METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits, 20 to 24 weeks old, were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups. Modified hyrax expanders were placed across their interfrontal sutures and secured with miniscrew implants located bilaterally in the frontal bone. The hyrax appliances were activated as follows: group 1 (control), 0.5-mm per day expansion for 12 days; group 2, 1-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 10 days; group 3, 2.5-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days, and group 4, 4-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 4 days. After 6 weeks of retention, sutural separation and sutural bone modeling were assessed by microcomputed tomography and quantified. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and the Spearman rho correlation (P <0.05).
RESULTS: Median amounts of sutural separation ranged from 2.84 to 4.41 mm for groups 1 and 4, respectively. Median bone volume fraction ranged from 59.96% to 69.15% for groups 4 and 3, respectively. A significant correlation (r = 0.970; P <0.01) was observed between the amounts of instant expansion and sutural separation.
CONCLUSIONS: Pending histologic verifications, our findings suggest that the protocol involving 2.5 mm of instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days is optimal for accelerated sutural expansion. When 4 mm of instant expansion was used, the sutural bone volume fraction was decreased.
METHODS: Twenty volumes of interests consisting of six anterior and fourteen posterior edentulous regions were obtained from human mandibular cadavers. A CBCT system with a resolution of 80 µm (3D Accuitomo 170, J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan) and a µCT system with a resolution of 35 µm (SkyScan 1173, Kontich, Belgium) were used to scan the mandibles. Three structural parameters namely, trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were analysed using CTAn software (v 1.11, SkyScan, Kontich, Belgium). For each system, the measurements obtained from anterior and posterior regions were tested using independent sample t-test. Subsequently, all measurements between systems were tested using paired t-test.
RESULTS: In CBCT, all parameters of the anterior and posterior mandible showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). However, µCT showed a significant different of Tb.Th (p = 0.023) between anterior and posterior region. Regardless of regions, the measurements obtained using both imaging systems were significantly different (p ≤ 0.021) for Tb.Th and Tb.N.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrated that only the variation of Tb.Th between anterior and posterior edentulous region of mandible can be detected using µCT. In addition, CBCT is less feasible than µCT in assessing trabecular bone microstructures at both regions.
METHODOLOGY: A literature search was performed in Elsevier's Scopus database to locate all the publications of the International Endodontic Journal. Various bibliometric software packages including the open-source visualization software Gephi and Biblioshiny (version 2.0) were employed for data visualization and analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 3739 records with citation and bibliographic details were selected and retrieved to allow a bibliometric analysis to be performed. The bibliometric analysis indicates that the IEJ has grown both in terms of productivity and influence. Over time, the journal has been associated with an increase in the number of manuscripts published and the citations they have attracted, but with minor downward fluctuations in citations in the last few years. Bibliographic coupling of the IEJ articles revealed that the major research themes published in the journal include 'endodontics', 'root canal treatment', 'calcium hydroxide', 'apical periodontitis', 'mineral trioxide aggregate', 'microbiology', 'cyclic fatigue', 'cone-beam computed tomography' and 'micro-computed tomography'. Authors affiliated to institutions in the UK were the major contributors to the journal and were linked with other countries such as Brazil, USA and Malaysia. The largest number of publications were from the University of São Paulo, Brazil.
CONCLUSION: The IEJ is one of the leading journals in Endodontology and has been providing a platform for innovative research and clinical reports for more than 50 years. Publications have been associated with a wide range of authors, institutions and countries around the world.
METHODS: Thirty rabbits underwent either anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) procedure or injected intraarticularly with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA, 8 mg) at the right knee joint. The subchondral bones were scanned via micro-CT, and articular cartilage was assessed histologically at 4-, 8- and 12-week post-induction.
RESULTS: Based on bone micro-architecture parameters, the surgically induced group revealed bone remodelling processes, indicated by increase bone volume, thickening of trabeculae, reduced trabecular separation and reduced porosity. On the other hand, the chemically induced group showed active bone resorption processes depicted by decrease bone volume, thinning of trabeculae, increased separation of trabecular and increased porosity consistently until week 12. Histologically, the chemically induced group showed more severe articular cartilage damage compared to the surgically induced group.
CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that in the ACLT group, subchondral bone remodelling precedes articular cartilage damage and vice versa in the MIA group. The findings revealed distinct pathogenic pathways for both induction methods, providing insight into tailored therapeutic strategies, as well as disease progression and treatment outcomes monitoring.
METHODS: As a preliminary work, water droplets of 1.5 μL were placed on the surfaces of hydroxyapatite (HA) discs of different densities. The water droplet profile was dynamically recorded every second over a period of 10 s using a contact angle meter to determine the relationship between sorptivity and density. To measure and calculate sorptivity on enamel surfaces, varnish was painted on the labial surface of 96 extracted caries-free human teeth, leaving two 1.4 ± 0.1 mm diameter circular exposed test sites. The specimens were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 16) and subjected to 0(G0), 7(G7), 14(G14), 21(G21), 28(G28) and 35(G35) days of pH cycling, respectively. A 0.7 μL water droplet was placed on each exposed site and Optical Coherence Tomography was used to measure its height every 10 seconds for 2 min. Sorptivity was computed by considering sorption equations and Washburn's analysis of capillary kinetics and correction for evaporation was also performed. Micro-Computed Tomography scans of the specimens were obtained and delta Z (ΔZ) is the parameter used to measure mineral loss. ΔZ at 10 μm (ΔZ10) and 50 μm (ΔZ50) from the surface were calculated. One-way ANOVA and Post-hoc Tukey tests were used to compare sorptivity between groups and bivariate correlations were used to analyze the association between sorptivity and ΔZ.
RESULTS: Sorptivity was found to be inversely and linearly correlated with HA density with R2 value of 0.95. With enamel, there is a general trend of increase in mean sorptivity from G0 to G35, except for a decrease in G21. The same trends were observed for both ΔZ10 and ΔZ50. The decrease in sorptivity in G21 coincided with the presence of a surface hypermineralized layer in G21 samples. Post-hoc Tukey showed significant differences in mean sorptivity between G0 and G14, G0 and G21 as well as G14 and G21. Post-hoc Dunnett's T3 showed significant differences for ΔZ10 between G0 and G14 as well as G14 and G21. Significant correlation between mean sorptivity and ΔZ10 was detected with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.461. For ΔZ50, post-hoc Tukey showed significant differences between G0 and G14 but no significant difference was detected between G14 and G21. No correlations were detected between mean sorptivity and ΔZ50.
SIGNIFICANCE: Sorptivity was found to be inversely and linearly correlated with HA density with R2 value of 0.95. With enamel, there is a general trend of increase in mean sorptivity from G0 to G35, except for a decrease in G21. The same trends were observed for both ΔZ10 and ΔZ50. The decrease in sorptivity in G21 coincided with the presence of a surface hypermineralized layer in G21 samples.
METHODS: Extracted human primary maxillary second molars (n = 57) were scanned using micro-computed tomography and reconstructed to produce three-dimensional models. Each root canal system was analysed qualitatively according to Vertucci's classification.
RESULTS: 22.8% (n = 13) of the sample presented with the fusion of the disto-buccal and palatal roots; of these, Type V was the most prevalent classification. For teeth with three separate roots (n = 44), the most common root canal type was Type 1 for the palatal canal (100%) and disto-buccal canal (77.3%) and Type V for the mesio-buccal canal (36.4%). Overall, 7% (n = 4) of mesio-buccal canals were 'unclassifiable'.
CONCLUSION: The root canal systems of primary maxillary second molars were not only complex but had a range of configurations that may contribute to unfavourable clinical outcomes after endodontic treatment.
METHODS: Fifty-seven maxillary second primary molars were scanned using micro-CT. Teeth with three divergent roots were divided randomly (n = 15) according to instrument type (K file, MTwo®, and Reciproc® Blue). Teeth with root fusion were instrumented manually as a separate group (n = 12). Pre- and post-instrumentation micro-CT images were superimposed, and the instrumentation area (IA) and procedural complications were recorded.
RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in IA between file systems was observed in the non-fused teeth. The mean IA of fused roots was significantly lower than in the non-fused distobuccal (p = 0.003) and palatal (p 60%) occurred in both non-fused and fused primary teeth with fewer procedural complications observed after manual instrumentation.
METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A comprehensive literature search was performed by 2 independent reviewers using a customized search strategy in major Endodontic journals through Scopus until November 2019. Studies investigating root and canal anatomy were included. The selected publications were divided into 7 categories according to the study design: micro-computed tomography (microCT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) experimental studies (extracted teeth), CBCT and 2D clinical studies, CBCT and 2D case reports in addition to others (i.e. staining and clearing method and root sectioning). The selected studies were evaluated according to three domains: 1) Criteria for study sample selection; 2) Criteria for methodological procedures and 3) Criteria for detection and evaluation.
RESULTS: After the removal of duplicated and irrelevant papers, 137 articles were included. Results showed that microCT studies reported accurately the tooth type, number of teeth, classifications used, qualitative and/or quantitative analysis (if required) and the evaluation process. However, sample size calculation, calibration, and reproducibility were not reported in the majority of microCT studies. CBCT clinical studies presented information for the type of study, inclusion/exclusion criteria, number of patients, tooth type, and number of teeth. However, the majority did not report sample size calculation and calibration of examiners. Radiographic exposure descriptions and classifications used were not reported adequately in CBCT and 2D case reports. Sample size calculation, calibration and reproducibility were not reported in staining and clearing method.
CONCLUSION: Despite accurate presentation of certain items, there is considerable inconsistent reporting of root and canal morphology regardless of the type of study and experimental procedure used. The PROUD checklist protocol presented in this systematic review aims to provide an accurate description of root canal anatomy in experimental, clinical, and case report publications.
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