Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 52 in total

  1. Hor JY
    Middle East J Anaesthesiol, 2010 Oct;20(6):881-3.
    PMID: 21526679
    We report a case of cardiac arrhythmia occurring in a Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patient after succinylcholine administration during third endotracheal intubation, on day 13 of illness. The probable cause of arrhythmia is succinylcholine-induced hyperkalemia. Of interest, this case demonstrated in the same patient that arrhythmia only occurred during third intubation, when duration of illness is prolonged, and not during previous two intubation episodes, despite succinylcholine was also being used. In GBS, muscle denervation resulted in up-regulation of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions, causing the muscle cell membrane to become supersensitive to succinylcholine, leading to severe hyperkalemia and arrhythmia when succinylcholine was administered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  2. Tay YL, Amanah A, Adenan MI, Wahab HA, Tan ML
    Sci Rep, 2019 12 24;9(1):19757.
    PMID: 31874991 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-56106-6
    Mitragyna speciosa Korth (M. speciosa) has been widely used as a recreational product, however, there are growing concerns on the abuse potentials and toxicity of the plant. Several poisoning and fatal cases involving kratom and mitragynine have been reported but the underlying causes remain unclear. The human ether-a-go-go-related gene 1 (hERG1) encodes the pore-forming subunit underlying cardiac rapidly delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr). Pharmacological blockade of the IKr can cause acquired long QT syndrome, leading to lethal cardiac arrhythmias. This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms of mitragynine-induced inhibition on hERG1a/1b current. Electrophysiology experiments were carried out using Port-a-Patch system. Quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation methods were used to determine the effects of mitragynine on hERG1a/1b expression and hERG1-cytosolic chaperones interaction. Mitragynine was found to inhibit the IKr current with an IC50 value of 332.70 nM. It causes a significant reduction of the fully-glycosylated (fg) hERG1a protein expression but upregulates both core-glycosylated (cg) expression and hERG1a-Hsp90 complexes, suggesting possible impaired hERG1a trafficking. In conclusion, mitragynine inhibits hERG1a/1b current through direct channel blockade at lower concentration, but at higher concentration, it upregulates the complexation of hERG1a-Hsp90 which may be inhibitory towards channel trafficking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects*
  3. Haris K, Ismail S, Idris Z, Abdullah JM, Yusoff AA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(11):4499-505.
    PMID: 24969876
    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive and malignant form of glioma, appears to be resistant to various chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, approaches have been intensively investigated to targeti specific molecular pathways involved in glioblastoma development and progression. Aloe emodin is believed to modulate the expression of several genes in cancer cells. We aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of Aloe emodin on gene expression profiles in the human U87 glioblastoma cell line utilizing microarray technology. The gene expression analysis revealed that a total of 8,226 gene alterations out of 28,869 genes were detected after treatment with 58.6 μg/ml for 24 hours. Out of this total, 34 genes demonstrated statistically significant change (p<0.05) ranging from 1.07 to 1.87 fold. The results revealed that 22 genes were up-regulated and 12 genes were down-regulated in response to Aloe emodin treatment. These genes were then grouped into several clusters based on their biological functions, revealing induction of expression of genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death) and tissue remodelling in U87 cells (p<0.01). Several genes with significant changes of the expression level e.g. SHARPIN, BCAP31, FIS1, RAC1 and TGM2 from the apoptotic cluster were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results could serve as guidance for further studies in order to discover molecular targets for the cancer therapy based on Aloe emodin treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  4. Ismail N, Pihie AH, Nallapan M
    Anticancer Res, 2005 May-Jun;25(3B):2221-7.
    PMID: 16158967
    Xanthorrhizol is a sesquiterpenoid compound extracted from Curcuma xanthorrhiza, which is known locally as Temulawak. Traditionally, C. xanthorrhiza was found to have antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. The rhizome has also been used to treat inflammation in postpartum uterine bleeding. An antiproliferative assay using methylene blue staining revealed that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of the cervical cancer cell line HeLa with an EC50 value of 6.16 microg/ml. Xanthorrhizol significantly increased apoptosis in HeLa cells, as evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and nuclear morphology by Hoechst 33258 staining. Western blot analysis, which was further confirmed by the immunostaining results, implied an up-regulation of tumor suppressor protein p53 and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, following the treatment with xanthorrhizol. Xanthorrhizol, however, did not affect the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 and the viral oncoprotein, E6. Hence, xanthorrhizol is a promising antiproliferative and anticancer agent which induces p53 and Bax-dependent apoptosis in HeLa cervical cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  5. Ahmad A, Sattar MA, Rathore HA, Abdulla MH, Khan SA, Azam M, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0150137.
    PMID: 26963622 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150137
    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an emerging molecule in many cardiovascular complications but its role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is unknown. The present study explored the effect of exogenous H2S administration in the regression of LVH by modulating oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and expression of cystathione γ lyase (CSE) in the myocardium. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, LVH, Control-H2S and LVH-H2S. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5mg/kg, every 72 hours, S/C) and caffeine in drinking water (62mg/L) for 2 weeks. Intraperitoneal NaHS, 56μM/kg/day for 5 weeks, was given as an H2S donor. Myocardial expression of Cystathione γ lyase (CSE) mRNA was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).There was a 3 fold reduction in the expression of myocardial CSE mRNA in LVH but it was up regulated by 7 and 4 fold in the Control-H2S and LVH-H2S myocardium, respectively. Systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse wave velocity were reduced (all P<0.05) in LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Heart, LV weight, myocardial thickness were reduced while LV internal diameter was increased (all P<0.05) in the LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S in LVH increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity but significantly reduced (all P<0.05) plasma malanodialdehyde in the LVH-H2S compared to the LVH group. The renal cortical blood perfusion increased by 40% in LVH-H2S as compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S suppressed the progression of LVH which was associated with an up regulation of myocardial CSE mRNA/ H2S and a reduction in pulse wave velocity with a blunting of systemic hemodynamic. This CSE/H2S pathway exhibits an antihypertrophic role by antagonizing the hypertrophic actions of angiotensin II(Ang II) and noradrenaline (NA) but attenuates oxidative stress and improves pulse wave velocity which helps to suppress LVH. Exogenous administration of H2S augmented the reduced renal cortical blood perfusion in the LVH state.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects*
  6. Nouri F, Salehinejad P, Nematollahi-Mahani SN, Kamarul T, Zarrindast MR, Sharifi AM
    Cell Mol Neurobiol, 2016 Jul;36(5):689-700.
    PMID: 26242172 DOI: 10.1007/s10571-015-0249-8
    Transplantation of neural-like cells is considered as a promising therapeutic strategy developed for neurodegenerative disease in particular for ischemic stroke. Since cell survival is a major concern following cell implantation, a number of studies have underlined the protective effects of preconditioning with hypoxia or hypoxia mimetic pharmacological agents such as deferoxamine (DFO), induced by activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and its target genes. The present study has investigated the effects of DFO preconditioning on some factors involved in cell survival, angiogenesis, and neurogenesis of neural-like cells derived from human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (HWJ-MSCs) in presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). HWJ-MSCs were differentiated toward neural-like cells for 14 days and neural cell markers were identified using immunocytochemistry. HWJ-MSC-derived neural-like cells were then treated with 100 µM DFO, as a known hypoxia mimetic agent for 48 h. mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1 target genes including brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) significantly increased using RT-PCR and Western blotting which were reversed by HIF-1α inhibitor, while, gene expression of Akt-1, Bcl-2, and Bax did not change significantly but pAkt-1 was up-regulated as compared to poor DFO group. However, addition of H2O2 to DFO-treated cells resulted in higher resistance to H2O2-induced cell death. Western blotting analysis also showed significant up-regulation of HIF-1α, BDNF, VEGF, and pAkt-1, and decrease of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to poor DFO. These results may suggest that DFO preconditioning of HWJ-MSC-derived neural-like cells improves their tolerance and therapeutic potential and might be considered as a valuable strategy to improve cell therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  7. Jusoh M, Loh SH, Aziz A, Cha TS
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2019 Jun;188(2):450-459.
    PMID: 30536033 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-02937-4
    Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biofuels and nutritional inventions. Recent studies from our lab have shown that two plant hormones, auxin and jasmonic acid, influence microalgae growth and fatty acid accumulation. Therefore, in this study, a high oil-producing strain Chlorella vulgaris UMT-M1 was selected for hormonal study using gibberellin (GA). Exogenous GA3 was applied to early stationary culture of C. vulgaris UMT-M1. Results showed that GA3 gradually increases the cell density of C. vulgaris to up to 42% on days after treatment (DAT)-8 and also capable of delaying the algal senescence. However, the increment in cell density did not enhance the total oil production albeit transient modification of fatty acid compositions was observed for saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids. This illustrates that GA3 only promotes cell division and growth but not the oil accumulation. In addition, application of GA3 in culture medium was shown to promote transient increment of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids from DAT-4 to DAT-6 and these changes are correlated with the expression of β-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KAS I) gene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  8. Fakai MI, Abd Malek SN, Karsani SA
    Life Sci, 2019 Mar 01;220:186-193.
    PMID: 30682342 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.01.029
    AIMS: Chalepin, a naturally occurring compound isolated from Ruta angustifolia have been shown to exert a promising anticancer activity through various mechanisms. Hence, the need to investigate the apoptotic inducing ability of chalepin in MCF7 cells by various detection assays.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity screening of chalepin against MCF7 cells was conducted using SRB assay. Apoptosis induction was examined by established morphological and biochemical assays including phase contrast and Hoechst/PI staining fluorescence microscope. Similarly, Annexin-V/FITC and TUNEL assays were conducted using flow cytometry whereas caspase-3 activity was evaluated using microplate reader.

    KEY FINDINGS: The result indicates remarkable cytotoxic activity against MCF7 cells, whereas it shows moderate cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB231 cells. Interestingly, chalepin did not present any toxicity against MRC5 normal cell line. Morphological examination using both phase contrast and fluorescence microscope displays typical apoptotic features such as membrane blebbing, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies' formation following chalepin treatment against MCF7 cells at different concentration for 48 h. Apoptosis induction is significantly associated with externalisation of phosphatidylserine, and DNA fragmentation in MCF7 cells chalepin treated cells when compared with control. The protein expressions of caspase-8, 9 and cleaved PARP1 were upregulated which correlated well with increased caspase-3 activity.

    SIGNIFICANCE: From our recent findings, chalepin was able to induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells and therefore, could be evaluated further as a potential source of anticancer agent for cancer treatment such as breast cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  9. Moad AI, Muhammad TS, Oon CE, Tan ML
    Cell Biochem Biophys, 2013 Jul;66(3):567-87.
    PMID: 23300026 DOI: 10.1007/s12013-012-9504-5
    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway and plays a critical role in the homeostatic process of recycling proteins and organelles. Functional relationships have been described between apoptosis and autophagy. Perturbations in the apoptotic machinery have been reported to induce autophagic cell deaths. Inhibition of autophagy in cancer cells has resulted in cell deaths that manifested hallmarks of apoptosis. However, the molecular relationships and the circumstances of which molecular pathways dictate the choice between apoptosis and autophagy are currently unknown. This study aims to identify specific gene expression of rapamycin-induced autophagy and the effects of rapamycin when the autophagy process is inhibited. In this study, we have demonstrated that rapamycin is capable of inducing autophagy in T-47D breast carcinoma cells. However, when the autophagy process was inhibited by 3-MA, the effects of rapamycin became apoptotic. The Phlda1 gene was found to be up-regulated in both autophagy and apoptosis and silencing this gene was found to reduce both activities, strongly suggests that Phlda1 mediates and positively regulates both autophagy and apoptosis pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  10. Goh BH, Chan CK, Kamarudin MN, Abdul Kadir H
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 Apr 28;153(2):375-85.
    PMID: 24613274 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.036
    Swietenia macrophylla King is a traditional herb used to treat various diseases including hypertension, diabetes and cancer. Previous study demonstrated its anti-tumor effect but the potential mechanisms have not been clearly defined. The current study was to further investigate the underlying mechanism of ethyl acetate fraction of Swietenia macrophylla (SMEAF)-induced anti-proliferative effect and apoptosis in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cell.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  11. Muhammad SI, Maznah I, Mahmud RB, Saeed MI, Imam MU, Ishaka A
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2013;7:1409-20.
    PMID: 24324328 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S50861
    The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  12. Manaharan T, Ming CH, Palanisamy UD
    Food Chem, 2013 Jan 15;136(2):354-63.
    PMID: 23122070 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.056
    The insulin-like and/or insulin-sensitising effects of Syzygium aqueum leaf extract and its six bioactive compounds; 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside, europetin-3-O-rhamnoside, phloretin, myrigalone-G and myrigalone-B were investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed that, S. aqueum leaf extract (0.04-5 μg/ml) and its six bioactive compounds (0.08-10 μM) at non-cytotoxic concentrations were effectively enhance adipogenesis, stimulate glucose uptake and increase adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Clearly, the compounds myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside and europetin-3-O-rhamnoside showed insulin-like and insulin-sensitising effects on adipocytes from a concentration of 0.08 μM. These compounds were far better than rosiglitazone and the other isolated compounds in enhancing adipogenesis, stimulating 2-NBDG uptake and increasing adiponectin secretion at all the concentrations tested. These suggest the antidiabetic potential of S. aqueum leaf extract and its six bioactive compounds. However, further molecular interaction studies to explain the mechanisms of action are highly warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  13. Hajjar T, Meng GY, Rajion MA, Vidyadaran S, Othman F, Farjam AS, et al.
    BMC Neurosci, 2012;13:109.
    PMID: 22989138 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-13-109
    This study examined the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as different n-6: n-3 ratios on spatial learning and gene expression of peroxisome- proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the hippocampus of rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allotted into 3 groups of ten animals each and received experimental diets with different n-6: n-3 PUFA ratios of either 65:1, 22:1 or 4.5:1. After 10 weeks, the spatial memory of the animals was assessed using the Morris Water Maze test. The expression of PPARα and PPARγ genes were determined using real-time PCR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects*
  14. Shuid AN, El-arabi E, Effendy NM, Razak HS, Muhammad N, Mohamed N, et al.
    PMID: 22967165 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-152
    Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been shown recently to protect against bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats, the model for androgen-deficient osteoporosis. The mechanism behind this is unclear but it may be related to its ability to elevate testosterone levels or it may directly affect bone remodeling. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanism involved by investigating the effects of EL extract on serum testosterone levels, bone biomarkers, biomechanical strength and gene expression of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF) in orchidectomised rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects*
  15. Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS, Sirajudeen KN, Salleh MS, Gurtu S
    Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris), 2010 Sep;71(4):291-6.
    PMID: 20398890 DOI: 10.1016/j.ando.2010.03.003
    Glucotoxicity contributes to beta-cell dysfunction through oxidative stress. Our previous study demonstrated that tualang honey ameliorated renal oxidative stress and produced hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. This present study investigated the hypothesis that hypoglycemic effect of tualang honey might partly be due to protection of pancreas against oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg; ip). Diabetic rats were randomly divided into two groups and administered distilled water (0.5 ml/d) and tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/d). Similarly, two groups of non-diabetic rats received distilled water (0.5 ml/d) and tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/d). The animals were treated orally for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, the honey-treated diabetic rats had significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood glucose levels [8.8 (5.8)mmol/L; median (interquartile range)] compared with the diabetic control rats [17.9 (2.6)mmol/L]. The pancreas of diabetic control rats showed significantly increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and up-regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Catalase (CAT) activity was significantly reduced while glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities remained unchanged in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Tualang honey significantly (p<0.05) reduced elevated MDA levels. Honey treatment also restored SOD and CAT activities. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effect of tualang honey might be attributed to its antioxidative effect on the pancreas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  16. Abrahim NN, Kanthimathi MS, Abdul-Aziz A
    PMID: 23153283 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-220
    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  17. Imam MU, Ismail M, Ithnin H, Tubesha Z, Omar AR
    Nutrients, 2013 Feb;5(2):468-77.
    PMID: 23389305 DOI: 10.3390/nu5020468
    Dysregulated metabolism is implicated in obesity and other disease conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, which are linked to abnormalities of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). PPARγ has been the focus of much research aimed at managing these diseases. Also, germinated brown rice (GBR) is known to possess antidiabetic, antiobesity and hypocholesterolemic effects. We hypothesized that GBR bioactive compounds may mediate some of the improvements in metabolic indices through PPARγ modulation. Cultured HEP-G2 cells were treated with 50 ppm and 100 ppm of extracts from GBR (GABA, ASG and oryzanol) after determination of cell viabilities using MTT assays. Results showed that all extracts upregulated the expression of the PPARγ. However, combination of all three extracts showed downregulation of the gene, suggesting that, in combination, the effects of these bioactives differ from their individual effects likely mediated through competitive inhibition of the gene. Upregulation of the gene may have therapeutic potential in diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, while its downregulation likely contributes to GBR's antiobesity effects. These potentials are worth studying further.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  18. Sopian NF, Ajat M, Shafie NI, Noor MH, Ebrahimi M, Rajion MA, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2015;16(7):15800-10.
    PMID: 26184176 DOI: 10.3390/ijms160715800
    Dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been recognized to improve brain cognitive function. Deficiency leads to dysfunctional zinc metabolism associated with learning and memory impairment. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of short-term dietary omega-3 fatty acids on hippocampus gene expression at the molecular level in relation to spatial recognition memory in mice. A total of 24 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups and fed a standard pellet as a control group (CTL, n = 6), standard pellet added with 10% (w/w) fish oil (FO, n = 6), 10% (w/w) soybean oil (SO, n = 6) and 10% (w/w) butter (BT, n = 6). After 3 weeks on the treatment diets, spatial-recognition memory was tested on a Y-maze. The hippocampus gene expression was determined using a real-time PCR. The results showed that 3 weeks of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improved cognitive performance along with the up-regulation of α-synuclein, calmodulin and transthyretin genes expression. In addition, dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency increased the level of ZnT3 gene and subsequently reduced cognitive performance in mice. These results indicate that the increased the ZnT3 levels caused by the deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids produced an abnormal zinc metabolism that in turn impaired the brain cognitive performance in mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  19. Moghadamtousi SZ, Rouhollahi E, Hajrezaie M, Karimian H, Abdulla MA, Kadir HA
    Int J Surg, 2015 Jun;18:110-7.
    PMID: 25899210 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2015.03.026
    Annona muricata, a member of the Annonaceae family, is commonly known as soursop and graviola. The leaves of this tropical fruit tree are widely used in folk medicine against skin diseases and abscesses, however there is no scientific evidence justifying the use of A. muricata leaves. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the wound healing potential of ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAM) towards excisional wound models in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
  20. Chien AL, Pihie AH
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol., 2003 May 31;36(3):269-74.
    PMID: 12787481
    In the fight against cancer, novel chemotherapeutic agents are constantly being sought to complement existing drugs. Various studies have presented evidence that the apoptosis that is induced by these anticancer agents is implicated in tumor regression, and Bcl-2 family genes play a part in apoptosis following treatment with various stimuli. Here, we present data that a styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) that is extracted from the plant Goniothalamus sp. showed cytotoxic effects on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. SPD significantly increased apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as visualized by phase contrast microscopy and evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay and nuclear morphology. Western blotting and immunostaining revealed up-regulation of the proapoptotic Bax protein expression. SPD, however, did not affect the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. These results, therefore, suggest SPD as a potent cytotoxic agent on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of Bax levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Up-Regulation/drug effects
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