DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case series.
PARTICIPANTS: Five patients with visual disturbances resulting from a benign, well-circumscribed orbital apex tumor (3 cases of cavernous hemangioma and 2 cases of schwannoma).
METHODS: Each patient treated with GKRS with a total radiation dose of 20 Gy in 4 sessions (5 Gy in each session with an isodose line of 50%) delivered to the tumor margin.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best-corrected visual acuity, visual field changes, orbital imaging, tumor growth control, and side effects of radiation.
RESULTS: All patients demonstrated improvement in visual acuity, pupillary responses, color vision, and visual field. Tumor shrinkage was observed in all patients and remained stable until the last follow-up. No adverse events were noted during or after the radiosurgery. None of the patients experienced any radiation-related ocular morbidity.
CONCLUSIONS: From this experience, multisession GKRS seems to be an effective management strategy to treat solitary, benign, well-circumscribed orbital apex tumors.
METHODS: A prospective study was carried out on 32 healthy subjects (control group) and 60 diabetic patients. The diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 comprised of 30 patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR) and group 2 had 30 patients with mild non-proliferative DR. A full-threshold microperimetry of the central 10° of retina (the macula) was performed on all subjects, utilizing 32 points with the MP-1. The relationship between light sensitivity and HbA1c value was calculated using linear regression analysis.
RESULTS: Total mean sensitivity at 10° for group 1 without DR, group 2 with mild NPDR and control group were 18.67±0.83, 17.98±1.42 and 19.45±0.34 (dB), respectively. There was a significant difference in total mean retinal sensitivity at 10° between the 3 groups (F(2,89)=18.14, p=0.001). A simple linear regression was calculated to predict HbA1c based on retinal sensitivity. A significant regression equation was found (F(1,90)=107.61, p=0.0001, with an R2 of 0.545). The linear regression analysis revealed that there was a 0.64dB decline in mean retinal sensitivity within the central 10° diameter with an increase of 1mmHg of HbA1c.
CONCLUSION: Retinal sensitivity at the central 10° of the macula is affected by changes in HbA1c values.
DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal study.
METHODS: Sixty-five NTG patients who were followed up for 5 years are included in this study. All the enrolled patients underwent baseline 24-h IOP and BP monitoring via 2-hourly measurements in their habitual position and were followed up for over 5 years with reliable VF tests. Modified Anderson criteria were used to assess VF progression. Univariable and multivariable analyses using Cox's proportional hazards model were used to identify the systemic and clinical risk factors that predict progression. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to compare the time elapsed to confirmed VF progression in the presence or absence of each potential risk factor.
RESULTS: At 5-year follow-up, 35.4% of the enrolled patients demonstrated visual field progression. There were statistically significant differences in the mean diastolic blood pressure (p visual field progression at 5 years. An mmHg decrease in nocturnal DOPP increases the hazard of progression by 1.4 times. Patients with DOPP 43.7 mmHg (log rank = 0.018).
CONCLUSION: Diastolic parameters of BP and OPP were significantly lower in the NTG patients who progressed after 5 years. Low nocturnal DOPP is an independent predictor of glaucomatous visual field progression in NTG patients.
METHODS: We measured psychophysical contrast thresholds in one eye of 16 control subjects and 19 patients aged 67.8 ± 5.65 and 71.9 ± 7.15, respectively, (mean ± SD). Patients ranged in disease severity from suspects to severe glaucoma. We used the 17-region FDT-perimeter C20-threshold program and a custom 9-region test (R9) with similar visual field coverage. The R9 stimuli scaled their spatial frequencies with eccentricity and were modulated at lower temporal frequencies than C20 and thus did not display a clear spatial frequency-doubling (FD) appearance. Based on the overlapping areas of the stimuli, we transformed the C20 results to 9 measures for direct comparison with R9. We also compared mfVEP-based and psychophysical contrast thresholds in 26 younger (26.6 ± 7.3 y, mean ± SD) and 20 older normal control subjects (66.5 ± 7.3 y) control subjects using the R9 stimuli.
RESULTS: The best intraclass correlations between R9/C20 thresholds were for the central and outer regions: 0.82 ± 0.05 (mean ± SD, p ≤ 0.0001). The areas under receiver operator characteristic plots for C20 and R9 were as high as 0.99 ± 0.012 (mean ± SE). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) showed significant correlation (r = 0.638, p = 0.029) with 1 dimension of the C20 and R9 data, suggesting that the lower and higher temporal frequency tests probed the same neural mechanism(s). Low signal quality made the contrast-threshold mfVEPs non-viable. The resulting mfVEP thresholds were limited by noise to artificially high contrasts, which unlike the psychophysical versions, were not correlated with age.
CONCLUSION: The lower temporal frequency R9 stimuli had similar diagnostic power to the FDT-C20 stimuli. CCA indicated the both stimuli drove similar neural mechanisms, possibly suggesting no advantage of FD stimuli for mfVEPs. Given that the contrast-threshold mfVEPs were non-viable, we used the present and published results to make recommendations for future mfVEP tests.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 150 Malay PACG patients between April 2014 and August 2016. Ocular examination was performed including Humphrey visual field (HVF) 24-2 analysis assessment. On the basis of the 2 consecutive reliable HVFs, the severity of glaucoma was scored according to modified Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) by 2 masked investigators and classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Those with retinal diseases, neurological diseases, memory problem, and myopia ≥4 diopters were excluded. Their smoking status and details were obtained by validated questionnaire from Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES). The duration of smoking, number of cigarettes per day, and pack/year was also documented. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted.
RESULTS: There was a significant association between education level and severity of PACG (P=0.001). However, there was no significant association between cigarette smoking and severity of glaucoma (P=0.080). On the basis of multivariate analysis, a linear association was identified between cigarette smoked per day (adjusted b=0.73; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.45; P<0.001) and body mass index (adjusted b=0.32; 95% CI: 0.07, 1.35; P=0.032) with AGIS score.
CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant association between cigarette smoking and severity of PACG. Cigarette smoked per day among the smokers was associated with severity of PACG. However, because of the detrimental effect of smoking, cessation of smoking should be advocated to PACG patients.
METHODS: This retrospective study analysed data of 60 eyes from 30 patients with bilateral uveitic glaucoma who had undergone glaucoma surgery in both eyes on separate occasions. Humphrey VF progression was assessed using the Progressor software.
RESULTS: The pre-operative IOP between the FE (43.1 ± 7.7 mmHg) and SE (40 ± 8.7 mmHg) was not statistically significant (p = 0.15). IOP reduction was greater in the FE (64 %) than SE (59.7 %) post-operatively, but the mean IOP at the final visit in the FE (12.3 ± 3.9 mmHg) and SE (14.5 ± 7 mmHg) was not statistically different (p = 0.2). There was no significant change in mean logMAR readings pre and post-operatively (0.45 ± 0.6 vs 0.37 ± 0.6, p = 0.4) or between the FE and SE. The number of SE with CDR > 0.7 increased by 23 % compared to the FE. From 23 available VFs, five SE (21.7 %) progressed at a median of five locations (range 1-11 points) with a mean local slope reduction of 1.74 ± 0.45 dB/year (range -2.39 to -1.26), whereas only one FE progressed. However, there was no significant difference between mean global rate of progression between the FE (-0.9 ± 1.6 dB/year) and SE (-0.76 ± 2.1 dB/year, p = 0.17) in the Humphrey VF.
CONCLUSION: In eyes with bilateral uveitic glaucoma requiring glaucoma surgery, the SEs had more progressed points on VF and glaucomatous disc progression compared to FEs at the final visit.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, including 24-hour ocular perfusion pressure and risk of progression in patients with baseline central VF defect, as compared with those with peripheral VF defect in NTG.
DESIGN: This was a prospective, longitudinal study.
METHODS: A total of 65 NTG patients who completed 5 years of follow-up were included in this study. All the enrolled patients underwent baseline 24-hour intraocular pressure and blood pressure monitoring via 2-hourly measurements in their habitual position and had ≥5 reliable VF tests during the 5-year follow-up. Patients were assigned to two groups on the basis of VF defect locations at baseline, the central 10 degrees, and the peripheral 10- to 24-degree area. Modified Anderson criteria were used to assess global VF progression over 5 years. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to compare the elapsed time of confirmed VF progression in the two groups. Hazard ratios for the association between clinical risk factors and VF progression were obtained by using Cox proportional hazards models.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the patients with baseline central and peripheral VF defects in terms of demography, clinical, ocular and systemic hemodynamic factors. Eyes with baseline defects involving the central fields progressed faster (difference: βcentral=-0.78 dB/y, 95% confidence interval=-0.22 to -1.33, P=0.007) and have 3.56 times higher hazard of progressing (95% confidence interval=1.17-10.82, P=0.025) than those with only peripheral defects.
CONCLUSION: NTG patients with baseline central VF involvement are at increased risk of progression compared with those with peripheral VF defect.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 30 severe glaucoma patients, 30 mild glaucoma patients and 30 age-matched controls were recruited. All subjects underwent standard automated perimetry, RNFL analysis and 3 T MRI examinations. Glaucoma patients were classified according to the Hodapp-Anderson-Parish classification. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to correlate ON volume with RNFL, and receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of ON volume in detecting glaucoma severity.
RESULTS: Optic nerve volume was significantly lower in both the left and right eyes of the severe glaucoma group (168.70 ± 46.28 mm(3); 167.40 ± 45.36 mm(3)) than in the mild glaucoma group (264.03 ± 78.53 mm(3); 264.76 ± 78.88 mm(3)) and the control group (297.80 ± 71.45 mm(3); 296.56 ± 71.02 mm(3)). Moderate correlation was observed between: RNFL thickness and ON volume (r = 0.51, p <0.001), and in mean deviation of visual field and optic nerve volume (r = 0.60, p
AIM: Aging-associated CI can impair the ability of individuals to perform a VF test and compromise the reliability of the results. We evaluated the association between neurocognitive impairment and VF reliability indices in glaucoma patients.
METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Kuala Pilah, Malaysia, and included 113 eyes of 60 glaucoma patients with no prior diagnosis of dementia. Patients were monitored with the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer using a 30-2 SITA, standard protocol, and CI was assessed using the clock drawing test (CDT). The relationships between the CDT score, MD, pattern standard deviation, Visual Field Index (VFI), fixation loss (FL), false-positive values, and FN values were analyzed using the ordinal regression model.
RESULTS: Glaucoma patients older than 65 years had a higher prevalence of CI. There was a statistically significant correlation between CDT scores and glaucoma severity, FL, FN, and VFI values (rs=-0.20, P=0.03; rs=-0.20, P=0.04; rs=-0.28, P=0.003; rs=0.21, P=0.03, respectively). In a multivariate model adjusted for age and glaucoma severity, patients with lower FN were significantly less likely to have CI (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.93) and patients with higher MD were more likely to have CI (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.16); false positive, FL, pattern standard deviation, and VFI showed no significant correlation.
CONCLUSION: Cognitive decline is associated with reduced VF reliability, especially with higher FN rate and overestimated MD. Screening and monitoring of CI may be important in the assessment of VF progression in glaucoma patients.