Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 94 in total

  1. Basri DF, Khairon R
    PMID: 22899953 DOI: 10.1155/2012/493156
    The galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier possess astringent properties which helps in the tightening of the vaginal epithelium in the post-natal period. The present study aimed to observe the time-kill kinetics of the acetone and methanol extracts of gall of Q. infectoria in combination with vancomycin against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains; ATCC 33591 and MU 9495 (laboratory-passaged strain). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts were determined using microdilution technique whereas the checkerboard and time-kill kinetics were employed to verify the synergistic effects of treatment with vancomycin. The FIC index value of the combinations against both MRSA strains showed that the interaction was synergistic (FIC index <0.5). Time-kill assays showed the bactericidal effect of the combination treatment at 1/8XMIC of the extract and 1/8XMIC of vancomycin, were respectively at 7.2 ± 0.28 hr against ATCC 33591 compared to complete attenuation of the growth of the same strain after 8 hr of treatment with vancomycin alone. In conclusion, the combination extracts of Q. infectoria with vancomycin were synergistic according to FIC index values. The time-kill curves showed that the interaction was additive with a more rapid killing rate but, which did not differ significantly with vancomycin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin
  2. Basri DF, Luoi CK, Azmi AM, Latip J
    Pharmaceuticals (Basel), 2012;5(9):1032-43.
    PMID: 24280704 DOI: 10.3390/ph5091032
    The aim of this study is to determine the combined effects of stilbenoids from Shorea gibbosa and vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of nine pure compounds, five stilbenoid dimers ε-viniferin, ampelopsin A, balanocarpol, laevifonol and diptoindonesin G and four stilbenoid trimers a-viniferin, johorenol A, ampelopsin E and vaticanol G were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against ATCC 33591 and a HUKM clinical isolate. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for each active compound were determined using the serial microdilution and plate-streak techniques. The combined effect of stilbenoids with vancomycin against MRSA was evaluated using the checkerboard assay to determine their fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index values. The MIC value of a-viniferin on both MRSA strains was 100 μg/mL, whereas those of johorenol A on ATCC 33591 and HUKM strain were 100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL, respectively. The MIC values of ampelopsin E and vaticanol G were higher than 400 μg/mL. Out of the five stilbenoid dimers, only ε-viniferin was capable of inhibiting the growth of both MRSA strains at MIC 400 μg/mL. The MBC value of ε-viniferin, a-viniferin and johorenol A showed bacteriostatic action against MRSA. The FIC index value of ε-viniferin and a-viniferin in combination with vancomycin showed an additive effect (0.5 < FIC ≤ 2.0) against both MRSA strains. Johorenol A-vancomycin combination was also additive against HUKM strain, but it showed synergistic interaction with vancomycin against ATCC 33591 (FIC < 0.5). Stilbenoid compounds from Shorea gibbosa have anti-MRSA activity and huge potential as an alternative phytotherapy in combating MRSA infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin
  3. Ramli SR, Neoh HM, Aziz MN, Hussin S
    Infect Dis Rep, 2012 Jan 2;4(1):e20.
    PMID: 24470927 DOI: 10.4081/idr.2012.e20
    In a 3-month study done in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), 7 out of 320 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were confirmed as heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) using the glycopeptide resistance detection e-test and population analysis, giving a prevalence rate of 2.19%. This is the first report of hVISA in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin; Vancomycin Resistance
  4. Shah-Majid M, Maria AR, Shahidayani S, Salwani AM, Khairani S
    Vet. Rec., 2007 May 19;160(20):702-3.
    PMID: 17513839
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin/pharmacology; Vancomycin Resistance*
  5. Shah-Majid M, Azlina AM, Ana Maria AR, Zaharah B, Norhaliza AH
    Vet. Rec., 2004 Nov 20;155(21):680-1.
    PMID: 15581146
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin/pharmacology; Vancomycin Resistance*
  6. Goh KL, Peh SC, Wong NW
    Med J Malaysia, 1986 Dec;41(4):347-51.
    PMID: 3670159
    Three cases of pseudomembranous colitis seen over the past one year in the Medical Unit, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, are reported.
    The historical background, spectrum of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the disease are discussed. Early and wider use of sigmoidoscopy in patients with predisposing factors to pseudomembranous colitis have resulted in increased diagnosis of the condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin/therapeutic use
  7. Chong KC, Thang LY, Quirino JP, See HH
    J Chromatogr A, 2017 Feb 17;1485:142-146.
    PMID: 28104238 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2017.01.012
    A portable microchip electrophoresis (MCE) coupled with on-chip contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) system was evaluated for the determination of vancomycin in human plasma. In order to enhance the detection sensitivity, a new online multi-stacking preconcentration technique based on field-enhanced sample injection (FESI) and micelle-to-solvent stacking (MSS) was developed and implemented in MCE-C(4)D system equipped with a commercially available double T-junction glass chip. The cationic analytes from the two sample reservoirs were injected under FESI conditions and subsequently focused by MSS within the sample-loading channel. The proposed multi-stacking strategy was verified under a fluorescence microscope using Rhodamine 6G as the model analyte and a sensitivity enhancement factor (SEF) of up to 217 was achieved. The developed approach was subsequently implemented in the aqueous-based MCE, coupled to C(4)D in order to monitor the targeted antibiotic (in this case, vancomycin) present in human plasma samples. The multi-stacking and analysis time for vancomycin were 50s and 250s respectively, with SEF of approximately 83 when compared to typical gated injection. The detection limit of the method for vancomycin was 1.2μg/mL, with intraday and interday repeatability RSDs of 2.6% and 4.3%, respectively. Recoveries in spiked human plasma were 99.0%-99.2%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin/blood*
  8. Toosa H, Radu S, Rusul G, Latif AR, Rahim RA, Ahmad N, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2001 Jan;8(1):53-8.
    PMID: 22973157
    Twenty-eight isolates of E. faecalis and 5 isolates of E. hirae were isolated from chicken samples obtained from markets in Sri Serdang, Selangor. They were tested for susceptibility to vancomycin and other antimicrobial agents. All of the isolates showed multiple resistance to the antibiotic tested. All Enterococcus spp. were resistant (100%) to ceftaxidime, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid and streptomycin. Resistance was also observed to norfloxacin (97%), tetracycline (91%), penicillin (85%), bacitracin (82%), chloramphenicol (61%) and the least resistance was to ampicillin (27%). High prevalence to vancomycin resistance was detected among the E. faecalis (27of 28) and E. hirae (4 of 5) isolates. The multiple antibiotic resistance index ranging between 0.64 to 1.0 showed that all strains tested originated from high-risk contamination. Plasmid profile analysis of Enterococcus spp. revealed plasmid DNA bands ranging in size from 1.3 to 35.8 megadalton but some isolates were plasmidless. No correlation could be made between plasmid patterns and antibiotic resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin; Vancomycin Resistance
  9. Tan CK, Huang YQ, Yap KB
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Oct;68(5):443-4.
    PMID: 24632878
    Vancomycin has been documented to cause various adverse cutaneous reactions. We present a case report of a man, who developed a large localized erythematous plaque in his forearm following parenteral vancomycin therapy. We believe this to be the first reported case of such cutaneous reaction associated with parenteral vancomycin therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin
  10. Getachew YM, Hassan L, Zakaria Z, Saleha AA, Kamaruddin MI, Che Zalina MZ
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Dec;26(3):280-8.
    PMID: 20237442 MyJurnal
    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is an emerging nosocomial pathogen in humans. The use of antibiotics in human therapy and in the production of food animals has been incriminated in the emergence of this organism. The present study describes the distribution of VRE species, the vancomycin-resistant genes detected, the vancomycin resistance pattern observed, and the genetic diversity of the isolates found in live broiler chickens in Malaysia. Overall 140 VRE were isolated with species comprising Enterococcus faecalis (48%), Enterococcus faecium (25.7%), Enterococcus gallinarum (12.1%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (1.4%) and other Enterococcus species (12.8%). Vancomycin resistance gene vanA and intrinsic genes vanC1 and vanC2/3 were detected in the study population. VanA was detected in 15 (63.9%) of E. faecium, 23 (22.4%) of E. faecalis and in 3 (17.6%) E. gallinarum isolates. E-test was conducted on randomly selected 41 of the isolates and the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of vancomycin for five (11.9%) of tested isolates is more than 256 μg/ml. Genotypic analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) showed genetic diversity within the Enterococcus species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin/pharmacology; Vancomycin Resistance/genetics*
  11. Goh, K.L., Nazri, M.Y., Ong, C.L.
    Vancomycin bead is an important ancillary treatment for osteomyelitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, red-man syndrome, which can be a life-threatening complication of vancomycin, may occur from the use of vancomycin beads albeit rarely. We report our first case of red-man syndrome caused by vancomycin bead's insertion for chronic osteomyelitis. Symptomatic treatment was not
    effective and removal of the vancomycin beads seems to be the best treatment for this condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin
  12. Poh LW, Rukman AW, Cheah YK, Norital Z, Nazri AM, Mariana NS
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):639-40.
    PMID: 23770967 MyJurnal
    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in human infections mostly belong to the high-risk, epidemic, clonal complex-17 (CC17) group. Treatment limitation and high conjugation frequency makes it dominant in hospitals worldwide. We investigated positive cultures by Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi locus sequence typing (MLST). DNA of two strains (A2 and C) appeared to be clonally related by PFGE. Three strains were of ST 18 type (A1, B and C) and strain A2 is of a new ST 596. This ST 18 type strain found in our study is crucial and is believed to be the first in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin; Vancomycin Resistance*
  13. Colin PJ, Allegaert K, Thomson AH, Touw DJ, Dolton M, de Hoog M, et al.
    Clin Pharmacokinet, 2019 06;58(6):767-780.
    PMID: 30656565 DOI: 10.1007/s40262-018-0727-5
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Uncertainty exists regarding the optimal dosing regimen for vancomycin in different patient populations, leading to a plethora of subgroup-specific pharmacokinetic models and derived dosing regimens. We aimed to investigate whether a single model for vancomycin could be developed based on a broad dataset covering the extremes of patient characteristics. Furthermore, as a benchmark for current dosing recommendations, we evaluated and optimised the expected vancomycin exposure throughout life and for specific patient subgroups.

    METHODS: A pooled population-pharmacokinetic model was built in NONMEM based on data from 14 different studies in different patient populations. Steady-state exposure was simulated and compared across patient subgroups for two US Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency-approved drug labels and optimised doses were derived.

    RESULTS: The final model uses postmenstrual age, weight and serum creatinine as covariates. A 35-year-old, 70-kg patient with a serum creatinine level of 0.83 mg dL-1 (73.4 µmol L-1) has a V1, V2, CL and Q2 of 42.9 L, 41.7 L, 4.10 L h-1 and 3.22 L h-1. Clearance matures with age, reaching 50% of the maximal value (5.31 L h-1 70 kg-1) at 46.4 weeks postmenstrual age then declines with age to 50% at 61.6 years. Current dosing guidelines failed to achieve satisfactory steady-state exposure across patient subgroups. After optimisation, increased doses for the Food and Drug Administration label achieve consistent target attainment with minimal (± 20%) risk of under- and over-dosing across patient subgroups.

    CONCLUSIONS: A population model was developed that is useful for further development of age and kidney function-stratified dosing regimens of vancomycin and for individualisation of treatment through therapeutic drug monitoring and Bayesian forecasting.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin/blood; Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics*
  14. Sofian ZM, Abdullah JM, Rahim AA, Shafee SS, Mustafa Z, Razak SA
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Oct;25(4):831-7.
    PMID: 23010001
    The possible cytotoxic effects of vancomycin and its complex with beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on human glial cell line (CRL 8621) were studied accordingly by means of MTS assay. The cultured cells were incubated with various concentrations of vancomycin, β-CD as well as β-CD/vancomycin complex ranging from 4.69 to 300 ug/ml. A linear dose-dependency cytotoxicity followed by hermetic-like biphasic dose-dependence was observed after incubation period of 72 hours. In general, significant increase (p<0.001) of cell proliferation was observed at lower concentrations: <18.75 μg/ml for cells treated with β-CD and their complex while < 9.38 μg/ml for cells treated with vancomycin. In contrary, regardless of the treatments given, significant (p<0.001) reduce in cell survival was found at higher concentrations >150 μg/ml. In particular, 50 % inhibitory in vitro was achieved at the concentrations of 115.95 μg/ml (for β-CD), 116.48 μg/ml (for vancomycin) and 115.44 μg/ml (for β-CD/vancomycin complex).
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin/toxicity*; Vancomycin/chemistry
  15. Tan XE, Neoh HM, Cui L, Hiramatsu K, Jamal R
    Can J Microbiol, 2019 Aug;65(8):623-628.
    PMID: 31063703 DOI: 10.1139/cjm-2019-0048
    In this study, vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) cells carrying vraS and (or) graR mutations were shown to be more resistant to oxidative stress. Caenorhabditis elegans infected with these strains in turn demonstrated lower survival. Altered regulation in oxidative stress response and virulence appear to be physiological adaptations associated with the VISA phenotype in the Mu50 lineage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin/pharmacology*; Vancomycin Resistance
  16. Lo YL, van Hasselt JG, Heng SC, Lim CT, Lee TC, Charles BG
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2010 Jun;54(6):2626-32.
    PMID: 20385872 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01370-09
    The present study determined the pharmacokinetic profile of vancomycin in premature Malaysian infants. A one-compartment infusion model with first-order elimination was fitted to serum vancomycin concentration data (n = 835 points) obtained retrospectively from the drug monitoring records of 116 premature newborn infants. Vancomycin concentrations were estimated by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Population and individual estimates of clearance and distribution volume and the factors which affected the variability observed for the values of these parameters were obtained using a population pharmacokinetic modeling approach. The predictive performance of the population model was evaluated by visual inspections of diagnostic plots and nonparametric bootstrapping with replacement. Dosing guidelines targeting a value of > or =400 for the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC(24)/MIC ratio) were explored using Monte Carlo simulation. Body size (weight), postmenstrual age, and small-for-gestational-age status are important factors explaining the between-subject variability of vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameter values for premature neonates. The typical population parameter estimates of clearance and distribution volume for a 1-kg premature appropriate-for-gestational-age neonate with a postmenstrual age of 30 weeks were 0.0426 liters/h and 0.523 liters, respectively. There was a 20% reduction in clearance for small-for-gestational-age infants compared to the level for the appropriate-for-gestational-age control. Dosage regimens based on a priori target response values were formulated. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic parameter values for vancomycin in premature Malaysian neonates were estimated. Improved dosage regimens based on a priori target response values were formulated by incorporating body size, postmenstrual age, and small-for-gestational-age status, using Monte Carlo simulations with the model-estimated pharmacokinetic parameter values.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin/administration & dosage*; Vancomycin/blood; Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics*
  17. Aydın Tekdaş D, Viswanathan G, Zehra Topal S, Looi CY, Wong WF, Min Yi Tan G, et al.
    Org Biomol Chem, 2016 Mar 7;14(9):2665-70.
    PMID: 26831779 DOI: 10.1039/c5ob02477c
    A novel BODIPY derivative was designed for biomedical applications. Its mono-quaternized structure ensured its water-solubility and suitable amphiphilicity. Showing no singlet oxygen generation to avoid damage to healthy cells, this new derivative proved to be an extremely promising antimicrobial agent, with activity equal or superior to ampicillin against MRS Staphylococcus strains with no short-term resistance issue. Its activity against MSS Staphylococcus strains was largely superior to those of ampicillin and reached the activity of vancomycin against MSS S. epidermidis. This latter result is in particular extremely promising for the treatment of hospital-acquired infections. Also the fluorescence properties of BODIPY allowed imaging of the uptake.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin
  18. Fifadara N, Radu S, Hassan Z, Beuchat LR, Rusul G
    J Food Prot, 2003 Oct;66(10):1845-50.
    PMID: 14572222
    Twenty-two strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis were isolated from 9 (6%) of 150 samples of frozen beef and beef products imported to Malaysia. The isolates were obtained from eight samples of beef and one sample of minced beef patty. No E. faecalis was isolated from frankfurters. Twelve of the 22 isolates (54.5%) were beta-hemolytic, and all isolates harbored the vanA gene. All vancomycin-resistant isolates were also resistant to streptomycin, erythromycin, kanamycin, bacitracin, ceftazimide, gentamycin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and teicoplanin; 95.4% were resistant to trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole; 68.8% were resistant to chloramphenicol; and 41% were resistant to ampicillin and penicillin. Small plasmids ranging in size from 1.5 to 5.8 kb were detected in 8 (36.4%) of 22 strains. The 22 isolates were classified into 20 random amplified polymorphic DNA types. Isolates were divided into two groups, each containing subclusters, that may reflect their clonal lineages. It is concluded that several clones of vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis are represented in the isolates obtained from beef imported to Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin/pharmacology; Vancomycin Resistance*
  19. Norza Wani Jaffar, Dayang Fredalina Basri, Noraziah M. Zin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1237-1241.
    Staphylococcus aureus tahan Methicillin (MRSA) adalah patogen yang mudah tersebar dan cenderung untuk menjadi multi-rintangan terhadap hampir semua terapi antibiotik yang terdapat di pasaran kini. Gal daripada Quercus infectoria atau lebih dikenali sebagai manjakani di Malaysia telah diketahui mempunyai aktiviti anti-bakteria. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji kesan kombinasi ekstrak gal daripada Q. infectoria dengan vankomisin terhadap lima strain MRSA dan dua strain Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA). Proses pengekstrakan dilakukan menggunakan pelarut aseton, metanol dan akues. Teknik mikro pencairan bersiri kaldu dijalankan menggunakan plat telaga 96 bagi menentukan nilai Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Kesan interaksi di antara gal Q. infectoria dengan vankomisin dikaji menggunakan teknik checkerboard bagi mendapatkan nilai indek Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC). Hasil kombinasi ekstrak gal dan vankomisin menunjukkan terdapat aktiviti yang sinergi pada ekstrak aseton terhadap MRSA ATCC 43300 (0.3124), Sa7 (0.3750) dan VISA U9495 (0.3750), manakala ekstrak akues terhadap MRSA Sa7 (0.4167) dan VISA U9495 (0.3958) dan N316 (0.5000). Sebaliknya kombinasi metanol dan vankomisin menunjukkan kesan yang sinergi terhadap ATCC 49476 (0.3750) sahaja manakala aditif terhadap enam lagi strain MRSA yang diuji. Kesan interaksi ini menunjukkan potensi dan kepentingannya dalam pembangunan dan modifikasi agen anti-MRSA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin
  20. Roberts JA, Joynt G, Lee A, Choi G, Bellomo R, Kanji S, et al.
    Clin Infect Dis, 2020 Mar 09.
    PMID: 32150603 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa224
    BACKGROUND: The optimal dosing of antibiotics in critically ill patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) remains unclear. In this study, we describe the variability in RRT techniques and antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients receiving RRT and to relate observed trough antibiotic concentrations to optimal targets.

    METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational, multi-national, pharmacokinetic study in 29 intensive care units from 14 countries. We collected demographic, clinical and RRT data. We measured trough antibiotic concentrations of meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and vancomycin and related them to high and low target trough concentrations.

    RESULTS: We studied 381 patients and obtained 508 trough antibiotic concentrations. There was wide variability (4-8 fold) in antibiotic dosing regimens; RRT prescription, and estimated endogenous renal function. The overall median estimated total renal clearance (eTRCL) was 50 mL/min (interquartile range [IQR] 35-65) and higher eTRCL was associated with lower trough concentrations for all antibiotics (p<0.05). The median (IQR) trough concentration for meropenem was 12.1 mg/L (7.9-18.8), piperacillin 78.6 mg/L (49.5-127.3), tazobactam 9.5 mg/L (6.3-14.2) and vancomycin 14.3 mg/L (11.6-21.8). Trough concentrations failed to meet optimal higher limits in 26%, 36%, 72%, and optimal lower limits in 4%, 4%, and 55% of patients for meropenem, piperacillin and vancomycin respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients treated with RRT, antibiotic dosing regimens, RRT prescription and eTRCL varied markedly and resulted in highly variable antibiotic concentrations that failed to meet therapeutic targets in many patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vancomycin
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