Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Munawar K, Choudhry FR
    Am J Infect Control, 2021 03;49(3):286-292.
    PMID: 32649990 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2020.06.214
    BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has gravely impacted the physical and psychological health of people. As the outbreak is ongoing, it is crucial to equip the emergency healthcare workers (HCWs) to be medically and psychologically prepared.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychological impact of COVID-19 on emergency HCWs and to understand how they are dealing with COVID-19 pandemic, their stress coping strategies or protective factors, and challenges while dealing with COVID-19 patients.

    METHODS: Using a framework thematic analysis approach, 15 frontline emergency HCWs directly dealing with COVID-19 patients from April 2, 2020 to April 25, 2020. The semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis.

    RESULTS: Findings highlighted first major theme of stress coping, including, limiting media exposure, limited sharing of Covid-19 duty details, religious coping, just another emergency approach, altruism, and second major theme of Challenges includes, psychological response and noncompliance of public/denial by religious scholar.

    CONCLUSIONS: Participants practiced and recommended various coping strategies to deal with stress and anxiety emerging from COVID-19 pandemic. Media was reported to be a principal source of raising stress and anxiety among the public. Religious coping as well as their passion to serve humanity and country were the commonly employed coping strategies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology*
  2. Pai S, Patil V, Kamath R, Mahendra M, Singhal DK, Bhat V
    PLoS One, 2021;16(8):e0256663.
    PMID: 34428247 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0256663
    BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in 2019, has shocked the entire world. As an effort to control the disease spread, the Indian government declared a nationwide lockdown on March 25th, 2020. As dental treatment was considered high risk in the spread of COVID-19, dentistry became one of the most vulnerable professions during this time. Dental professionals had to face job layoffs, salary cuts in professional colleges, closure of private clinics resulting in huge psychological, moral, and financial crises. Studies during the previous and present pandemics have shown mental issues among health care workers necessitating institutional reforms, along with early care and support. A balance in the work-life amongst professionals is the key to better efficiency and, was majorly affected during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown due to sudden unexpected changes. Hence this study was conducted to understand the changes they underwent both at home and professional front with a hypothesis that physical and mental health, activities, relationship status, and workplace influence the work-life balance.

    METHODS: A pre-validated questionnaire survey was done on dentists across India. Structural Equation Modelling and path analysis were applied to the data collected.

    RESULTS: The results of the study supported the hypothesis that factors like physical and mental health, activities, relationship status, and workplace influenced the work-life balance directly. A significant imbalance was seen amongst the female dentists.

    CONCLUSION: The present study proved the unpreparedness among dental professionals. Hence an evolutionary phase in every field with better working protocols, robust mental health support, and a focus on strategies to face future such emergencies is required.

    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology
  3. Atefi N, Abdullah KL, Wong LP
    Nurs Crit Care, 2016 Jan;21(1):8-17.
    PMID: 25270664 DOI: 10.1111/nicc.12100
    BACKGROUND: Job satisfaction is an important factor in health care settings. Strong empirical evidence supports a causal relationship between job satisfaction, patient safety and quality of care. However, there have not been any studies exploring the job satisfaction of Malaysian nurses.

    AIM: The main purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the factors related to feelings of job satisfaction as well as job dissatisfaction experienced by registered nurses in Malaysia.

    METHOD: A convenient sample of 46 Malaysian nurses recruited from a large hospital (number of beds = 895) participated in the study. A total of seven focus group discussions were conducted with nurses from surgical, medical and critical care wards. A semi-structured interview guide was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked. The transcripts were used as data and were analysed using a thematic approach.

    FINDING: The study identified three main themes that influenced job satisfaction: (1) nurses' personal values and beliefs; (2) work environment factors and (3) motivation factors. Concerning the nurses' personal values and beliefs, the ability to help people made the nurses felt honoured and happy, which indirectly contributed to job satisfaction. For work environment factors, team cohesion, benefit and reward, working conditions play an important role in the nurses' job satisfaction. Motivation factors, namely, professional development and clinical autonomy contributed to job satisfaction.

    CONCLUSION: It is important for nurse leaders to provide more rewards, comfortable work environments and to understand issues that affect nurses' job satisfaction.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Our findings highlight the importance of factors that can improve nurses' job satisfaction. The study provides basic information for hospital administrators in planning effective and efficient policies to improve nursing job satisfaction in order to increase the quality of patient care and decrease nursing turnover.

    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology*
  4. Yasin SM, Retneswari M, Moy FM, Darus A, Koh D
    Occup Med (Lond), 2012 Apr;62(3):174-81.
    PMID: 22362839 DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqs005
    Job stressors may reduce the likelihood of quitting smoking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology*
  5. Edimansyah BA, Rusli BN, Naing L, Mohamed Rusli BA, Winn T, Tengku Mohamed Ariff BR
    Ind Health, 2008 Jan;46(1):90-100.
    PMID: 18270454
    Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology*
  6. Edimansyah BA, Rusli BN, Naing L, Mohamed Rusli BA, Winn T
    Ind Health, 2007 Jun;45(3):437-48.
    PMID: 17634693
    The present study investigates the relationship between psychosocial work factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in male automotive assembly plant workers in Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 728 male workers were recruited in March-July 2005 from 2 major automotive assembly plants in Selangor and Pahang. In this cross-sectional study, information on socio-demography, psychosocial work factors using the 97-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and an abbreviated 26-item version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire containing 4 domains (physical health, psychological, social relationship, and environment) was self-administered to all workers involved.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The prevalence of reported good or very good overall HRQOL and general health was 64.9% and 53.7%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that created skill was positively associated with physical health and psychological domains; whilst, skill discretion was positively associated with social relationship and environment domains. Social support was positively associated with physical health and environment domains; whilst, co-worker support was positively associated with psychological and social relationship domains. Job insecurity and hazardous condition were negatively associated with all domains, whilst psychological job demands was negatively associated with the environment domain of HRQOL.

    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology*
  7. Dawal SZ, Taha Z
    J Hum Ergol (Tokyo), 2004 Dec;33(1-2):19-27.
    PMID: 17402505
    A survey was conducted to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and job factors that affect work design in two automotives manufacturing companies in Malaysia. A set of multiple choices questionnaires was developed and data were collected by interviewing the employees at the production plant. Hundred and seventy male subjects between the ages of 18 to 40 years with the mean age of 26.8 and SD of 5.3 years and mean work experience of 6.5 and SD of 4.9 years took part in the survey. The survey focused on job factors, i.e. skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. The results support the previous findings that job factors are significantly correlated to job satisfaction. Furthermore, it also highlights the significant influence of age, work experience and marital status.
    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology*
  8. Dawal SZ, Taha Z
    Int J Occup Saf Ergon, 2006;12(3):267-80.
    PMID: 16984786
    A methodology was developed for diagnosing industrial work, which includes questionnaire, observation, measurements, data collection and statistical analysis. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and factors that affect work design in 2 automotives manufacturing companies in Malaysia. A basic work design model was proposed. The aim of this model was to determine the factors that influence employees' perception towards their work. A set of multiple-choice questionnaires was developed and data was collected by interviewing employees at a production plant. The survey focused on job and environmental factors. The results supported the proposed model and showed that job and environmental factors were significantly related to job satisfaction. They highlighted the significant influence of age, work experience and marital status on job satisfaction. Further, environmental factors, especially the surroundings, context dependence and the building's function, also had a significant impact on job satisfaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology*
  9. Jamal SN, Moy FM, Azmi Mohamed MN, Mukhtar F
    PLoS One, 2016;11(8):e0160343.
    PMID: 27537687 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160343
    BACKGROUND: There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities over the past decades in Malaysia. Effective intervention for obesity remains limited. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a group based lifestyle modification programme amongst obese individuals with an existing dietary counseling programme.

    METHODS: We recruited one hundred and ninety four overweight and obese (BMI>27.5 kg/m2) employees from a local university. They were randomly allocated to either Group Support Lifestyle Modification (GSLiM) (intervention)(n = 97) or dietary counseling (comparison)(n = 97). The GSLIM activities included self monitoring, cognitive-behaviour sessions, exercise as well as dietary change advocacy, which were conducted through seminars and group sessions over 24 weeks. The comparison group was given dietary counselling once in 12 weeks. Both groups were followed up for additional 12 weeks to check for intervention effect sustenance. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks; while dietary intake, physical activities, psychological measures and quality of life measured at baseline, 24 and 36 weeks. Data analysis was conducted using ANOVA repeated measures with intention to treat principle.

    RESULTS: The participants were predominantly women with mean (standard deviation) age of 40.5 (9.3) years. A total of 19.6% of the participants in GSLiM achieved 6% weight loss compared to 4.1% in the comparison group (Risk Ratio 4.75; 95% CI: 1.68, 13.45). At 24 weeks, the retention rate was 83.5% for GSLiM and 82.5% for comparison group. GSLiM participants also achieved significant improvement in total weight self-efficacy score, negative emotions and physical discomfort subscales, MDPSS friend subscale and all domains in quality of life. Participants in the comparison group experienced reduction in negative self-thoughts.

    CONCLUSION: The GSLiM programme proved to be more effective in achieving targeted weight loss, improving weight self-efficacy, friend social support, and quality of life compared to dietary counseling.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT201104056127N1.

    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology*
  10. Radin Umar RZ, Sommerich CM, Lavender SA, Sanders E, Evans KD
    Ergonomics, 2018 Sep;61(9):1173-1186.
    PMID: 29757713 DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2018.1475016
    Sound workplace ergonomics and safety-related interventions may be resisted by employees, and this may be detrimental to multiple stakeholders. Understanding fundamental aspects of decision-making, behavioural change, and learning cycles may provide insights into pathways influencing employees' acceptance of interventions. This manuscript reviews published literature on thinking processes and other topics relevant to decision making and incorporates the findings into two new conceptual frameworks of the workplace change adoption process. Such frameworks are useful for thinking about adoption in different ways and testing changes to traditional intervention implementation processes. Moving forward, it is recommended that future research focuses on systematic exploration of implementation process activities that integrate principles from the research literature on sense-making, decision-making, and learning processes. Such exploration may provide the groundwork for development of specific implementation strategies that are theoretically grounded and provide a revised understanding of how successful intervention adoption processes work. Practitioner summary: Adoption and acceptance of workplace changes may be facilitated through sound implementation strategies. This manuscript explores several principles of sense-making and decision-making processes that can potentially be used by industrial practitioners to inform the design and development of implementation strategies for interventions that improve workplace ergonomics and safety.

    ABBREVIATIONS:  Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs); National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA); Health and Safety Executive (HSE).

    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology*
  11. Sulaiman Z, Liamputtong P, Amir LH
    Health Soc Care Community, 2018 01;26(1):48-55.
    PMID: 28560792 DOI: 10.1111/hsc.12460
    Nearly half of the working population in Malaysia are women, and with only a short period of maternity leave, they may struggle to achieve the recommended 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of this paper was to explore the relationship between the timing of return to work and beliefs and breastfeeding practices among women in urban Malaysia. A qualitative inquiry based on a phenomenological framework and multiple methods was used: face-to-face interview, participant diary and researcher field notes. Data collection took place in Penang and the Klang Valley, Malaysia, from March to September 2011. Eligible participants were purposely identified at randomly selected recruitment sites. A thematic analysis method was used to develop the typologies and categories of the findings. A total of 40 working women with a mean age of 32 years (SD 3.4) were interviewed and 15 participated in the diary writing. Most women (75%) returned to work between 2 and 3 months. Only 10% returned to work 4 months or later postpartum, and 15% had an early return to work (defined here as less than 2 months). The women fell into three groups: Passionate women with a strong determination to breastfeed, who exclusively breastfed for 6 months; Ambivalent women, who commenced breastfeeding but were unable to sustain this after returning to work; and Equivalent women, who perceived formula feeding as equally nutritious as breast milk. Although longer maternity leave was very important for Ambivalent women to maintain breastfeeding, it was not as important for the Equivalent or Passionate women. In conclusion, returning earlier was not an absolute barrier to continuing breastfeeding. Instead, a woman's beliefs and perceptions of breastfeeding were more important than the timing of her return to work in determining her ability to maintain breastfeeding or breast milk feeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology
  12. Javaid MU, Bano S, Mirza MZ, Isha ASN, Nadeem S, Jawaid A, et al.
    Work, 2019;64(3):551-561.
    PMID: 31658088 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-193016
    BACKGROUND: Psychological conditions are experiences of the conscious and unconscious elements of the work context, which revolve around workers' perceptions of feeling either engaged or disengaged with the assigned tasks. In the psychosocial work environment of hazardous industries like petrochemicals where production lasts twenty-four hours a day and continues seven-days-a-week, a psychologically available worker is extremely important. Psychological availability refers to when workers who are physically, emotionally and psychologically engaged at the moment of performing tasks.

    OBJECTIVE: The broad objective of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of behavioral factors on the psychological and physiological health of workers.

    METHODS: The latest, second generation technique, which is structural equation modeling, is used to identify the relationships between behavioral antecedents and health outcomes. A total of 277 technical workers participated, aged between 20 and 49 and were healthy in all aspects.

    RESULTS: The study results showed quantitative demands, emotional demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity were significantly associated with both psychological (stress) and physiological (Body Mass Index) factors. The social support of colleagues produced mixed findings with direct and indirect paths. Stress also significantly mediates the psychosocial factors and burnout of the workers.

    CONCLUSION: The study concluded that workers were physically available, but they experienced distractions as members of social systems, affecting their physiological and psychological health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology*
  13. Chen IC, Khan SK, Lin CH
    Health Care Manag (Frederick), 2019 7 2;38(3):228-238.
    PMID: 31261192 DOI: 10.1097/HCM.0000000000000266
    There is growing recognition of the importance of teamwork and integration of resources in the health care industry. This article studied the influence of organizational climate and managerial coaching skills on team perception of team resource management (TRM) and coaching techniques in selected hospitals in Taiwan. Structural survey method was used to measure the relationship between organizational climate, managerial coaching skills, and team perception of TRM. The participants of this research were 530 administrative staff from 12 hospitals in Taiwan. Cross-level relationship between organizational climate (group level), managerial coaching skills (individual level), and team perception of TRM (individual level) was examined. The results revealed that organizational climate had a significant influence on team perception of TRM. Second, recognition of managerial coaching skills shaped team perception during TRM implementation. Third, organizational climate had a moderating effect on the relationship between managerial coaching skills and team perception of TRM. The study concluded that positive organizational climate and good managerial coaching skills contribute to effective team management and development. Thus, it is important for health care organizations to understand the importance of coaching and mentoring and create a workplace that makes learning, growth, and adaptation possible across different departments and functional teams.
    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology
  14. Kwan SSM, Tuckey MR, Dollard MF
    PLoS One, 2020;15(1):e0223235.
    PMID: 31971942 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223235
    Workplace bullying is a significant cause of stress at work. Existing studies, primarily based on Western-oriented frameworks and instruments, have largely overlooked the role of culture. This oversight questions whether understandings generated from those studies can be generalised to employees working in Eastern countries, which differ on important cultural dimensions. To date, there is no Eastern-based instrument for measuring workplace bullying. In two studies, we developed and validated such a measure: the Malaysian Workplace Bullying Index (MWBI). Study 1 entailed a content validation of bullying behaviours via written records (diaries) completed by Malaysian bullying victims. The 19 validated behaviours formed the basis of Study 2, with additions from the wider literature. Study 2 used survey data collected at three time-points from Malaysian employees exposed to bullying at work. The final result was an 18-item scale with two nine-item factors: work-related bullying and person-related bullying. Overall, the MWBI is a psychometrically sound measure of workplace bullying in Eastern workplaces.
    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology*
  15. Chan CMH, Wong JE, Wee LH, Jamil NA, Yeap LLL, Swarna Nantha Y, et al.
    Occup Med (Lond), 2020 Sep 09;70(6):400-406.
    PMID: 32537649 DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqaa107
    BACKGROUND: Past research on work engagement has focused almost exclusively on either psychological or work-related factors in almost wholly separate literature. There is therefore a need to examine how these factors collectively influence work engagement.

    AIMS: To determine levels of work engagement and to identify psychological and work-related characteristics predicting work engagement in employees in Malaysia.

    METHODS: We recruited 5235 employees from 47 public and private organizations in Malaysia who responded to an online health survey. We assessed work engagement with the 9-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) and psychological distress using the 6-item Kessler scale. We performed multiple linear regression to determine predictors of work engagement.

    RESULTS: Employee mean age was 33.8 years (standard deviation [SD] ± 8.8). The mean work engagement score on the UWES-9 was 3.53 (SD ± 0.94). Eleven of 18 variables on multiple regression predicted work engagement, F(18, 4925) = 69.02, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.201. Factors that predicted higher work engagement were age, marital status, education level, job type, job permanency, longer sleep duration, lower psychological distress and no history of workplace bullying.

    CONCLUSIONS: Key factors associated with poorer work engagement in Malaysian employees include inadequate sleep, psychological distress and a history of workplace bullying. These are modifiable factors that individuals and employers can target to improve work engagement, ideally tailored according to occupational type.

    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology
  16. Tan MPC, Kwan SSM, Yahaya A, Maakip I, Voo P
    J Occup Health, 2020 Jan;62(1):e12192.
    PMID: 33368878 DOI: 10.1002/1348-9585.12192
    OBJECTIVES: Workplace sexual harassment is a prominent issue in Malaysia. Although the subject of sexual harassment has been researched for over two decades, information on how organizations could effectively prevent workplace sexual harassment is limited. The researchers investigated the importance of organizational climate for psychosocial safety of workplace sexual harassment prevention.

    METHODS: Purposive random sampling was utilized to recruit participants in the study. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with Malaysian employees (N = 20) from various organizations. The study applied the Grounded Theory Approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1976) to identify the participants' coping strategies in dealing with sexual harassment that occurred at their workplace.

    RESULTS: The interviews revealed that both genders were potential victims or witnesses of workplace sexual harassment. Since many Malaysian organizations do not implement any workplace sexual harassment prevention, most of the victims and witnesses tend to use passive self-coping approaches. Typically, policy and guidelines implementation would encourage employees to voice their concerns; however, we discovered that participants' motivation to use active coping strategies depended on organizational role rather than the policy and guidelines implementation. Surprisingly, we also found out that participants from zero policy organizations used active coping strategies when the sexual harassment reached intolerable levels.

    CONCLUSION: Organizations play a critical role in helping and supporting both victims and witnesses deal with sexual harassment at the workplace. Organizational climate for psychosocial safety is therefore crucial in the primary and secondary prevention of sexual harassment at work.

    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology*
  17. Idris MA, Dollard MF, Yulita
    J Occup Health Psychol, 2014 Jul;19(3):291-302.
    PMID: 24802994 DOI: 10.1037/a0036599
    This multilevel longitudinal study investigates a newly identified climate construct, psychosocial safety climate (PSC), as a precursor to job characteristics (e.g., emotional demands), and psychological outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion and depression). We argued that PSC, as an organizational climate construct, has cross-level effects on individually perceived job design and psychological outcomes. We hypothesized a mediation process between PSC and emotional exhaustion particularly through emotional demands. In sequence, we predicted that emotional exhaustion would predict depression. At Time 1, data were collected from employees in 36 Malaysian private sector organizations (80% responses rate), n = 253 (56%), and at Time 2 from 27 organizations (60%) and n = 117 (46%). Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), we found that there were cross-level effects of PSC Time 1 on emotional demands Time 2 and emotional exhaustion Time 2, but not on depression Time 2, across a 3-month time lag. We found evidence for a lagged mediated effect; emotional demands mediated the relationship between PSC and emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion did not predict depression. Finally, our results suggest that PSC is an important organizational climate construct, and acts to reduce employee psychological problems in the workplace, via working conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology
  18. Root R
    Med Anthropol, 2008 Oct-Dec;27(4):405-34.
    PMID: 18958787 DOI: 10.1080/01459740802427737
    Since the early 1990s, the Malaysian government has identified factories as high risk for HIV and AIDS. Signaling epidemiological concerns over the rising rates of HIV among factory workers, a significant proportion of whom are women, the label also appeared to reconstitute stereotypes of factory women as dangerously sexual and of factories as immoral spaces. Drawing on ethnographic research in the export processing zones of Penang, Malaysia in the mid-1990s, I examine the meanings and experiences of HIV risk among factory women themselves. Data were analyzed using discourse and grounded theory methods, the former to identify women's multiple modes of rationalizing HIV risks, and the latter to theorize the sources and significance of women's HIV risk assemblages. The heuristic of assemblages as localized knowledge spaces helped to show that biomedical and socioreligious risk lexica operated not as fixed epistemological categories but as situational resources in women's risk scripts. Overall, women desired multiple risk knowledges to help them "control themselves by themselves," a project of reflexive self-shaping mediated by the diverse and discordant discourses of gender, ethnicity, and modernity in Malaysia that shaped how HIV risks were engendered and experienced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology*
  19. Hadi AA, Naing NN, Daud A, Nordin R
    PMID: 17333785
    This study was conducted to assess the reliability and construct validity of the Malay version of Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) among secondary school teachers in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. A total of 68 teachers consented to participate in the study and were administered the Malay version of JCQ. Reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency whilst construct validity was assessed using factor analysis. The results indicated that Cronbach's alpha coefficients revealed decision latitude (0.75), psychological job demand (0.50) and social support (0.84). Factor analysis showed three meaningful common factors that could explain the construct of Karasek's demand-control-social support model. The study suggests the JCQ scales are reliable and valid tools for assessing job stress in school teachers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology
  20. Amin NA, Quek KF, Oxley JA, Noah RM, Nordin R
    Int J Occup Environ Med, 2015 10;6(4):232-42.
    PMID: 26498051 DOI: 10.15171/ijoem.2015.632
    BACKGROUND: The Job Content Questionnaire (M-JCQ) is an established self-reported instrument used across the world to measure the work dimensions based on the Karasek's demand-control-support model.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometrics properties of the Malay version of M-JCQ among nurses in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out on nurses working in 4 public hospitals in Klang Valley area, Malaysia. M-JCQ was used to assess the perceived psychosocial stressors and physical demands of nurses at their workplaces. Construct validity of the questionnaire was examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Cronbach's α values were used to estimate the reliability (internal consistency) of the M-JCQ.

    RESULTS: EFA showed that 34 selected items were loaded in 4 factors. Except for psychological job demand (Cronbach's α 0.51), the remaining 3 α values for 3 subscales (job control, social support, and physical demand) were greater than 0.70, indicating acceptable internal consistency. However, an item was excluded due to poor item-total correlation (r<0.3). The final M-JCQ was consisted of 33 items.

    CONCLUSION: The M-JCQ is a reliable and valid instrument to measure psychosocial and physical stressors in the workplace of public hospital nurses in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Workplace/psychology
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