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  1. Adam A, Marzuki A, Ngah WZ, Top GM
    Pharmacol. Toxicol., 1996 Dec;79(6):334-9.
    PMID: 9000262
    The hepatic and pulmonary effects of nitrofurantoin (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) were determined at 4 and 24 hr following its administration in mice fed for 10 weeks with a vitamin E sufficient, deficient or enriched diet. Liver glutathione (GSH) was reduced by nitrofurantoin at 4 hr but was unchanged 20 hr later. Nitrofurantoin did not affect liver glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase or superoxide dismutase activities. Liver catalase activities were decreased by nitrofurantoin at 4 hr. Lung GSH levels were increased whilst glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased at 4 and 24 hr. Lung glutathione reductase activity was reduced in certain groups. Nitrofurantoin did not affect lung superoxide dismutase, but catalase was decreased at 24 hr. Liver malondialdehyde levels were increased by nitrofurantoin in the vitamin E deficient group whilst lung malondialdehyde levels remained unchanged. Both liver and lung malondialdehyde levels were unaffected by vitamin E supplementation when compared to the vitamin E-sufficient group. These results suggest that nitrofurantoin (40 mg/kg) was deleterious to the liver and lung. Nitrofurantoin-induced lipid peroxidation was seen in vitamin E deficiency but an increase in dietary vitamin E content did not provide additional protection compared to the recommended daily allowance. The antioxidant activities of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-enriched tocotrienol were similar.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E Deficiency/metabolism
  2. Norazlina M, Chua CW, Ima-Nirwana S
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Dec;59(5):623-30.
    PMID: 15889565
    Vitamin E deficiency has been found to impair bone calcification. This study was done to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on parathyroid hormone, i.e. the hormone involved in bone regulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal rat chow (RC), 2) vitamin E deficiency (VED), vitamin E deficient rats supplemented with 3) 60 mg/kg alpha-tocotrienol (ATT) and 4) 60 mg/kg (alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatment was carried out for 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency caused hypocalcaemia during the first month of the treatment period, increased the parathyroid hormone level in the second month and decreased the bone calcium content in the 4th lumbar bone at the end of the treatment. Vitamin E supplementation (ATT and ATF) failed to improve these conditions. The bone formation marker, osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker, deoxypyridinoline did not change throughout the study period. In conclusion vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcium homeostasis with subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism and vertebral bone loss. Replacing the vitamin E with pure ATF or pure ATT alone failed to correct the changes seen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E Deficiency/metabolism*
  3. Nafeeza MI, Fauzee AM, Kamsiah J, Gapor MT
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2002;11(4):309-13.
    PMID: 12495264
    This study examined the effects of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) obtained from palm oil on the healing of aspirin-induced gastric mucosal lesions. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into three groups. Group I was fed a vitamin E-deficient diet (control), Group II was fed a vitamin E-deficient diet supplemented with tocopherol (300 mg/kg food) and Group III was fed a vitamin E-deficient diet supplemented with TRF (300 mg/kg food). After eight weeks, the control and treated groups received a single intragastric dose of 400 mg/kg body weight aspirin. The rats were killed 24 h after exposure to aspirin. Assessment of gastric lesions showed a lower gastric lesion index in the TRF (P = 0.0005) and tocopherol groups (P = 0.0008) compared to the control. The gastric malondialdehyde (MDA) content was also lower in the TRF (P = 0.025) and tocopherol groups (P = 0.025) compared to control. There were, however, no significant differences in the gastric lesion index and gastric MDA content between the TRF and tocopherol-fed groups. There were no significant differences in the adherent gastric mucous concentration and gastric acid concentration among all groups. We conclude that the TRF and tocopherol are equally effective in preventing aspirin-induced gastric lesions. The most probable mechanism is through their ability to limit lipid peroxidation, which is involved in aspirin-induced gastric lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E Deficiency/metabolism*
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