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  1. Rosli Y, Bedford SM, Maddess T
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2009 Apr;50(4):1956-63.
    PMID: 18469194 DOI: 10.1167/iovs.08-1810
    This study examined the number and nature of spatiotemporal channels in the region where the frequency-doubling (FD) illusion would be expected to occur at eight locations spanning the central 30 degrees of the visual field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology*
  2. Mohammed Z, Dickinson CM
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt, 2000 Nov;20(6):464-72.
    PMID: 11127126 DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-1313.2000.tb01124.x
    For the reading task, contrast reserve is defined as the ratio of the letter contrast of the printed letters, to the reader's contrast threshold. Acuity reserve is the ratio of the print size used for the reading task, to the reader's visual acuity. The effects of low contrast reserve on reading performance were investigated at various magnifications, ranging from 3x to 7.5x, with the field of view systematically controlled. Eye movements were recorded whilst normally sighted subjects read using the magnifiers. It was shown that with adequate contrast reserve, increasing the field of view improved the reading rate because of the resulting increase in forward saccade length. Conversely, reducing the contrast reserve slowed the reading rate by decreasing the length of forward saccades and increasing the mean fixation duration, suggesting that the perceptual span is reduced at low contrast reserve. This study also shows that when the contrast reserve is low, providing magnification higher than that required for letter recognition (that is, increasing the acuity reserve) will not improve the reading performance. Furthermore, even when the contrast reserve was high, reading rates were lower for the magnifications of 5x and higher, because increases in saccade length do not match those of the retinal image size at these magnifications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology*
  3. Shatriah I, Adlina AR, Alshaarawi S, Wan-Hitam WH
    Pediatr. Neurol., 2012 May;46(5):293-7.
    PMID: 22520350 DOI: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2012.02.020
    Limited data are available on optic neuritis in Asian children. Clinical profiles tend to vary with different races. We aimed to determine the clinical manifestations, visual outcomes, and etiologies of optic neuritis in Malaysian children, and discuss the literature of optic neuritis in Asian children. A retrospective study involving 14 children with optic neuritis was performed at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia between July 2005 and January 2010 (follow-up, 18-60 months). Clinical features, laboratory results, possible etiologies, and visual acuity after 1 year were studied. Females were predominant (mean age at presentation, 11.1 years). All patients manifested bilateral involvement. Swollen optic discs were observed in 92.9% of eyes; 60.7% of patients demonstrated a visual acuity of 6/60 (or 20/200) or worse on presentation, whereas 14.3% remained at 6/60 (or 20/200) or worse, 1 year after their attack. Cecocentral scotoma comprised the most common visual field defect. Infection contributed to 50.0% of cases; 14.3% progressed to multiple sclerosis during follow-up, with no evidence of recurrent optic neuritis. The clinical profiles and etiologies of optic neuritis in Malay children differ slightly compared with other optic neuritis studies of Asian children. The frequency of progression to multiple sclerosis is relatively lower.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology
  4. Rosli Y, Bedford SM, James AC, Maddess T
    Vision Res, 2012 Sep 15;69:42-8.
    PMID: 22898702 DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2012.07.019
    We compared photopic and scotopic multifocal pupillographic stimuli in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Both eyes of 18 normal and 14 AMD subjects were tested with four stimulus variants presented at photopic and 126 times lower luminances. The multifocal stimuli presented 24 test regions/eye to the central 60°. The stimulus variants had two different check sizes, and when presented either flickered (15 Hz) for 266 ms, or were steady for 133 ms. Mean differences from normal of 5 to 7 dB were observed in the central visual field for both photopic and scotopic stimuli (all p < 0.00002). The best areas under receiver operating characteristic plots for exudative AMD in the photopic and scotopic conditions were 92.9 ± 8.0 and 90.3 ± 5.7% respectively, and in less severely affected eyes 83.8 ± 9.7% and 76.9 ± 8.2%. Damage recorded at photopic levels was possibly more diffusely distributed across the visual field. Sensitivity and specificity was similar at photopic and scotopic levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology
  5. Goh ASC, Kim YD, Woo KI, Lee JI
    Ophthalmology, 2013 Mar;120(3):635-641.
    PMID: 23149128 DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.08.015
    OBJECTIVE: The orbital apex is an important anatomic landmark that hosts numerous critical neurovascular structures. Tumor resection performed at this complex region poses a therapeutic challenge to orbital surgeons and often is associated with significant visual morbidity. This article reports the efficacy and safety of multisession gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in benign, well-circumscribed tumors located at the orbital apex.

    DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case series.

    PARTICIPANTS: Five patients with visual disturbances resulting from a benign, well-circumscribed orbital apex tumor (3 cases of cavernous hemangioma and 2 cases of schwannoma).

    METHODS: Each patient treated with GKRS with a total radiation dose of 20 Gy in 4 sessions (5 Gy in each session with an isodose line of 50%) delivered to the tumor margin.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best-corrected visual acuity, visual field changes, orbital imaging, tumor growth control, and side effects of radiation.

    RESULTS: All patients demonstrated improvement in visual acuity, pupillary responses, color vision, and visual field. Tumor shrinkage was observed in all patients and remained stable until the last follow-up. No adverse events were noted during or after the radiosurgery. None of the patients experienced any radiation-related ocular morbidity.

    CONCLUSIONS: From this experience, multisession GKRS seems to be an effective management strategy to treat solitary, benign, well-circumscribed orbital apex tumors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology
  6. Rosli Y, Carle CF, Ho Y, James AC, Kolic M, Rohan EMF, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 02 14;8(1):2991.
    PMID: 29445236 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21196-1
    Multifocal pupillographic objective perimetry (mfPOP) has recently been shown to be able to measure cortical function. Here we assessed 44 regions of the central 60 degrees of the visual fields of each eye concurrently in 7 minutes/test. We examined how foveally- and peripherally-directed attention changed response sensitivity and delay across the 44 visual field locations/eye. Four experiments were completed comparing white, yellow and blue stimulus arrays. Experiments 1 to 4 tested 16, 23, 9 and 6 subjects, 49/54 being unique. Experiment 1, Experiments 2 and 3, and Experiment 4 used three variants of the mfPOP method that provided increasingly improved signal quality. Experiments 1 to 3 examined centrally directed attention, and Experiment 4 compared effects of attention directed to different peripheral targets. Attention reduced the sensitivity of the peripheral locations in Experiment 1, but only for the white stimuli not yellow. Experiment 2 confirmed that result. Experiment 3 showed that blue stimuli behaved like white. Peripheral attention showed increased sensitivity around the attentional targets. The results are discussed in terms of the cortical inputs to the pupillary system. The results agree with those from multifocal and other fMRI and VEP studies. mfPOP may be a useful adjunct to those methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology*
  7. Sharanjeet-Kaur, Ismail SA, Mutalib HA, Ngah NF
    J Optom, 2018 05 26;12(3):174-179.
    PMID: 29843983 DOI: 10.1016/j.optom.2018.03.007
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between HbA1c values and retinal sensitivity at central 10° using the MP-1 microperimeter.

    METHODS: A prospective study was carried out on 32 healthy subjects (control group) and 60 diabetic patients. The diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 comprised of 30 patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR) and group 2 had 30 patients with mild non-proliferative DR. A full-threshold microperimetry of the central 10° of retina (the macula) was performed on all subjects, utilizing 32 points with the MP-1. The relationship between light sensitivity and HbA1c value was calculated using linear regression analysis.

    RESULTS: Total mean sensitivity at 10° for group 1 without DR, group 2 with mild NPDR and control group were 18.67±0.83, 17.98±1.42 and 19.45±0.34 (dB), respectively. There was a significant difference in total mean retinal sensitivity at 10° between the 3 groups (F(2,89)=18.14, p=0.001). A simple linear regression was calculated to predict HbA1c based on retinal sensitivity. A significant regression equation was found (F(1,90)=107.61, p=0.0001, with an R2 of 0.545). The linear regression analysis revealed that there was a 0.64dB decline in mean retinal sensitivity within the central 10° diameter with an increase of 1mmHg of HbA1c.

    CONCLUSION: Retinal sensitivity at the central 10° of the macula is affected by changes in HbA1c values.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology*
  8. Bukhari SM, Kiu KY, Thambiraja R, Sulong S, Rasool AH, Liza-Sharmini AT
    Eye (Lond), 2016 Dec;30(12):1579-1587.
    PMID: 27540832 DOI: 10.1038/eye.2016.185
    PurposeThe role of microvascular endothelial dysfunction on severity of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) was investigated in this study.Patients and methodsA prospective cohort study was conducted. One hundred and fourteen ethnically Malay patients (114 eyes) with POAG treated at the eye clinic of Hospital University Sains Malaysia between April 2012 and December 2014 were recruited. Patients aged between 40 and 80 years with two consecutive reliable and reproducible Humphrey visual field 24-2 analyses were selected. Patients who were diagnosed with any other type of glaucoma, previous glaucoma-filtering surgery, or other surgeries except uncomplicated cataract and pterygium surgery were excluded. Humphrey visual field analysis 24-2 was used to stratify the severity of glaucoma using Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) score at the time of recruitment. Microvascular endothelial function was assessed using Laser Doppler fluximetry and iontophoresis. Iontophoresis process with acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used to measure microvascular endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilatation, respectively.ResultsBased on the AGIS score, 55 patients showed mild glaucoma, with 29 moderate and 30 severe. There was statistically significant difference in microvascular endothelial function (ACh% and AChmax) between mild and moderate POAG cases (P=0.023) and between mild and severe POAG cases (P<0.001). There was negative correlation between microvascular endothelial function and severity of POAG (r=-0.457, P<0.001).ConclusionMicrovascular endothelial dysfunction may have a role in influencing the severity of POAG in Malay patients.

    Study site: Eye clinic Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology
  9. Raman P, Suliman NB, Zahari M, Kook M, Ramli N
    Eye (Lond), 2018 07;32(7):1183-1189.
    PMID: 29491486 DOI: 10.1038/s41433-018-0057-8
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between baseline intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure (BP) and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), and the 5-year visual field progression in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients.

    DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal study.

    METHODS: Sixty-five NTG patients who were followed up for 5 years are included in this study. All the enrolled patients underwent baseline 24-h IOP and BP monitoring via 2-hourly measurements in their habitual position and were followed up for over 5 years with reliable VF tests. Modified Anderson criteria were used to assess VF progression. Univariable and multivariable analyses using Cox's proportional hazards model were used to identify the systemic and clinical risk factors that predict progression. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to compare the time elapsed to confirmed VF progression in the presence or absence of each potential risk factor.

    RESULTS: At 5-year follow-up, 35.4% of the enrolled patients demonstrated visual field progression. There were statistically significant differences in the mean diastolic blood pressure (p visual field progression at 5 years. An mmHg decrease in nocturnal DOPP increases the hazard of progression by 1.4 times. Patients with DOPP  43.7 mmHg (log rank = 0.018).

    CONCLUSION: Diastolic parameters of BP and OPP were significantly lower in the NTG patients who progressed after 5 years. Low nocturnal DOPP is an independent predictor of glaucomatous visual field progression in NTG patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology
  10. Abdullah SN, Sanderson GF, Husni MA, Maddess T
    PMID: 32034583 DOI: 10.1007/s10633-020-09750-7
    PURPOSE: To compare two forms of perimetry that use large contrast-modulated grating stimuli in terms of: their relative diagnostic power, their independent diagnostic information about glaucoma and their utility for mfVEPs. We evaluated a contrast-threshold mfVEP in normal controls using the same stimuli as one of the tests.

    METHODS: We measured psychophysical contrast thresholds in one eye of 16 control subjects and 19 patients aged 67.8 ± 5.65 and 71.9 ± 7.15, respectively, (mean ± SD). Patients ranged in disease severity from suspects to severe glaucoma. We used the 17-region FDT-perimeter C20-threshold program and a custom 9-region test (R9) with similar visual field coverage. The R9 stimuli scaled their spatial frequencies with eccentricity and were modulated at lower temporal frequencies than C20 and thus did not display a clear spatial frequency-doubling (FD) appearance. Based on the overlapping areas of the stimuli, we transformed the C20 results to 9 measures for direct comparison with R9. We also compared mfVEP-based and psychophysical contrast thresholds in 26 younger (26.6 ± 7.3 y, mean ± SD) and 20 older normal control subjects (66.5 ± 7.3 y) control subjects using the R9 stimuli.

    RESULTS: The best intraclass correlations between R9/C20 thresholds were for the central and outer regions: 0.82 ± 0.05 (mean ± SD, p ≤ 0.0001). The areas under receiver operator characteristic plots for C20 and R9 were as high as 0.99 ± 0.012 (mean ± SE). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) showed significant correlation (r = 0.638, p = 0.029) with 1 dimension of the C20 and R9 data, suggesting that the lower and higher temporal frequency tests probed the same neural mechanism(s). Low signal quality made the contrast-threshold mfVEPs non-viable. The resulting mfVEP thresholds were limited by noise to artificially high contrasts, which unlike the psychophysical versions, were not correlated with age.

    CONCLUSION: The lower temporal frequency R9 stimuli had similar diagnostic power to the FDT-C20 stimuli. CCA indicated the both stimuli drove similar neural mechanisms, possibly suggesting no advantage of FD stimuli for mfVEPs. Given that the contrast-threshold mfVEPs were non-viable, we used the present and published results to make recommendations for future mfVEP tests.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology*
  11. Niven TCS, Azhany Y, Rohana AJ, Karunakar TVN, Thayanithi S, Jelinar Noor MN, et al.
    J Glaucoma, 2019 01;28(1):7-13.
    PMID: 30461551 DOI: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001120
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between cigarette smoking and the severity of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in Malay patients residing in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 150 Malay PACG patients between April 2014 and August 2016. Ocular examination was performed including Humphrey visual field (HVF) 24-2 analysis assessment. On the basis of the 2 consecutive reliable HVFs, the severity of glaucoma was scored according to modified Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) by 2 masked investigators and classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Those with retinal diseases, neurological diseases, memory problem, and myopia ≥4 diopters were excluded. Their smoking status and details were obtained by validated questionnaire from Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES). The duration of smoking, number of cigarettes per day, and pack/year was also documented. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted.

    RESULTS: There was a significant association between education level and severity of PACG (P=0.001). However, there was no significant association between cigarette smoking and severity of glaucoma (P=0.080). On the basis of multivariate analysis, a linear association was identified between cigarette smoked per day (adjusted b=0.73; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.45; P<0.001) and body mass index (adjusted b=0.32; 95% CI: 0.07, 1.35; P=0.032) with AGIS score.

    CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant association between cigarette smoking and severity of PACG. Cigarette smoked per day among the smokers was associated with severity of PACG. However, because of the detrimental effect of smoking, cessation of smoking should be advocated to PACG patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology
  12. Ashworth J, Flaherty M, Pitz S, Ramlee A
    Acta Ophthalmol, 2015 Mar;93(2):e111-7.
    PMID: 25688487 DOI: 10.1111/aos.12607
    Purpose: The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of rare lysosomal storage disorders, characterized by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans within multiple organ systems including the eye. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of glaucoma in patients with MPS, as well as the characteristics, diagnosis and management of patients with MPS and glaucoma.
    Methods: A multicentre retrospective case-note review was carried out by ophthalmologists from four tertiary referral centres to identify patients with MPS who had been treated for glaucoma. Clinical ophthalmological data were collected using standardized data collection forms.
    Results: Fourteen patients were identified (27 eyes) of 294 patients with MPS. The prevalence of glaucoma ranged from 2.1% to 12.5%. The median age at diagnosis of glaucoma was 8 years. Diagnostic evaluation of glaucoma was incomplete in many patients: intraocular pressure was documented in all eyes, but optic disc appearance was only assessed in 67%, central corneal thickness in 26%, visual fields in 19% and iridocorneal angle in 15%.
    Conclusions: Patients with MPS need regular assessment for possible glaucoma including during childhood. Multiple factors contribute to the challenges of assessment, diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma in these patients.
    Keywords: Hunter; Hurler; Hurler-Scheie; Maroteaux-Lamy; Morquio; Scheie; glaucoma; mucopolysaccharidosis; prevalence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology
  13. Ismail SA, Sharanjeet-Kaur, Mutalib HA, Ngah NF
    J Optom, 2015 Oct-Dec;8(4):266-72.
    PMID: 26025808 DOI: 10.1016/j.optom.2015.04.001
    PURPOSE: To determine the influence of age and gender on macular sensitivity to light in healthy subjects of 4 age groups using the MP-1 microperimeter.
    METHODS: A prospective study was carried out on 50 healthy subjects (age range: 18-60 years) divided into 4 age groups; 18-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years and 51-60 years. Full-threshold microperimetry of the central 10° of retina was performed utilizing 32 points with the MP-1. Macula area was divided into four quadrants, which were superior nasal (SN), inferior nasal (IN), inferior temporal (IT) and superior temporal (ST).
    RESULTS: Total mean sensitivity at 10° for age groups 18-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years and 51-60 years were 19.46 ± 0.30, 19.40 ± 0.39, 19.47 ± 0.35 and 18.73 ± 0.75 (dB), respectively. There was a significant difference in total mean retinal sensitivity at 10° and at the four quadrants with age but not for gender. The retinal sensitivity was highest in the IT quadrant and lowest in the SN quadrant for all age groups. The linear regression analysis revealed that there was a 0.019 dB, 0.016 dB, 0.022 dB, 0.029 dB and 0.029 dB per year age-related decline in mean macular sensitivity within the central 10° diameter in the SN, IN, IT and ST quadrants respectively.
    CONCLUSION: Among normal healthy subjects, there was a linear decline in retinal light sensitivity with increasing age with the highest reduction in the superior nasal quadrant and lowest in the inferior temporal quadrant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology*
  14. Tan HK, Ahmad Tajuddin LS, Lee MY, Ismail S, Wan-Hitam WH
    PMID: 26065503 DOI: 10.1097/APO.0000000000000058
    PURPOSE: To determine the mean central corneal thickness (CCT) and the relationship between the CCT and visual field progression in primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG).
    DESIGN: A combined cross-sectional and prospective study on PAC and PACG.
    METHODS: A total of 35 eyes were included in the study for each group of normal control, PAC, and PACG patients from eye clinics in Kota Bharu, state of Kelantan, Malaysia, from January 2007 to November 2009. The PAC and PACG patients were divided into thin and thick CCT groups. They were followed up for 12 to 18 months for visual field progression assessment with their mean Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) score.
    RESULTS: The CCT was 516.8 ± 26.0 µm for PAC and 509.7 ± 27.4 µm for PACG. Both were significantly thinner compared with the control group with CCT of 540 ± 27.8 µm (P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in the mean AGIS score after 12.9 ± 1.7 months of follow-up in the thin CCT group for PACG (P = 0.002). However, no significant increase in the mean AGIS score was found for the thick CCT group in PACG and for both thin and thick CCT in PAC.
    CONCLUSIONS: The PAC and PACG had statistically significant thinner CCT compared with the controls. Thin CCT was associated with visual field progression based on the mean AGIS score in PACG.

    Study site: eye
    clinics in Kota Bharu, Kelantan
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology*
  15. Din NM, Talat L, Isa H, Tomkins-Netzer O, Barton K, Lightman S
    Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol., 2016 Dec;254(12):2439-2448.
    PMID: 27495303
    PURPOSE: To determine whether the second eyes (SE) of patients with bilateral uveitic glaucoma undergoing filtration surgery have more glaucomatous progression in terms of visual acuity, visual field (VF) and optic nerve changes compared to the first eyes (FE).

    METHODS: This retrospective study analysed data of 60 eyes from 30 patients with bilateral uveitic glaucoma who had undergone glaucoma surgery in both eyes on separate occasions. Humphrey VF progression was assessed using the Progressor software.

    RESULTS: The pre-operative IOP between the FE (43.1 ± 7.7 mmHg) and SE (40 ± 8.7 mmHg) was not statistically significant (p = 0.15). IOP reduction was greater in the FE (64 %) than SE (59.7 %) post-operatively, but the mean IOP at the final visit in the FE (12.3 ± 3.9 mmHg) and SE (14.5 ± 7 mmHg) was not statistically different (p = 0.2). There was no significant change in mean logMAR readings pre and post-operatively (0.45 ± 0.6 vs 0.37 ± 0.6, p = 0.4) or between the FE and SE. The number of SE with CDR > 0.7 increased by 23 % compared to the FE. From 23 available VFs, five SE (21.7 %) progressed at a median of five locations (range 1-11 points) with a mean local slope reduction of 1.74 ± 0.45 dB/year (range -2.39 to -1.26), whereas only one FE progressed. However, there was no significant difference between mean global rate of progression between the FE (-0.9 ± 1.6 dB/year) and SE (-0.76 ± 2.1 dB/year, p = 0.17) in the Humphrey VF.

    CONCLUSION: In eyes with bilateral uveitic glaucoma requiring glaucoma surgery, the SEs had more progressed points on VF and glaucomatous disc progression compared to FEs at the final visit.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology*
  16. Raman P, Suliman NB, Zahari M, Mohamad NF, Kook MS, Ramli N
    J Glaucoma, 2019 11;28(11):952-957.
    PMID: 31688446 DOI: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001359
    PRECIS: This 5-year follow-up study on normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients demonstrated that those with baseline central visual field (VF) defect progress at a more increased rate compared with those with peripheral field defect.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, including 24-hour ocular perfusion pressure and risk of progression in patients with baseline central VF defect, as compared with those with peripheral VF defect in NTG.

    DESIGN: This was a prospective, longitudinal study.

    METHODS: A total of 65 NTG patients who completed 5 years of follow-up were included in this study. All the enrolled patients underwent baseline 24-hour intraocular pressure and blood pressure monitoring via 2-hourly measurements in their habitual position and had ≥5 reliable VF tests during the 5-year follow-up. Patients were assigned to two groups on the basis of VF defect locations at baseline, the central 10 degrees, and the peripheral 10- to 24-degree area. Modified Anderson criteria were used to assess global VF progression over 5 years. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to compare the elapsed time of confirmed VF progression in the two groups. Hazard ratios for the association between clinical risk factors and VF progression were obtained by using Cox proportional hazards models.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the patients with baseline central and peripheral VF defects in terms of demography, clinical, ocular and systemic hemodynamic factors. Eyes with baseline defects involving the central fields progressed faster (difference: βcentral=-0.78 dB/y, 95% confidence interval=-0.22 to -1.33, P=0.007) and have 3.56 times higher hazard of progressing (95% confidence interval=1.17-10.82, P=0.025) than those with only peripheral defects.

    CONCLUSION: NTG patients with baseline central VF involvement are at increased risk of progression compared with those with peripheral VF defect.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology*
  17. Ramli NM, Sidek S, Rahman FA, Peyman M, Zahari M, Rahmat K, et al.
    Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol., 2014 Jun;252(6):995-1000.
    PMID: 24770532 DOI: 10.1007/s00417-014-2622-6
    PURPOSE: To measure optic nerve (ON) volume using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to correlate ON volume with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and to determine the viability of MRI as an objective tool in distinguishing glaucoma severity.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 30 severe glaucoma patients, 30 mild glaucoma patients and 30 age-matched controls were recruited. All subjects underwent standard automated perimetry, RNFL analysis and 3 T MRI examinations. Glaucoma patients were classified according to the Hodapp-Anderson-Parish classification. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to correlate ON volume with RNFL, and receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of ON volume in detecting glaucoma severity.

    RESULTS: Optic nerve volume was significantly lower in both the left and right eyes of the severe glaucoma group (168.70 ± 46.28 mm(3); 167.40 ± 45.36 mm(3)) than in the mild glaucoma group (264.03 ± 78.53 mm(3); 264.76 ± 78.88 mm(3)) and the control group (297.80 ± 71.45 mm(3); 296.56 ± 71.02 mm(3)). Moderate correlation was observed between: RNFL thickness and ON volume (r = 0.51, p <0.001), and in mean deviation of visual field and optic nerve volume (r = 0.60, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology
  18. Raman P, Khy Ching Y, Sivagurunathan PD, Ramli N, Mohd Khalid KH
    J Glaucoma, 2019 08;28(8):685-690.
    PMID: 31033782 DOI: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001269
    PRECIS: This prospective cross-sectional study found that patients with cognitive impairment (CI) are more likely to produce unreliable visual field (VF) tests, especially with higher false-negative (FN) responses and consequent overestimation of mean deviation (MD).

    AIM: Aging-associated CI can impair the ability of individuals to perform a VF test and compromise the reliability of the results. We evaluated the association between neurocognitive impairment and VF reliability indices in glaucoma patients.

    METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Kuala Pilah, Malaysia, and included 113 eyes of 60 glaucoma patients with no prior diagnosis of dementia. Patients were monitored with the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer using a 30-2 SITA, standard protocol, and CI was assessed using the clock drawing test (CDT). The relationships between the CDT score, MD, pattern standard deviation, Visual Field Index (VFI), fixation loss (FL), false-positive values, and FN values were analyzed using the ordinal regression model.

    RESULTS: Glaucoma patients older than 65 years had a higher prevalence of CI. There was a statistically significant correlation between CDT scores and glaucoma severity, FL, FN, and VFI values (rs=-0.20, P=0.03; rs=-0.20, P=0.04; rs=-0.28, P=0.003; rs=0.21, P=0.03, respectively). In a multivariate model adjusted for age and glaucoma severity, patients with lower FN were significantly less likely to have CI (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.93) and patients with higher MD were more likely to have CI (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.16); false positive, FL, pattern standard deviation, and VFI showed no significant correlation.

    CONCLUSION: Cognitive decline is associated with reduced VF reliability, especially with higher FN rate and overestimated MD. Screening and monitoring of CI may be important in the assessment of VF progression in glaucoma patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Fields/physiology*
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