teoh WH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2016 Dec;93(Pt A):426-435.
    PMID: 27565298 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.08.065
    This study aims to optimize sequential ultrasound-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) on pomelo peel using citric acid. The effects of pH, sonication time, microwave power and irradiation time on the yield and the degree of esterification (DE) of pectin were investigated. Under optimized conditions of pH 1.80, 27.52min sonication followed by 6.40min microwave irradiation at 643.44W, the yield and the DE value of pectin obtained was respectively at 38.00% and 56.88%. Based upon optimized UMAE condition, the pectin from microwave-ultrasound assisted extraction (MUAE), ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were studied. The yield of pectin adopting the UMAE was higher than all other techniques in the order of UMAE>MUAE>MAE>UAE. The pectin's galacturonic acid content obtained from combined extraction technique is higher than that obtained from sole extraction technique and the pectin gel produced from various techniques exhibited a pseudoplastic behaviour. The morphological structures of pectin extracted from MUAE and MAE closely resemble each other. The extracted pectin from UMAE with smaller and more regular surface differs greatly from that of UAE. This has substantiated the highest pectin yield of 36.33% from UMAE and further signified their compatibility and potentiality in pectin extraction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  4. Al-Habib, May F., Al-Ani, Imad M., Salman, Mohammad O., Faleh, Farah W.
    MyJurnal
    To study the effect of both laser and ultrasound radiation on bone fracture
    healing process. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves
  5. Hamidi H, Sharifi Haddad A, Wisdom Otumudia E, Rafati R, Mohammadian E, Azdarpour A, et al.
    Ultrasonics, 2021 Feb;110:106288.
    PMID: 33142226 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2020.106288
    Ultrasound technique is an inexpensive and ecofriendly technology commonly used in oil and gas industry to improve oil recovery and its applications have been successfully tested in both laboratory and field scales. In this technique, high-power ultrasonic waves are utilized downhole to improve oil recovery and reduce formation damage in near wellbore region that causes a reduction in hydrocarbon production rate due to the penetration of mud, scale deposition, etc. In most of the cases, barriers for the oil flow to the wellbore are effectively removed by using the ultrasound technique and the effect of improved oil recovery may last up to several months. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of recent laboratory, field and mathematical studies to serve as reference for future extensive examination of ultrasound assisted improved oil recovery. As an added value to this field of study, research gaps and opportunities based on the review of recent works were identified and factors that needs to be considered to improve the outcome of future studies were recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves
  6. Fayyazi E, Ghobadian B, Najafi G, Hosseinzadeh B, Mamat R, Hosseinzadeh J
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2015 Sep;26:312-20.
    PMID: 25870003 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2015.03.007
    Biodiesel is a green (clean), renewable energy source and is an alternative for diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil, animal fat and waste cooking oil or fat. Fats and oils react with alcohol to produce methyl ester, which is generally known as biodiesel. Because vegetable oil and animal fat wastes are cheaper, the tendency to produce biodiesel from these materials is increasing. In this research, the effect of some parameters such as the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (4:1, 6:1, 8:1), the catalyst concentration (0.75%, 1% and 1.25% w/w) and the time for the transesterification reaction using ultrasonication on the rate of the fatty acids-to-methyl ester (biodiesel) conversion percentage have been studied (3, 6 and 9 min). In biodiesel production from chicken fat, when increasing the catalyst concentration up to 1%, the oil-to-biodiesel conversion percentage was first increased and then decreased. Upon increasing the molar ratio from 4:1 to 6:1 and then to 8:1, the oil-to-biodiesel conversion percentage increased by 21.9% and then 22.8%, respectively. The optimal point is determined by response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithms (GAs). The biodiesel production from chicken fat by ultrasonic waves with a 1% w/w catalyst percentage, 7:1 alcohol-to-oil molar ratio and 9 min reaction time was equal to 94.8%. For biodiesel that was produced by ultrasonic waves under a similar conversion percentage condition compared to the conventional method, the reaction time was decreased by approximately 87.5%. The time reduction for the ultrasonic method compared to the conventional method makes the ultrasonic method superior.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  7. Mat-Shayuti MS, Tuan Ya TMYS, Abdullah MZ, Megat Khamaruddin PNF, Othman NH
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Sep;26(26):26419-26438.
    PMID: 31327143 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05954-w
    Steady efforts in using ultrasonic energy to treat oil-contaminated sand started in the early 2000s until today, although pilot studies on the area can be traced to even earlier dates. Owing to the unique characteristics of the acoustic means, the separation of oil from sand has been showing good results in laboratories. This review provides the compilation of researches and insights into the mechanism of separation thus far. Related topics in the areas of oil-contaminated sand characterizations, fundamental ultrasonic cleaning, and cavitation effects are also addressed. Nevertheless, many of the documented works are only at laboratory or pilot-scale level, and the comprehensive interaction between ultrasonic parameters towards cleaning efficiencies may not have been fully unveiled. Gaps and opportunities are also presented at the end of this article.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  8. Sergeev A, Motyakin M, Barashkova I, Zaborova V, Krasulya O, Yusof NSM
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2021 Sep;77:105673.
    PMID: 34311321 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105673
    The effect of ultrasound treatment on molecular mobility and organization of the main components in raw goat milk was studied by EPR and NMR spectroscopies. NMR relaxation studies showed an increase in the spin-lattice T1 and spin-spin T2 relaxation times in goat milk products (cream, anhydrous fat) and change in the diffusion of proton-containing molecules during ultrasound treatment. The diffusion became more uniform and could be rather accurately approximated by one effective diffusion coefficient Deff, which indicates homogenization of goat milk components, dispersion of globular and supermicellar formations under sonication. EPR studies have shown that molecular mobility and organization of hydrophobic regions in goat milk are similar to those observed in micellar formations of surfactants with a hydrocarbon chain length C12-C16. Ultrasound treatment did not affect submicellar and protein globule organization. Free radicals arising under ultrasound impact of milk reacted quickly with components of goat milk (triglycerides, proteins, fatty acids) and were not observed by spin trapping method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  9. Ghavamian A, Mustapha F, Baharudin BTHT, Yidris N
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 Dec 17;18(12).
    PMID: 30563013 DOI: 10.3390/s18124470
    This paper aims to provide an overview of the experimental and simulation works focused on the detection, localisation and assessment of various defects in pipes by applying fast-screening guided ultrasonic wave techniques that have been used in the oil and gas industries over the past 20 years. Major emphasis is placed on limitations, capabilities, defect detection in coated buried pipes under pressure and corrosion monitoring using different commercial guided wave (GW) systems, approaches to simulation techniques such as the finite element method (FEM), wave mode selection, excitation and collection, GW attenuation, signal processing and different types of GW transducers. The effects of defect parameters on reflection coefficients are also discussed in terms of different simulation studies and experimental verifications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves
  10. Ali, G., Russly, A.R., Jamilah, B., Azizah, O., Mandana, B.
    MyJurnal
    This study aims to evaluate the effect of heat and the simultaneous application of heat (80-95°C) and ultrasonic waves (thermosonication) on the inactivation kinetic of peroxidase and vitamin C degradation in seedless guava. Ultrasonic wave’s amplitudes except 25 and 100% had significant (P 0.98). In the heat blanching process, the peroxidase inactivation rate constant increased from 1.1×10-2 to 4.6×10-2 s-1. However, the inactivation rate of peroxidase was increased by 1.5–3 times in the temperature range 80–95ºC, with the 50 and 75% ultrasonic wave amplitudes, respectively. Decreases in vitamin C contents due to blanching treatments were found. Blanching processes at high temperature and short time resulted in higher vitamin C retention. It was found that thermosonication treatment inactivates seedless guava peroxidase at less severe blanching conditions and consequently retains vitamin C content at higher levels. The present findings will help to design the blanching conditions in order to reduce the severity of conventional thermal treatments and, therefore, improving the quality of the thermally treated product.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves
  11. Alguri KS, Chia CC, Harley JB
    Ultrasonics, 2021 Mar;111:106338.
    PMID: 33338729 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2020.106338
    Wavefield imaging is a powerful visualization tool in nondestructive evaluation for studying ultrasonic wave propagation and its interactions with damage. To isolate and study damage scattering, damage-free baseline data is often subtracted from a wavefield. This is often necessary because the damage wavefield can be orders of magnitude weaker than the incident waves. Yet, baselines are not always accessible. When the baselines are accessible, the experimental conditions for the baseline and test data must be extremely similar. Researchers have created several baseline-free approaches for isolating damage wavefields, but these often rely on specific experimental setups. In this paper, we discuss a flexible approach based on ultrasonic guided wave digital surrogates (i.e., numerical simulations of incident waves) and transfer learning. We demonstrate this approach with two setups. We first isolate reflections from a circular, 2 mm diameter half-thickness hole on a 10 × 10 cm steel plate. We then isolate 8 circular, half-thickness holes of various diameters from 1 mm to 40 mm on a 60 × 60 cm steel plate. The second plate has a non-square geometry and the data has multi-path reflections. With both data sets, we isolate damage reflections without explicit experimental baselines. We also briefly illustrate the comparison of our dictionary learning method with wavenumber filtering technique which is often used to enhance the defect wavefields.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves
  12. Alzorqi I, Sudheer S, Lu TJ, Manickam S
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2017 Mar;35(Pt B):531-540.
    PMID: 27161557 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2016.04.017
    Ganoderma mushroom cultivated recently in Malaysia to produce chemically different nutritional fibers has attracted the attention of the local market. The extraction methods, molecular weight and degree of branching of (1-3; 1-6)-β-d-glucan polysaccharides is of prime importance to determine its antioxidant bioactivity. Therefore three extraction methods i.e. hot water extraction (HWE), soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (US) were employed to study the total content of (1-3; 1-6)-β-d-glucans, degree of branching, structural characteristics, monosaccharides composition, as well as the total yield of polysaccharides that could be obtained from the artificially cultivated Ganoderma. The physical characteristics by HPAEC-PAD, HPGPC and FTIR, as well as the antioxidant in vitro assays of DPPH scavenging activity and ferric reducing power (FRAP) indicated that (1-3; 1-6)-β-d-glucans of Malaysian mushroom have better antioxidant activity, higher molecular weight and optimal degree of branching when extracted by US in comparison with conventional methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  13. Alazzawi MMJ, Husein A, Alam MK, Hassan R, Shaari R, Azlina A, et al.
    Prog Orthod, 2018 Apr 16;19(1):10.
    PMID: 29658096 DOI: 10.1186/s40510-018-0208-2
    BACKGROUND: Quality bone regeneration, which leads to the improvement of bone remodeling, is essential for orthodontic treatment. In order to improve bone regeneration and increase the amount of tooth movement, different techniques have been implemented. The object of this study is to compare the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), and their combination on bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement.

    METHODS: Eighty (80) male, 6-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were grouped in to four groups, the first group was irradiated with (940 nm) diode laser, second group with LIPUS, and third group with combination of both LLLT and LIPUS. A forth group used was a control group in an incomplete block split-mouth design. The LLLT and LIPUS were used to treat the area around the moving tooth once a day on days 0-7, then the experiment was ended in each experimental endpoint (1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days). For amount of tooth movement, models were imaged and analyzed. Histological examination was performed after staining with (hematoxylin and eosin) and (alizarin red and Alcian Blue) stain. One step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR was also performed to elucidate the gene expression of RANK, RANKL, OPG, and RUNX-2.

    RESULTS: The amount of tooth movement, the histological bone remodeling, and the RT-PCR were significantly greater in the treatment groups than that in the control group. Among the treatment groups, the combination group was the highest and the LIPUS group was the lowest.

    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that LLLT and LIPUS can enhance the velocity of tooth movement and improve the quality of bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  14. Hwa KY, Karuppaiah P, Gowthaman NSK, Balakumar V, Shankar S, Lim HN
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2019 Nov;58:104649.
    PMID: 31450344 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.104649
    Hydroquinone (HQ), a phenolic compound is expansively used in many industrial applications and due to the utilization of HQ, water pollution tragedies frequently found by the improper handling and accidental outflows. When HQ is adsorbed directly through the skin that create toxic effects to human by affecting kidney, liver, lungs, and urinary tract and hence, a highly selective and sensitive technique is required for its quantification. Herein, we have developed the ultrasonic synthesis of copper oxide nanoflakes (CuO-NFs) using ultrasonic bath (20 kHz, 100 W) and successfully employed for the sensitive detection of the environmental hazardous pollutant HQ. The formed CuO-NFs were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), FT-IR spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy and fabricated with the screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The SEM images exhibited the uniform CuO-NFs with an average width of 85 nm. The linker-free CuO-NFs fabricated electrode showed the appropriate wide range of concentrations from 0.1 to 1400 µM and the limit of detection was found to be 10.4 nM towards HQ. The fabricated sensor having long term stability and sensitivity was successfully applied for the environmental and commercial real sample analysis and exhibited good recovery percentage, implying that the SPCE/CuO-NFs is an economically viable and benign robust scaffold for the determination of HQ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  15. Tahmasebi-Boldaji R, Hatamipour MS, Khanahmadi M, Sadeh P, Najafipour I
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2019 Oct;57:89-97.
    PMID: 31208622 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.05.018
    This paper presents the successful application of ultrasound-assisted packed-bed (UAE-PB) method for the extraction of hypericin from the Hypericum perfuratum L. The Soxhlet system was utilized for the determination of suitable solvent from ethanol, methanol or from the mixture of different proportions of ethanol-methanol. The mixture of 50:50 v/v ethanol-methanol was obtained to be the most suitable solvent since it led to the highest extraction amount of hypericin. The extraction amount of hypericin increased by 13.6% and 21.4% when the solvent changed from pure methanol to the mixture of 50:50 v/v ethanol-methanol for the extraction time of 3 and 8 h, respectively. Subsequently, the extraction was conducted through the UAE-PB, and the effects of temperature, time, and the ratio of solvent to the dried plant were studied. The response surface method (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of parameters on the extraction in the UAE-PB system. At the temperature of 60 °C, extraction time of 105 min, and the solvent to plant ratio of 15.3, the maximum extraction yield of hypericin was achieved. In the optimal conditions, the amount of extraction was 0.112 mg hypericin/g dried plant, which was in accordance with the optimized predicted value (0.111 mg hypericin/g dried plant) from Design-Expert software.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  16. Md Yusof AH, Abd Gani SS, Zaidan UH, Halmi MIE, Zainudin BH
    Molecules, 2019 Feb 16;24(4).
    PMID: 30781448 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24040711
    This study investigates the ultrasound-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Malaysian cocoa shell extracts, and optimization using response surface methodology. There are three variables involved in this study, namely: ethanol concentration (70⁻90 v/v %), temperature (45⁻65 °C), and ultrasound irradiation time (30⁻60 min). All of the data were collected and analyzed for variance (ANOVA). The coefficient of determination (R²) and the model was significant in interaction between all variables (98% and p < 0.0001, respectively). In addition, the lack of fit test for the model was not of significance, with p > 0.0684. The ethanol concentration, temperature, and ultrasound irradiation time that yielded the maximum value of the total flavonoid content (TFC; 7.47 mg RE/g dried weight (DW)) was 80%, 55 °C, and 45 min, respectively. The optimum value from the validation of the experimental TFC was 7.23 ± 0.15 mg of rutin, equivalent per gram of extract with ethanol concentration, temperature, and ultrasound irradiation time values of 74.20%, 49.99 °C, and 42.82 min, respectively. While the modelled equation fits the data, the T-test is not significant, suggesting that the experimental values agree with those predicted by the response surface methodology models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  17. Agi A, Junin R, Arsad A, Abbas A, Gbadamosi A, Azli NB, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Apr 01;148:1251-1271.
    PMID: 31760018 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.10.099
    Ascorbic acid was used for the first time to synthesize crystalline starch nanoparticles (CSNP). The physical properties of the CSNP were investigated. Rheological properties of the crystalline starch nanofluid (CSNF) were compared with native cassava starch (CS) and commercial polymer xanthan. Interfacial properties of the CSNF at the interface of oil and water (O/W) were investigated at different concentrations and temperatures. Wettability alteration efficiency of CSNF on oil-wet sandstone surface was investigated using the sessile drop method. Core flooding experiment was conducted at reservoir conditions. The methods were effective in producing spherical and polygonal nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 100 nm and increased in crystallinity of 7%. Viscosity increased with increase in surface area and temperature of the CSNF compared to a decrease in viscosity as the temperature increases for xanthan. Interfacial tension (IFT) decreased with increase in concentration of CSNF, electrolyte and temperature. The results show that CSNF can change the wettability of sandstone at low concentration, high salinity and elevated temperature. Pressure drops data shows stability of CSNF at 120 °C. The formation of oil bank was enough to increase oil recovery by 23%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  18. Tao Y, Li D, Siong Chai W, Show PL, Yang X, Manickam S, et al.
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2021 Apr;72:105410.
    PMID: 33341708 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.105410
    This study aimed at investigating the performances of air drying of blackberries assisted by airborne ultrasound and contact ultrasound. The drying experiments were conducted in a self-designed dryer coupled with a 20-kHz ultrasound probe. A numerical model for unsteady heat and mass transfer considering temperature dependent diffusivity, shrinkage pattern and input ultrasonic energies were applied to explore the drying mechanism, while the energy consumption and quality were analyzed experimentally. Generally, both airborne ultrasound and contact ultrasound accelerated the drying process, reduced the energy consumption and enhanced the retentions of blackberry anthocyanins and organic acids in comparison to air drying alone. At the same input ultrasound intensity level, blackberries received more ultrasound energies under contact sonication (0.299 W) than airborne sonication (0.245 W), thus avoiding the attenuation of ultrasonic energies by air. The modeling results revealed that contact ultrasound was more capable than airborne ultrasound to intensify the inner moisture diffusion and heat conduction, as well as surface exchange of heat and moisture with air. During air drying, contact ultrasound treatment eliminated the gradients of temperature and moisture inside blackberry easier than airborne ultrasound, leading to more homogenous distributions. Moreover, the total energy consumption under air drying with contact ultrasound assistance was 27.0% lower than that with airborne ultrasound assistance. Besides, blackberries dehydrated by contact ultrasound contained more anthocyanins and organic acids than those dried by airborne ultrasound, implying a higher quality. Overall, direct contact sonication can well benefit blackberry drying in both energy and quality aspects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  19. Munajat M, Mohd Nordin NA, Mohamad Yahya NH, Zulkifly AH
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Sep;98(36):e17045.
    PMID: 31490397 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000017045
    INTRODUCTION: The presence of significant pain and swelling during the acute stage following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may limit the patients' ability to cooperate in intensive physiotherapy interventions. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound is one of the modalities that can be used for acute pain and swelling management. However, only one study investigated the effect of this modality in patients with TKA. There is limited documentation of the effects of combining low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in TKA rehabilitation in the recovery of physical impairments and how these influence the recovery of function after TKA. Therefore, this study is proposed with the aim to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy on the recovery of physical impairments, functional performance and quality of life after TKA surgery.

    METHODS: This is an assessor-blinded quasi-experimental study comparing two approaches of physiotherapy, namely pulsed ultrasound-added physiotherapy and conventional physiotherapy. Total number of participants with TKA required for this study will be calculated based on the result of a pilot study. Participants will be alternately allocated into either pulsed ultrasound-added physiotherapy group (low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and conventional physiotherapy) or control group (conventional physiotherapy). Pulsed ultrasound-added physiotherapy group will receive low-intensity pulsed ultrasound starting at post-operative day 2 (4-5 times for the first-week after surgery and 2-3 times a week for a further 2 weeks). Both groups will receive conventional physiotherapy 4 to 5 times for the first-week after surgery and 2 to 3 times a week for a further 11 weeks. This procedure and process will be tested and established in a pilot study. Primary outcomes of interest are pain level, swelling, active range of knee motion, and quadriceps strength. The secondary outcomes are functional performance and quality of life.

    DISCUSSION: This study will fill the gaps in knowledge relating the benefits of including low-intensity pulsed ultrasound into conventional physiotherapy for patients with TKA.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12618001226291.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves*
  20. Qamruddin I, Alam MK, Mahroof V, Karim M, Fida M, Khamis MF, et al.
    Pain Res Manag, 2021;2021:6624723.
    PMID: 34035871 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6624723
    Objective: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a noninvasive modality to stimulate bone remodeling (BR) and the healing of hard and soft tissues. This research evaluates the biostimulatory effect of LIPUS on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and associated pain, when applied at 3-week intervals.

    Methods: Twenty-two patients (11 males and 11 females; mean age 19.18 ± 2.00 years) having Angle's Class II division 1 malocclusion needing bilateral extractions of maxillary first bicuspids were recruited for this split-mouth randomized clinical trial. After the initial stage of alignment and leveling with contemporary edgewise MBT (McLaughlin-Bennett-Trevisi) prescription brackets (Ortho Organizers, Carlsbad, Calif) of 22 mil, followed by extractions of premolars bilaterally, 6 mm nickel-titanium spring was used to retract the canines separately by applying 150 g force on 0.019 × 0.025-in stainless steel working archwires. LIPUS (1.1 MHz frequency and 30 mW/cm2 intensity output) was applied for 20 minutes extraorally and reapplied after 3 weeks for 2 more successive visits over the root of maxillary canine on the experimental side whereas the other side was placebo. A numerical rating scale- (NRS-) based questionnaire was given to the patients on each visit to record their weekly pain experience. Impressions were also made at each visit before the application of LIPUS (T1, T2, and T3). Models were scanned with a CAD/CAM scanner (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland). Mann-Whitney U test was applied for comparison of canine movement and pain intensity between both the groups.

    Results: No significant difference in the rate of canine movement was found among the experimental (0.90 mm ± 0.33 mm) and placebo groups (0.81 mm ± 0.32 mm). There was no difference in pain reduction between experimental and placebo groups (p > 0.05).

    Conclusion: Single-dose application of LIPUS at 3-week intervals is ineffective in stimulating the OTM and reducing associated treatment pain.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ultrasonic Waves/adverse effects*
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