Three building complexes in Kuala Lumpur were surveyed for the presence of legionellae in cooling towers. The organisms were grown from 12 out of 46 samples of water collected from 30 towers. L. pneumophila serogroups 1 and 7 were the commonest serogroups isolated. None belonged to the Pontiac subgroup of L. pneumophila serogroup 1.
Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic disease endemic in tropical regions. Aiming at assessing the potential infection risks via recreational exposure, the molecular prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira in 14 amenity forests in five selected districts of the state of Perak was determined. Water and soil samples along streams and waterfalls were subjected to culture of leptospires and the pathogenic Leptospira spp. was detected by lipL32-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twenty out of 154 samples (13%) that tested positive for leptospires were mostly soils and still water recorded with tolerable temperatures (22.2- 26.5°C) and pHs (5.73-6.70). The localised prevalence was highly varied among eight positive forests (6.7-41.7%), particularly higher in Kampar and Kinta districts which are the more populated urban areas. The importance of public health surveillance should not be underrated given the high prevalence of Leptospira spp. in forests in close proximity to indigenous settlements, even where the places are clean. Overall, this study discovered a wide distribution of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in recreational areas.
The detection of Vibrio cholerae 01 from the aquatic environment of Daro and Bintulu in Sarawak was carried out following an outbreak of cholera. Conventional culture methods and detection of ctx gene by polymerase chain reaction technique were carried out on 80 water samples. Only one sample was positive by culture methods while 8 were positive by PCR. DNA finger printing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the clinical isolates in Daro and Bintulu were genetically identical while the environmental isolate was closely related. Recovery of Vibrio cholerae by culture method is poor and newer methods of detection should be developed.
Water filters are being increasingly promoted and used in the home. There are many types of commercial water jilters available for domestic use but almost all of them employ a physical filter media and an activated substance. The study showed that water filters effectively removed suspended solids and residual chlorine. However, as far as removing colhform bacteria is concerned, in ZZ .5% of the cases, bacteria were in fact introduced into the water. And in 20% ofthe cases, the amount of bacteria introduced was “too numerous to count (TNTC)". Furthermore, water hlters can lose their ability to filter bacteria without losing their ability to filter suspended solids and residual chlorine. This highlights the necessity of some authorized body looking into the claims made by these water filter manufacturers and impose certain standards to ensure that at the very least, the water quality ofthe hltered water is not worse than the unfiltered water.
We investigated the appropriateness of faecal indicator bacteria in tropical waters. We compared total coliform (undetectable to 7.2 × 105 cfu 100 mL-1), faecal coliform (undetectable to 6.1 × 105 cfu 100 mL-1) and enterococci (undetectable to 3.1 × 104 cfu 100 mL-1) distribution in Peninsular Malaysia. Faecal indicator bacteria was highest in freshwater, and lowest in seawater (q > 4.18, p waters was not due to faecal pollution alone, and this will have serious implications towards the use of these faecal indicator bacteria.
Proteobacteria produce N-acylhomoserine lactones as signaling molecules, which will bind to their cognate receptor and activate quorum sensing-mediated phenotypes in a population-dependent manner. Although quorum sensing signaling molecules can be degraded by bacteria or fungi, there is no reported work on the degradation of such molecules by basidiomycetous yeast. By using a minimal growth medium containing N-3-oxohexanoylhomoserine lactone as the sole source of carbon, a wetland water sample from Malaysia was enriched for microbial strains that can degrade N-acylhomoserine lactones, and consequently, a basidiomycetous yeast strain WW1C was isolated. Morphological phenotype and molecular analyses confirmed that WW1C was a strain of Trichosporon loubieri. We showed that WW1C degraded AHLs with N-acyl side chains ranging from 4 to 10 carbons in length, with or without oxo group substitutions at the C3 position. Re-lactonisation bioassays revealed that WW1C degraded AHLs via a lactonase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of degradation of N-acyl-homoserine lactones and utilization of N-3-oxohexanoylhomoserine as carbon and nitrogen source for growth by basidiomycetous yeast from tropical wetland water; and the degradation of bacterial quorum sensing molecules by an eukaryotic yeast.
This study aims to determine the concentrations of total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in beach water, Teluk Kemang beach. This study was also aimed to determine relationship between total coliforms, E. coli and physicochemical parameters. As perceived health symptoms among beach visitors are rarely incorporated in beach water studies, this element was also assessed in this study. A total of eight water sampling points were selected randomly along Teluk Kemang beach. Total coliforms concentrations were found between 20 and 1940 cfu/100ml. E. coli concentrations were between 0 and 90 cfu/100ml. Significant correlations were found between total coliforms and E. coli with pH, temperature and oxidation reduction potential. Skin and eyes symptoms were the highest reported though in small numbers. Microbiological water quality in Teluk Kemang public beach was generally safe for recreational activities except sampling location near with sewage outfall.
Urbanization and frequent storms play important roles in increasing faecal bacteria pollution, especially for tropical urban catchments. However, only little information on the faecal bacteria levels from different land use types and the factors that influence bacteria concentrations is available. Thus, the objectives of this study were to quantify the levels and transport mechanism of faecal coliforms (FCs) from residential and commercial catchments. Stormwaters were sampled and the runoff flow rates were measured from both catchments during four storm events in Skudai, Malaysia. The samples were then analysed for FC, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations. Intra-storm and inter-storm characteristics of FC bacteria were investigated in order to identify the level and transport pattern of FC. The commercial catchment showed significantly higher event mean concentration (EMC) of FC than the residential catchment. For the residential catchment, the highest bacterial concentrations occurred during the early part of stormwater runoff with peak concentrations usually preceding the peak flow. First flush effect was more prevalent at the residential catchment.
Clostridium perfringens (CP) and sulphite reducing clostridia (SRC) densities in the Selangor River, Bernam River and Tengi River Canal were examined between April 2007 and January 2008. Water samples were taken from two or three locations along each river, using either depth-integration or grab sampling methods. The downstream sampling site of the Selangor River, Rantau Panjang, reported the highest arithmetic mean of CP and SRC densities (583.45 and 8,120.08 cfu/100 ml, respectively). Both CP and SRC densities in the Selangor River increased further downstream, but the reverse was true in the Bernam River. The SRC densities in these rivers were significantly different from each other (p < 0.05) when comparing upstream and downstream results, but CP densities were not significantly different (p > 0.05). SRC densities were significantly correlated (p < 0.05) in different locations along the Selangor River and the Bernam River. The CP densities did not show such pattern (p > 0.05). River discharge had no significant correlation with SRC or CP densities by study site (p > 0.05). Since the Selangor River has a denser human population along its banks, this study confirms CP as a suitable indicator of human fecal contamination. However, tracing CP distribution along the river is more difficult than SRC. To our knowledge, this is the first study of CP and SRC densities from Malaysian rivers. CP densities found in this study were within the range of general water bodies reported from other countries.
A study on physico-chemical parameters and pathogenic bacterial community was carried out at the coastal waters of Pulau Tuba island, Langkawi. The physico-chemical parameters such as temperature (27.43-28.88 degrees C), dissolved oxygen (3.79-6.49 mg l(-1)), pH (7.72-8.20), salinity (33.10-33.96 ppt), total dissolved solids (32.27-32.77 g l(-1)) and specific conductivity (49.83-51.63 mS cm(-1)) were observed. Station 3 and station 4 showed highest amount of nitrates (26.93 and 14.61 microg at N l(-1)) than station 1 (2.04 microg at N l(-1)) and station 2 (4.18 microg at N l(-1)). The highest concentration (12.4 +/- microg l(-1)) of chlorophyll a was observed in station 4 in October 2005. High phosphorus content (561 microg P l(-1)) was found in the station 2. Thirteen bacterial isolates were successfully identified using API 20E system. The highest amount of bacteria was observed at Station 4 (3400 CFU ml(-1)) and the lowest numberwas at Station 2 (890 CFU ml(-1)). Out of identified 13 Gram-negative bacterial isolates dominant species were Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas baumannii, Vibrio vulnificus, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia alcalifaciens and Serratia liquefaciens. Apart from this, oil biodegrading Pseudomonas putida were also identified. The study reveals the existing status of water quality is still conducive and the reasonably diverse with Gram-negative bacteria along the Pulau Tuba Langkawi.
Collections of anopheline mosquitos were made twice monthly for 13 months from a cow-baited trap in two villages, Kampung Permatang Rawa and Sungai Udang Kecil, on mainland coastal Penang, Malaysia. Each collection period was six hours from sunset. Unquantified larval collections were made regularly in each area. Although the villages were only about 50km apart, and each had extensive, irrigated rice-fields in its vicinity, the species abundance and the seasonal fluctuations differed significantly. In Kampung Permatang Rawa Anopheles sinensis and An. peditaeniatus were dominant in prevalence, whereas in Sungai Udang Kecil An. indefinitus and An. lesteri paraliae were most common and An. peditaeniatus was relatively rare. The rice growing schedules in the two areas differed, but there was a moderate correlation between the abundance of several species and the rice-growing pattern. There was no correlation at either site with rainfall.
A rapid method of assay, using a monoclonal antibody linked to alkaline phosphatase, was used for the detection of the Pontiac subgroup of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. It was tested for its specificity against 53 strains of Legionella recently isolated from the environment in Singapore and Malaysia. The specificity and sensitivity of this method of assay was confirmed, though there is some concern that the specificity was too narrow, and there are reservations about the criteria suggested for interpreting the results.
Water samples from a variety of sources in Kelantan, Malaysia (lakes, ponds, rivers, ditches, fish farms, and sewage) were screened for the presence of bacteriophages infecting Vibrio cholerae. Ten strains of V. cholerae that appeared to be free of inducible prophages were used as the host strains. Eleven bacteriophage isolates were obtained by plaque assay, three of which were lytic and further characterized. The morphologies of the three lytic phages were similar with each having an icosahedral head (ca. 50-60 nm in diameter), a neck, and a sheathed tail (ca. 90-100 nm in length) characteristic of the family Myoviridae. The genomes of the lytic phages were indistinguishable in length (ca. 33.5 kb), nuclease sensitivity (digestible with DNase I, but not RNase A or S1 nuclease), and restriction enzyme sensitivity (identical banding patterns with HindIII, no digestion with seven other enzymes). Testing for infection against 46 strains of V. cholerae and 16 other species of enteric bacteria revealed that all three isolates had a narrow host range and were only capable of infecting V. cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba. The similar morphologies, indistinguishable genome characteristics, and identical host ranges of these lytic isolates suggests that they represent one phage, or several very closely related phages, present in different water sources. These isolates are good candidates for further bio-phage-control studies.
Pathogenic leptospiras (1,424) isolated from natural waters and wet soils in Malaysia comprised 29 different serovars (synonym serotypes). All except two of the serovars had been found previously in Malaysia. The exceptional serovars were werrasingha, an Autumnalis serogroup member originally isolated in Ceylon, and a new serovar designated evansi. Serovar evansi had serological affinities with serovar ranarum which was isolated from the kidney of a frog in Iowa. The large variety of serovars found in jungle areas was consistent with similar previous findings of diverse serovar infections in troops who had operated in Malaysian jungles.
Aeromonads are recognised as important pathogens of fishes. In this study, ten water samples were randomly collected from pet shops' fish tanks and home aquaria inhabited by several fish species (silver arowana, koi, goldfish, catfish, pictus fish, silver shark and silver dollar fish). Altogether 298 colonies were isolated using Aeromonas selective agar. A total of 154 isolates were then confirmed as belonging to the genus Aeromonas using the GCAT gene. Using ERIC-PCR, a total of 40 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study and 114 isolates were subjected to PCR-RFLP targeting the RNA polymerase sigma factor (rpoD) gene using lab-on-chip. A total of 13 different Aeromonas species were identified. The most prevalent species were A. veronii (27%, 31/114), followed by A. dhakensis (17%, 19/114), A. finlandiensis (9%, 10/114), A. caviae (8%, 9/114), A. hydrophila (4%, 4/114), A. jandaei (4%, 4/114), A. rivuli (3%, 3/114), A. enteropelogens (2%, 2/114), A. tecta (2%, 2/114), A. allosaccharophila (1%, 1/114), A. eucrenophila (1%, 1/114), A. media (1%, 1/114) and A. diversa (1%, 1/114). Twenty-six isolates (23%) were unidentifiable at species level. The present study demonstrates that Aeromonas species are highly diverse in freshwater fish tanks, and suggests the potential risks posed by the isolated bacteria to the health of ornamental fish species.
Primary-school children in low- and middle-income countries are often deprived of microbiologically safe water and sanitation, often resulting in a high prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases and poor school performance. We used Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) to predict the probability of infection in schoolchildren due to consumption of unsafe school water. A multistage random-sampling technique was used to randomly select 425 primary schools from ten districts of Sindh, Pakistan, to produce a representative sample of the province. We characterized water supplies in selected schools. Microbiological testing of water resulted in inputs for the QMRA model, to estimate the risks of infections to schoolchildren. Groundwater (62%) and surface water (38%) were identified as two major sources of drinking water in the selected schools, presenting varying degrees of health risks. Around half of the drinking-water samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli (49%), Shigella spp. (63%), Salmonella spp. (53%), and Vibrio cholerae (49%). Southern Sindh was found to have the highest risk of infection and illness from Campylobacter and Rotavirus. Central and Northern Sindh had a comparatively lower risk of waterborne diseases. Schoolchildren of Karachi were estimated to have the highest probability of illness per year, due to Campylobacter (70%) and Rotavirus (22.6%). Pearson correlation was run to assess the relationship between selected pathogens. V. cholerae was correlated with Salmonella spp., Campylobacter, Rotavirus, and Salmonella spp. Overall, the risk of illness due to the bacterial infection (E. coli, Salmonella spp., V. cholerae, Shigella, and Campylobacter) was high. There is a dire need for management plans in the schools of Sindh, to halt the progression of waterborne diseases in school-going children.
The emergence of antibiotic resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) microbes is of growing concern, and threatens public health globally. A total of 129 Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from lowland aqueous environments near hospitals and medical service centers in the vicinity of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Among the eleven antibacterial agents tested, the isolates were highly resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83.7%) and nalidixic acid (71.3%) and moderately resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol (66.7%), tetracycline (65.1%), fosfomycin (57.4%), cefotaxime (57.4%), and ciprofloxacin (57.4%), while low resistance levels were found with aminoglycosides (kanamycin, 22.5%; gentamicin, 21.7%). The presence of relevant resistance determinants was evaluated, and the genotypic resistance determinants were as follows: sulfonamides (sulI, sulII, and sulIII), trimethoprim (dfrA1 and dfrA5), quinolones (qnrS), β-lactams (ampC and blaCTX-M), chloramphenicol (cmlA1 and cat2), tetracycline (tetA and tetM), fosfomycin (fosA and fosA3), and aminoglycosides (aphA1 and aacC2). Our data suggest that multidrug-resistant E. coli strains are ubiquitous in the aquatic systems of tropical countries and indicate that hospital wastewater may contribute to this phenomenon.
Matched MeSH terms: Water Microbiology*; Waste Water/microbiology*