Since 1994 to 2009, ascribed by the good coverage of immunization, the incidence of pertussis has been less than 1 in 100,000 populations . Nevertheless, the incidence and prevalence increased tremendously for the past 2 years, i.e. 2014 and 2015.(Copied from article)
Surveillance data on the burden of pertussis in Asian adults are limited. This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of serologically confirmed pertussis in adults with prolonged cough in Malaysia, Taiwan and Thailand. Adults (⩾19 years) with cough lasting for ⩾14 days without other known underlying cause were enrolled from outpatient clinics of seven public and/or private hospitals. Single blood samples for anti-pertussis toxin antibodies (anti-PT IgG) were analysed and economic impact and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) questionnaires assessed. Sixteen (5·13%) of the 312 chronically coughing adults had serological evidence of pertussis infection within the previous 12 months (anti-PT IgG titre ⩾62·5 IU/ml). Three of them were teachers. Longer duration of cough, paroxysms (75% seroconfirmed, 48% non-seroconfirmed) and breathlessness/chest pain (63% seroconfirmed, 36% non-seroconfirmed) were associated with pertussis (P < 0·04). Of the seroconfirmed patients, the median total direct medical cost per pertussis episode in public hospitals (including physician consultations and/or emergency room visits) was US$13 in Malaysia, US$83 in Taiwan (n = 1) and US$26 in Thailand. The overall median EQ-5D index score of cases was 0·72 (range 0·42-1·00). Pertussis should be considered in the aetiology of adults with a prolonged or paroxysmal cough, and vaccination programmes considered.
Study site in Malaysia: Klinik Kesihatan Seremban, Negeri Sembilan; Primary Care Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: Developing countries still struggle with late detection and mortality from pertussis. A review of clinical case definitions is necessary for early disease detection. This paper aimed to study possible clinical characteristics for earlier pertussis detection in a sporadic setting.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of medical and laboratory records in a general paediatric ward of a district hospital in a developing country. Inclusion criteria were all children hospitalised with nasopharyngeal swab taken for Bordetella pertussis. We compared sensitivity and specificity of World Health Organization diagnostic criteria with other clinical characteristics. Polymerase chain reaction Bordetella pertussis was the gold standard used.
RESULTS: Out of 207 eligible admissions, the study retrieved 128 complete records. Approximately half of the children were less than 3 months old. The World Health Organization diagnostic criteria had a low sensitivity (15%), but high specificity (92%). In comparison, combinations that included paroxysmal cough, ill contact and facial congestion had higher sensitivity. Increasing cough duration improved specificity while compromising sensitivity.
CONCLUSION: Several clinical characteristics such as paroxysmal cough, facial congestion and a history of ill contact have potential for early clinical detection. Conventional emphasis on cough duration may hamper early detection.
Vaccines, used appropriately and efficiently, have changed the landscape of infectious diseases. Poliomyelitis is almost completely eliminated globally. In many industrialised countries, there has been over 99 percent reduction in incidence of diphtheria, tetanus, measles, mumps, rubella, Haemophilus in-fluenzae b meningitis and over 97 percent reduction in whooping cough.',2Unlike anti-biotics, most vaccines have remained equally effective despite years of continuous usage.
Introduction: Vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis are re-emerging in Malaysia during recent years.
Objective: This research aims to study the local incidence of clinical pertussis among paediatric patients admitted to Hospital Tuanku Fauziah, Perlis over two-year period.
Method: A cross-sectional study was designed in Department of Paediatrics, Hospital Tuanku Fauziah, Perlis from 1 January 2013 till 31 January 2015. Data were collected from medical and laboratory record of cases admitted for clinical pertussis. Analyses for descriptive data were done using frequency and percentage; Pearson chi-square or Fisher exact was used to test association.
Results: 81 cases of clinical pertussis were included in the study. Out of this, there were a total of 28 confirmed cases of pertussis. There was a steady increment in the incidence of pertussis throughout the study period. Cyanosis emerged as the only clinical sign significantly associated with pertussis (p = 0.011). Majority of the confirmed pertussis cases were too young to be immunized (n = 13, 46.4%).
Conclusion: Reappraisal of local health system to strengthen herd immunity in the community is warranted to control disease spread.
Introduction:The incidence of pertussis has been said to increase over the years, and the affected patient-age group has also changed with the increasing number of cases amongst adolescents and adults. Therefore, adults require booster vaccination for protection against pertussis infection. Vaccination among healthcare workers (HCW) should be prioritized when a country implements an adult vaccine. However, the coverage of pertussis vaccination is still deficient among HCW due to low-risk perception. This study focused on finding the risk perception of pertussis in-fection amongst the HCWs based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and their acceptance to take pertussis vaccination. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using online survey. The website link is given to the Health-care workers consisting of doctors, Assistant Medical Officers, nurses, and Environmental Health Officers. Results: A total of 853 responders responded to the questionnaire. Most of the respondents (81.5%) are willing to receive the pertussis vaccine. Independent t-test showed that the PMT score was significantly different between those willing and those not willing to take the vaccine (p-value < 0.001, t statistics (df)= 7.729 (325). Robust path analysis showed that sociodemographic factors (age, the institution of working and prior pertussis vaccination) (p=0.004), threat (p
Introduction: Pertussis is known to cause infection and reinfection to everyone irrespective of ages and countries. Therefore, adults do require vaccination for protection against pertussis infection especially the HCW. However, the pertussis vaccine coverage is low among HCW due to low-risk perception. Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) is one of the most cited theories to explain risk perception and intention to change. Therefore, we developed a questionnaire based on the subconstructs of the PMT to assess the acceptance of the pertussis vaccine amongst the HCWs in Sabah and Sarawak. The motive of this study is to validate this questionnaire to see its validity and reli- ability. Method: Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire via an online survey (Monkey Survey). The questionnaire was given to 250 HCW. Items that were identified as a problem were modified to increase reli- ability. Further validation was done among 853 HCWs working in various parts of Sabah and Sarawak. Results: The Cronbach alpha of the overall construct of PMT during the first pilot study was 0.66 and improved to 0.82. Principal components factor analysis using varimax rotations showed that the first four factors explained 28%, 2%, 9% and 5% of the variance respectively. Both the one level and two-level modelling indicated that it’s a good fit model. Conclu- sion: The study instrument that was developed for the study has been tested and proven to be relevant to assess the risk perception of an HCW towards pertussis.
Little is known about the sero-prevalence of diphtheria anti-toxoid antibody levels among medical students in Malaysia. They too, just like other health care workers (HCWs) are at risk of contracting and transmitting diphtheria. Fortunately, this can be prevented by giving a specific vaccine: the diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) vaccine. Nonetheless, data from local or regional surveys are needed before any decision is made by the respective authorities. General objective: We studied the epidemiology of diphtheria anti-toxoid antibody levels and vaccination history amongst medical students and staff in Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Specific objectives: We determined the level of diphtheria anti-toxoid antibodies amongst pre-clinical students and staff. Methodology: A total of 152 sera were collected from subjects aged 19 to 63, and diphtheria anti-toxoid levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: One hundred and fifty-two (94.4%) blood samples out of 161 participants were successfully withdrawn, which comprised 105 (69.1%) and 47 (30.9%) medical students and staff, respectively. A total of 77.6% and the other 22.4% of the subjects had full and basic protection, respectively. Higher levels were predominant amongst males and they were 1.3 times more protected than females in 20-29 year-old group (85.1% vs 66.2%; odd ratios 1.25 [95% CI 1.03-1.50]; P=0.03). No significant difference in the levels of immunity among subjects for ethnicity and academic position (P>0.05). Recommendations: Level of full protection against diphtheria toxin should be clearly defined by broad population based studies using several comparable detection methods. Medical students and staff with basic protection should be closely monitored or should be given a booster dose for those who are at high risk of acquiring the disease. Thus, a standard degree of coverage should be clearly determined for health workers to prevent a potential outbreak. Conclusion: Students and staff possess immunity towards diptheria toxin however the level of full protective antibody is yet to be determined in future.
Whole-cell Pertussis (wcPertussis) vaccines combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids are effective in preventing clinical pertussis. The study aimed at determining the cost of managing fever and convulsions and cost of adverse events associated with wcPertussis. Parents who brought their children to health clinics and parents of children who were admitted for febrile convulsions were interviewed using structured questionnaire and the information were used to determine the cost of managing adverse events. Mean cost of managing mild fever per case was RM249, mean cost of managing high fever per case was RM1,036 and mean cost of managing convulsions was RM1,225. Total cost of managing adverse events was RM261 million for mild fever, RM66.7 million for high fever and RM1.3 million for convulsions. Costs of managing mild and high fever were less than the cost of managing convulsions. Total cost of managing mild fever was highest at RM261 million compared with RM66.7 million for high fever and RM1.3 million for convulsions. Thus, lower risk of adverse events actually contributed to higher costs of managing the adverse event.
Malaysia is a rapidly developing country with a very young population, about 36% of which are below the age of 15 years. The standard of child health has improved greatly. However, there are great changes in the morbidity and mortality patterns of childhood diseases relating mainly to an improved standard of living; availability of safe water supply and adequate sanitary latrines; a higher literacy rate; rapid industrialisation and urban migration. The infant mortality rate has droppedfrom 50.1 per 1,000 livebirths in 1986 to 10.4 in 1995, and similar trends apply also to neonatal, perinatal and toddler mortality rates. Nevertheless, current major child health problems are those relating to events in the perinatal period and to infections. Despite improvements in the standard of neonatal care with the use ofhigh technology, the commonest cause of certified deaths still occur in the neonatal period. A rapid and inexpensive screening test for G6PD deficiency, a disease present in 2-3% of the population, is now widely available and, together with the use of phototherapy is largely responsible for the declining incidence of kernicterus in the country. Infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality although their patterns have changed. The very high (>95%) WHO-EPI-vaccines coverage rate is linked to the great reduction in the incidence of diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis and measles. Childhood tuberculosis is less common now, with about 250 - 300 reported cases per year and TB meningitis is rare with about 30-40 reported cases/year. The hepatitis B carrier rate is high (5%) and the introduction of routine newborn hepatitis B vaccination in 1989 is expected to have a positive impact as is the immunisation of young girls against rubella introduced in 1985 in reducing the incidence of congenital rubella syndrome. The incidence of malaria has declined but remains prevalent in the interiors of PeninsularMalaysia and in Sabah and Sarawak. Filariasis is largely under control. Unfortunately, despite great efforts at mosquito control, dengue virus infection remains a major problem with thousands of cases reported every year. Children are most susceptible to dengue haemorrhagic fever with many dying from the shock syndrome. The incidence of acute gastroenteritis has also dropped with most cases being due to a viral aetiology. Acute respiratory infections, mostly viral in origin, account for most attendances at paediatric outpatient services. Although staphylococcal and streptococcal impetigo and pneumonia are common, the incidence of streptococcal related diseases like rheumatic fever and acute glomendonephritis is rapidly declining. The nutritional status of children has improved in tandem with the rise in the standard of living, but subclinical malnutrition is prevalent, particularly among urban squatters and the rural poor. There is a disturbing decline in breastfeeding among urban working mothers. Poor weaning practices and food habits are responsible for the common occurrence of nutritional anaemia (5%) among infants and young children. Greater prosperity, rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in changes in the childhood disease pattern where non-communicable diseases assume greater importance as the problems of malnutrition and infection are gradually overcome. Road traffic accidents are a major killer and home accidents, largely preventable, are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Childhood cancer, with about 550 new cases a year, is an important cause of death beyond infancy. Major congenital malformations, with a 1% prevalence rate, cause much ill-health. Thalassaemia is a particularly common genetic disease with fl thalassaemia gene frequency of about 5%. The prevalence of asthma is increasing, with a rate of 13.9% in the Kiang Valley but the prevalence of asthma-related symptoms is much higher. Physical, sexual child abuse and neglect, abandoned babies, substance abuse are but signs of stress of modern city living and peoples inability to cope with it. Although the general standard of child health has greatly improved, there are several states where it is still not satisfactory. In Sabah where there is a large illegal immigrant population, the infant mortality and infection rates are relatively high. In Kelantan and Trengganu, it is common for parents to refuse permission for a lumbar puncture required to treat meningitis. Other still deeply entrenched, culturally-related adverse health practices include : a fatalistic attitude to illness; a preference for traditional practitioners of medicine resulting in late treatment; and 'doctor-hopping' with unrealistic expectations of 'instant cure'. Childhood illnesses that are uncommon in Malaysia include: cystic fibrosis, coeliac disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Encopresis, enuresis and epiglottitis due to Haemophilus Influen:ae.