This study focuses on the fabrication and electrical characterization of a polymer composite based on nano-sized varistor powder. The polymer composite was fabricated by the melt-blending method. The developed nano-composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FeSEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The XRD pattern revealed the crystallinity of the composite. The XRD study also showed the presence of secondary phases due to the substitution of zinc by other cations, such as bismuth and manganese. The TEM picture of the sample revealed the distribution of the spherical, nano-sized, filler particles throughout the matrix, which were in the 10-50 nm range with an average of approximately 11 nm. The presence of a bismuth-rich phase and a ZnO matrix phase in the ZnO-based varistor powder was confirmed by FeSEM images and EDX spectra. From the current-voltage curves, the non-linear coefficient of the varistor polymer composite with 70 wt% of nano filler was 3.57, and its electrical resistivity after the onset point was 861 KΩ. The non-linear coefficient was 1.11 in the sample with 100 wt% polymer content. Thus, it was concluded that the composites established a better electrical non-linearity at higher filler amounts due to the nano-metric structure and closer particle linkages.
Currently the development of green chemistry approach with the use of biomaterial-based activities of microbial cells in the synthesis of various nanostructures has attracted a great attention. In this study, we report on the use of bacterium, Bacillus cereus as a biotemplating agent for the formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles with raspberry- and plate-like structures through a simple thermal decomposition of zinc acetate by maintaining the original pH of the reaction mixtures. Possible mechanism on the formation of the nanostructures is proposed based on the surface chemistry and biochemistry processes involved organic-inorganic interactions between zinc oxide and the microbial cells.
The performance of sensing surfaces highly relies on nanostructures to enhance their sensitivity and specificity. Herein, nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of various thicknesses were coated on glass and p-type silicon substrates using a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The deposited films were characterized for morphological, structural, and optoelectronic properties by high-resolution measurements. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the deposited films have a c-axis orientation and display peaks that refer to ZnO, which exhibits a hexagonal structure with a preferable plane orientation (002). The thicknesses of ZnO thin films prepared using 1, 3, 5, and 7 cycles were measured to be 40, 60, 100, and 200 nm, respectively. The increment in grain size of the thin film from 21 to 52 nm was noticed, when its thickness was increased from 40 to 200 nm, whereas the band gap value decreased from 3.282 to 3.268 eV. Band gap value of ZnO thin film with thickness of 200 nm at pH ranging from 2 to 10 reduces from 3.263eV to 3.200 eV. Furthermore, to evaluate the transducing capacity of the ZnO nanostructure, the refractive index, optoelectric constant, and bulk modulus were analyzed and correlated. The highest thickness (200 nm) of ZnO film, embedded with an interdigitated electrode that behaves as a pH-sensing electrode, could sense pH variations in the range of 2-10. It showed a highly sensitive response of 444 μAmM-1cm-2 with a linear regression of R2 =0.9304. The measured sensitivity of the developed device for pH per unit is 3.72μA/pH.
The Burstein-Moss shift and band gap narrowing of sputtered indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films are investigated as a function of carrier concentrations. The optical band gap shifts below the carrier concentration of 5.61 × 1019 cm-3 are well-described by the Burstein-Moss model. For carrier concentrations higher than 8.71 × 1019 cm-3 the shift decreases, indicating that band gap narrowing mechanisms are increasingly significant and are competing with the Burstein-Moss effect. The incorporation of In causes the resistivity to decrease three orders of magnitude. As the mean-free path of carriers is less than the crystallite size, the resistivity is probably affected by ionized impurities as well as defect scattering mechanisms, but not grain boundary scattering. The c lattice constant as well as film stress is observed to increase in stages with increasing carrier concentration. The asymmetric XPS Zn 2p3/2 peak in the film with the highest carrier concentration of 7.02 × 1020 cm-3 suggests the presence of stacking defects in the ZnO lattice. The Raman peak at 274 cm-1 is attributed to lattice defects introduced by In dopants.
The humidity sensing characteristics of different sensing materials are important properties in order to monitor different products or events in a wide range of industrial sectors, research and development laboratories as well as daily life. The primary aim of this study is to compare the sensing characteristics, including impedance or resistance, capacitance, hysteresis, recovery and response times, and stability with respect to relative humidity, frequency, and temperature, of different materials. Various materials, including ceramics, semiconductors, and polymers, used for sensing relative humidity have been reviewed. Correlations of the different electrical characteristics of different doped sensor materials as the most unique feature of a material have been noted. The electrical properties of different sensor materials are found to change significantly with the morphological changes, doping concentration of different materials and film thickness of the substrate. Various applications and scopes are pointed out in the review article. We extensively reviewed almost all main kinds of relative humidity sensors and how their electrical characteristics vary with different doping concentrations, film thickness and basic sensing materials. Based on statistical tests, the zinc oxide-based sensing material is best for humidity sensor design since it shows extremely low hysteresis loss, minimum response and recovery times and excellent stability.
The concentration of acceptor carriers, depletion width, magnitude of donor level movement as well as the sensitivity factor are determined from the UV response of a heterojunction consisting of ZnO on type IIb diamond. From the comparison of the I-V measurements in dark condition and under UV illumination we show that the acceptor concentration (∼10(17) cm(-3)) can be estimated from p-n junction properties. The depletion width of the heterojunction is calculated and is shown to extend farther into the ZnO region in dark condition. Under UV illumination, the depletion width shrinks but penetrates both materials equally. The ultraviolet illumination causes the donor level to move closer to the conduction band by about 50 meV suggesting that band bending is reduced to allow more electrons to flow from the intrinsically n-type ZnO. The sensitivity factor of the device calculated from the change of threshold voltages, the ratio of dark and photocurrents and identity factor is consistent with experimental data.
Band gap change in doped ZnO is an observed phenomenon that is very interesting from the fundamental point of view. This work is focused on the preparation of pure and single phase nanostructured ZnO and Cu as well as Mn-doped ZnO for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms of band gap narrowing in the materials. ZnO, Zn0.99Cu0.01O and Zn0.99Mn0.01O materials were prepared using a wet chemistry method, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all samples were pure and single phase. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that materials in the nanostructured state exhibit band gap widening with respect to their micron state while for the doped compounds exhibited band gap narrowing both in the nano and micron states with respect to the pure ZnO materials. The degree of band gap change was dependent on the doped elements and crystallite size. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that there were shifts in the valence bands. From both UV-visible and XPS spectroscopy, it was found that the mechanism for band gap narrowing was due to the shifting of the valance band maximum and conduction band minimum of the materials. The mechanisms were different for different samples depending on the type of dopant and dimensional length scales of the crystallites.
Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the pattern of hypodontia among orthodontic patients in Klinik Pergigian Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective of 351 orthodontic patients record review study was conducted; comprised of 104 males and 247 females. The records were reviewed by trained dental officer between October 2016 and June 2017. The Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests were carried out for statistical analysis.
Results: The prevalence of hypodontia was 10.8%. Thirty-eight patients were found to have at least single missing tooth. A significant difference was found between males and females of having hypodontia (p = 0.048). No significant difference was found for hypodontia patients by races (p = 0.829). The maxillary lateral incisor was the most frequently missing tooth followed by mandibular second premolars and mandibular lateral incisors. Hypodontia cases observed tended to be more likely occurred in the upper left arch compared to the lower arch. The majority of hypodontia patients had single missing tooth, but rarely more than 3 missing teeth. Hypodontia patients had mainly Class III malocclusion, however no statistically significant was found (p= 0.081).
Conclusion(s): The prevalence of hypodontia of this study was within the range of what is being reported in the literature and showed gender significant. Hypodontia was mainly involved maxillary lateral incisors; more prevalent in the upper arch; and mostly observed in patients with Class III malocclusion in the study sample. Early detection and accurate diagnosis are essential. Therefore, alternative treatment modalities can be well planned under multidisciplinary team approach in restoring the aesthetic and function.
KEYWORDS: hypodontia, orthodontics, prevalence, retrospective
We had successfully synthesised Mg-doped zinc oxide (MZO) and Cudoped zinc oxide (CZO) nanorod arrays (NRAs) on Al-doped ZnO (ZAO)-coated glass substrates using immersion method and investigated their structural properties. With the incorporation of the Mg dopant, the length and crystallinity of MZO NRAs is higher compared to that of the CZO NRAs. The average optical transmittance of MZO NRAs was slightly lower than that of the CZO NRAs over the visible wavelength region. With the incorporation of the Cu dopant, the morphology of the CZO sample was slightly different from that of the MZO NRAs. The CZO NRAs present granular with small sphere shape. On the other hand, the MZO NRAs exhibit a hexagonal shape structure with a flat-top facet. Rods with a diameter of 58.9-96.7 nm were uniformly grown on the ZAO-coated glass substrate. This paper presents the growth behaviors of the MZO and CZO NRAs.
This study aimed to test the effect of modality imagery training via video tapes and audio tapes to improve the performance of overhead service skills in volleyball. 45 subjects who followed the volleyball professional course in Sultan Idris University of Education (UPSI) were selected for this test and they were randomly divided into three groups: video, audio group and control group. Russel-Lange Volleyball Test was used to obtain data on the overhead service performance. The results showed significant differences in overhead service performance before and after participants were exposed to the methods of video and audio tapes. There were also significant differences in overhead service performance among the video, audio, and control group. The study should that the introduction of audio and video imagery method may helps improve the overhead service skills performance in volley ball.
In this study, the zinc oxide (ZnO) layer was synthesised on the surface of Zn plates by three different techniques, i.e. electrolysis, hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment. The synthesised ZnO layers were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO layer was further assessed against methylene blue (MB) degradation under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of MB was achieved up to 84%, 79% and 65% within 1 h for ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis, heat and hydrogen peroxide treatment, respectively. The reusability results show that electrolysis and heat-treated ZnO layers have considerable photocatalytic stability. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO was directly associated with the thickness and enlarged surface area of the layer. Finally, this study proved that the ZnO layers synthesised by electrolysis and heat treatment had shown better operational stability and reusability.
The creation of an appropriate thin film is important for the development of novel sensing surfaces, which will ultimately enhance the properties and output of high-performance sensors. In this study, we have fabricated and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon substrates, which were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain ZnO-Aux (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm) hybrid structures with different thicknesses. Nanoscale imaging by field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed increasing film uniformity and coverage with the Au deposition thickness. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the AuNPs exhibit an increasing average diameter (5-10 nm). The face center cubic Au were found to co-exist with wurtzite ZnO nanostructure. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed that as the Au content increased, the overall crystallite size increased, which was supported by X-ray diffraction measurements. The structural characterizations indicated that the Au on the ZnO crystal lattice exists without any impurities in a preferred orientation (002). When the ZnO thickness increased from 10 to 40 nm, transmittance and an optical bandgap value decreased. Interestingly, with 50 nm thickness, the band gap value was increased, which might be due to the Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the overall structural defect (green emission) improved significantly as the Au deposition increased. The impedance measurements shows a decreasing value of impedance arc with increasing Au thicknesses (0 to 40 nm). In contrast, the 50 nm AuNP impedance arc shows an increased value compared to lower sputtering thicknesses, which indicated the presence of larger sized AuNPs that form a continuous film, and its ohmic characteristics changed to rectifying characteristics. This improved hybrid thin film (ZnO/Au) is suitable for a wide range of sensing applications.
Hybrid gold nanostructures seeded into nanotextured zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers (NFs) were created for novel biosensing applications. The selected 'spotted NFs' had a 30-nm-thick gold nanoparticle (AuNP) layer, chosen from a range of AuNP thicknesses, sputtered onto the surface. The generated nanohybrids, characterized by morphological, physical and structural analyses, were uniformly AuNP-seeded onto the ZnO NFs with an average length of 2-3 μm. Selective capture of molecular probes onto the seeded AuNPs was evidence for the specific interaction with DNA from pathogenic Leptospirosis-causing strains via hybridization and mis-match analyses. The attained detection limit was 100 fM as determined via impedance spectroscopy. High levels of stability, reproducibility and regeneration of the sensor were obtained. Selective DNA immobilization and hybridization were confirmed by nitrogen and phosphorus peaks in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The created nanostructure hybrids illuminate the mechanism of generating multiple-target, high-performance detection on a single NF platform, which opens a new avenue for array-based medical diagnostics.
Today, a major issue about water pollution is the residual dyes from different sources (e.g., textile industries, paper and pulp industries, dye and dye intermediates industries, pharmaceutical industries, tannery and craft bleaching industries, etc.), and a wide variety of persistent organic pollutants have been introduced into our natural water resources or wastewater treatment systems. In fact, it is highly toxic and hazardous to the living organism; thus, the removal of these organic contaminants prior to discharge into the environment is essential. Varieties of techniques have been employed to degrade those organic contaminants and advanced heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO) photocatalyst appears to be one of the most promising technology. In recent years, ZnO photocatalyst have attracted much attention due to their extraordinary characteristics. The high efficiency of ZnO photocatalyst in heterogeneous photocatalysis reaction requires a suitable architecture that minimizes electron loss during excitation state and maximizes photon absorption. In order to further improve the immigration of photo-induced charge carriers during excitation state, considerable effort has to be exerted to further improve the heterogeneous photocatalysis under UV/visible/solar illumination. Lately, interesting and unique features of metal doping or binary oxide photocatalyst system have gained much attention and became favourite research matter among various groups of scientists. It was noted that the properties of this metal doping or binary oxide photocatalyst system primarily depend on the nature of the preparation method and the role of optimum dopants content incorporated into the ZnO photocatalyst. Therefore, this paper presents a critical review of recent achievements in the modification of ZnO photocatalyst for organic contaminants degradation.
The artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of m-cresol photodegradation was carried out for determination of the optimum and importance values of the effective variables to achieve the maximum efficiency. The photodegradation was carried out in the suspension of synthesized manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation. The input considered effective variables of the photodegradation were irradiation time, pH, photocatalyst amount, and concentration of m-cresol while the efficiency was the only response as output. The performed experiments were designed into three data sets such as training, testing, and validation that were randomly splitted by the software's option. To obtain the optimum topologies, ANN was trained by quick propagation (QP), Incremental Back Propagation (IBP), Batch Back Propagation (BBP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithms for testing data set. The topologies were determined by the indicator of minimized root mean squared error (RMSE) for each algorithm. According to the indicator, the QP-4-8-1, IBP-4-15-1, BBP-4-6-1, and LM-4-10-1 were selected as the optimized topologies. Among the topologies, QP-4-8-1 has presented the minimum RMSE and absolute average deviation as well as maximum R-squared. Therefore, QP-4-8-1 was selected as final model for validation test and navigation of the process. The model was used for determination of the optimum values of the effective variables by a few three-dimensional plots. The optimum points of the variables were confirmed by further validated experiments. Moreover, the model predicted the relative importance of the variables which showed none of them was neglectable in this work.
This Research Article reports an unusually high efficiency heterogeneous photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) in the presence of Ag nanoparticle-loaded ZnO quasi-nanotube or nanoreactor (A-ZNRs) nanocatalyst grown on FTO substrate. In typical process, photodegradation efficiency of as high as 21.6% per μg per Watts of used catalyst and UV power can be normally obtained within only a 60-min reaction time from this system, which is 10(3) order higher than the reported results. This is equivalent to the turnover frequency of 360 mol mol(-1) h(-1). High-density hexagonal A-ZNRs catalysts were grown directly on FTO substrate via a seed-mediated microwave-assisted hydrolysis growth process utilizing Ag nanoparticle of approximately 3 nm in size as nanoseed and mixture aqueous solution of Zn(NO3)·6H2O, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT), and AgNO3 as the growth solution. A-ZNRs adopts hexagonal cross-section morphology with the inner surface of the reactor characterized by a rough and rugged structure. Transmission electron microscopy imaging shows the Ag nanoparticle grows interstitially in the ZnO nanoreactor structure. The high photocatalytic property of the A-ZNRs is associated with the highly active of inner side's surface of A-ZNRs and the oxidizing effect of Ag nanoparticle. The growth mechanism as well as the mechanism of the enhanced-photocatalytic performance of the A-ZNRs will be discussed.
The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in  direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small I(uv)/I(vis) ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics.
A novel samarium-doped spherical-like ZnO hierarchical nanostructure (Sm/ZnO) was synthesized via a facile and surfactant-free chemical solution route. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy together with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrum analysis, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results revealed that Sm ion was successfully doped into ZnO. It was also observed that the Sm doping increased the visible light absorption ability of Sm/ZnO and a red shift for Sm/ZnO appeared when compared to pure ZnO. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the Sm/ZnO exhibited excellent photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) compared with the pure ZnO and commercial TiO2 under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic enhancement of Sm/ZnO products was attributed to their high charge separation efficiency and ·OH generation ability as evidenced by the photoluminescence spectra. The photocatalytic investigation also showed that various parameters exerted their individual influence on the degradation rate of 2,4-DCP. By using a certain of radical scavengers, ·OH was determined to play a pivotal role for the 2,4-DCP degradation. Moreover, the Sm/ZnO could be easily separated and reused, indicating great potential for practical applications in environmental cleanup.
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were synthesized via a solvothermal method in triethanolamine (TEA) media. TEA was utilized as a polymer agent to terminate the growth of ZnO-NPs. The ZnO-NPs were characterized by a number of techniques, including X-ray diffraction analysis, transition electron microscopy, and field emission electron microscopy. The ZnO-NPs prepared by the solvothermal process at 150°C for 18 hours exhibited a hexagonal (wurtzite) structure, with a crystalline size of 33 ± 2 nm, and particle size of 48 ± 7 nm. The results confirm that TEA is a suitable polymer agent to prepare homogenous ZnO-NPs.