Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 297 in total

  1. Liow TS, Azian H, Shoba P, Md Shajahan MY
    Family Physician, 1994;6:7-8.
    The range of teaspoon volume was from 2.42 to 7.71 mls with the majority below 5mls. The assumption that the volume of a teaspoon is exactly 5 mls is not true. From this wide range, 2.42 to 7.71 mls, there can be underdosaging by 51.6% or overdosaging by 64.2%. Thus if Paracetamol (250mg/5ml) was prescribed, the actual dose may vary from 121.0 mg to 385.5 mg. This is especially of significance for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (eg. Digoxin, Theophylline). The use of teaspoons in drug dosaging of liquid medication is therefore not accurate. The use of the plastic cup in Banting District Hospital is also not accurate especially for 5 mls. As the volume dispensed increases, the accuracy also improves. To overcome this problem, it may be wise to use the 'pharmacy spoon' or a syinge. The 'pharmacy spoon' is a good substitute for a teaspoon in the paediatrics age group. The syringe is probably better as it ensures not only accuracy but also that all of the medication administered goes in as it is less likely to spill out when the child struggles. And for children who can take tablets, it is better to give medication in tablet form. Though we have not done a study on tablespoons, we feel a similar problem also exists with the use of tablespoons. Limitations of this study are 2 types. First is in pouring of the syrup Paracetamol into the teaspoons. Second, the level of the liquid was inconsistent, ie sometimes over the brim, at other times just at the brim.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  2. Lim SM, Pang ZW, Tan HY, Shaikh M, Adinarayana G, Garg S
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2015;41(11):1847-55.
    PMID: 25721984 DOI: 10.3109/03639045.2015.1014818
    Poor biopharmaceutical properties and toxicities associated with the intravenous formulation of docetaxel (DTX) necessitate the exploration of an alternate oral route of delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  3. Wong YF, Ng HT, Leung KY, Chan KY, Chan SY, Loy CC
    J Biomed Inform, 2017 Oct;74:130-136.
    PMID: 28923366 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2017.09.005
    OBJECTIVE: Oral pills, including tablets and capsules, are one of the most popular pharmaceutical dosage forms available. Compared to other dosage forms, such as liquid and injections, oral pills are very stable and are easy to be administered. However, it is not uncommon for pills to be misidentified, be it within the healthcare institutes or after the pills were dispensed to the patients. Our objective is to develop groundwork for automatic pill identification and verification using Deep Convolutional Network (DCN) that surpasses the existing methods.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A DCN model was developed using pill images captured with mobile phones under unconstraint environments. The performance of the DCN model was compared to two baseline methods of hand-crafted features.

    RESULTS: The DCN model outperforms the baseline methods. The mean accuracy rate of DCN at Top-1 return was 95.35%, whereas the mean accuracy rates of the two baseline methods were 89.00% and 70.65%, respectively. The mean accuracy rates of DCN for Top-5 and Top-10 returns, i.e., 98.75% and 99.55%, were also consistently higher than those of the baseline methods.

    DISCUSSION: The images used in this study were captured at various angles and under different level of illumination. DCN model achieved high accuracy despite the suboptimal image quality.

    CONCLUSION: The superior performance of DCN underscores the potential of Deep Learning model in the application of pill identification and verification.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  4. Nikbakht E, Jamaluddin R, Redzwan SM, Khalesi S
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 2018 Jun;88(3-4):199-208.
    PMID: 31056010 DOI: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000513
    Aflatoxin B1(AFB1) is a toxic compound commonly found in some crops with an adverse health effect on human and animals. Some beneficial microorganisms (or probiotics) such as lactic acid bacteria have shown the ability to reduce the bioavailability of aflatoxins and its intestinal absorption. However, the dose and duration of aflatoxins exposure and probiotic treatment can influence the ability of probiotics to remove aflatoxins. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the efficacy of oral probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota strain (LcS) induction in an acute exposure to AFB1 in rats. Experimentally, Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: AFB1 only (n = 9); AFB1 treated with LcS (n = 9); and control (no AFB1 exposure) (n = 6) groups. The blood AFB1 level of rats treated with LcS was slightly lower than the untreated AFB1 induced rats (11.12 ± 0.71 vs 10.93 ± 0.69 ng g-1). Also, LcS treatment slightly moderated the liver and kidney biomarkers in AFB1 induced rats. However, a trend for a significant difference was only observed in ALT of AFB1 induced rats treated with LcS compared to their counterparts (126.11 ± 36.90 vs 157.36 ± 15.46, p = 0.06). Rats' body weight decreased in all animals force-fed with AFB1 with no significant difference between LcS treatment compared to the counterpart. In conclusion, this experiment indicated that probiotic LsC was able to slightly ameliorate the adverse effect of an acute exposure to AFB1 in rats. However, future studies with longer probiotics treatment or higher probiotics dose is required to confirm these findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  5. Pettit JHS
    Trop Doct, 1986 Jul;16(3):105-12.
    PMID: 3765093 DOI: 10.1177/004947558601600305
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  6. Liew NC, Sim KH, Ng SC, Suhail A, Premchandran N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Aug;66(3):278-80; quiz 281.
    PMID: 22111463 MyJurnal
    Venous thromboembolism is a rising concern in Asia especially among patients after surgery where this complication is readily preventable. Despite the availability of several treatment options, the acceptance of prophylaxis and usage of these methods remain low. A possible explanation to this behavior is the limitations attached to the available treatment options: narrow therapeutic window of warfarin and parenteral administration of low molecular weight as well as unfractionated heparins. Newer agents have been researched and introduced to overcome these limitations in the hope of improving the adaptation towards post surgical thromboprophylaxis. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are two such new agents that are promising in view of efficacy and ease of administration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  7. Nagendrababu V, Pulikkotil SJ, Veettil SK, Teerawattanapong N, Setzer FC
    J Endod, 2018 Jun;44(6):914-922.e2.
    PMID: 29709297 DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2018.02.017
    INTRODUCTION: Successful anesthesia with an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is imperative for treating patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular teeth. This systematic review assessed the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as oral premedications on the success of IANBs in irreversible pulpitis.

    METHODS: Three databases were searched to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published up until September 2017. Retrieved RCTs were evaluated using the revised Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The primary efficacy outcome of interest was the success rate of IANB anesthesia. Meta-analytic estimates (risk ratio [RR] with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) performed using a random effects model and publication bias determined using funnel plot analysis were assessed. Random errors were evaluated with trial sequential analyses, and the quality of evidence was appraised using a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.

    RESULTS: Thirteen RCTs (N = 1034) were included. Eight studies had low risk of bias. Statistical analysis of good-quality RCTs showed a significant beneficial effect of any NSAID in increasing the anesthetic success of IANBs compared with placebo (RR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.55-2.38). Subgroup analyses showed a similar beneficial effect for ibuprofen, diclofenac, and ketorolac (RR = 1.83 [95% CI, 1.43-2.35], RR = 2.56 [95% CI, 1.46-4.50], and RR = 2.07 [95% CI, 1.47-2.90], respectively). Dose-dependent ibuprofen >400 mg/d (RR = 1.85; 95% CI, 1.39-2.45) was shown to be effective; however, ibuprofen ≤400 mg/d showed no association (RR = 1.78; 95% CI, 0.90-3.55). TSA confirmed conclusive evidence for a beneficial effect of NSAIDs for IANB premedication. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach did not reveal any concerns regarding the quality of the results.

    CONCLUSIONS: Oral premedication with NSAIDs and ibuprofen (>400 mg/d) increased the anesthetic success of IANBs in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  8. Abdullah HR, Ang AL, Froessler B, Hofmann A, Jang JH, Kim YW, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2019 May 02.
    PMID: 31044255 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2019037
    Preoperative anaemia is common in the Asia-Pacific. Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a risk factor that can be addressed under patient blood management (PBM) Pillar 1, leading to reduced morbidity and mortality. We examined PBM implementation under four different healthcare systems, identified challenges and proposed several measures. (a) Test for anaemia once patients are scheduled for surgery. (b) Inform patients about risks of preoperative anaemia and benefits of treatment. (c) Treat IDA and replenish iron stores before surgery, using intravenous iron when oral treatment is ineffective, not tolerated or rapid iron replenishment is needed; transfusion should not be the default management. (d) Harness support from multiple medical disciplines and relevant bodies to promote PBM implementation. (e) Demonstrate better outcomes and cost savings from reduced mortality and morbidity. Although PBM implementation may seem complex and daunting, it is feasible to start small. Implementing PBM Pillar 1, particularly in preoperative patients, is a sensible first step regardless of the healthcare setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  9. Barkia I, Ketata Bouaziz H, Sellami Boudawara T, Aleya L, Gargouri AF, Saari N
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jun;27(16):19087-19094.
    PMID: 30612348 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-4007-6
    Protein hydrolysates and bioactive peptides from various protein sources have demonstrated their effectiveness for the prevention of illness and the improvement of symptoms from several diseases. In particular, the use of microalgae to generate bioactive peptides has received a growing interest because of their potential to be cultivated on non-arable land and high nutritional value. However, scant research is available on the toxicity of peptide-based preparations. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of microalgal protein hydrolysates (MPH) from one marine species of microalgae (Bellerochea malleus) to determine the feasibility of their use for functional food applications. Results showed that the oral administration of MPH at three doses (D1, 100 mg kg-1 BW; D2, 400 mg kg-1 BW; and D3, 2000 mg kg-1 BW) to male Wistar rats did not induce any adverse effects or mortality up to13 days of treatment. Data analysis of relative organ weights and biochemical and hematological parameters did not show any significant differences between control and treated groups at the three doses investigated. Data from histopathological observations did not reveal any signs of major toxicity at the doses D1 and D2. However, mild signs of inflammation and necrosis were observed in the kidney of rats fed MPH at D3. All together, these results reveal the overall safety of MPH and provide new evidence for advocating their use for functional food or nutraceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  10. Heidarpour F, Mohammadabadi MR, Zaidul IS, Maherani B, Saari N, Hamid AA, et al.
    Pharmazie, 2011 May;66(5):319-24.
    PMID: 21699064
    The oral route is considered the most patient-convenient means of drug administration. In recent years there has been a tendency to employ smart carrier systems that enable controlled or timed release of a bioactive material, thereby providing a better dosing pattern and minimizing side effects. Nano-encapsulation systems (nanocarriers) offer important advantages over conventional drug delivery techniques. Nanocarriers can protect the drug from chemical/enzymatic degradation and enhance bioavailability. Prebiotics are ideal ingredients for the nano-encapsulation and oral drug delivery due to their natural ability to protect the encapsulated compound in the upper gasterointestinal (GI) tract. Here the potential of prebiotics for oral delivery of drugs and other bioactives is reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral*
  11. Leong WC, Cheong BM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2017 10;72(5):314-315.
    PMID: 29197890 MyJurnal
    Diesel is commonly used as fuel for engines and is distilled from petroleum. Diesel has toxic potential and can affect multiple organs. Exposure can occur after ingestion, inhalation or through the dermal route. The practice of siphoning diesel using a rubber tubing and the mouth is common in rural communities. This can lead to accidental ingestion and aspiration. Here we report a case of a patient who accidentally ingested diesel during siphoning, which caused extensive erosion of the oral cavity and oesophagus leading to pneumomediastinum and severe chemical lung injury. The patient responded well initially to steroids and supportive care but required prolonged hospitalisation. He developed complications of nosocomial infection and succumbed 23 days after admission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral*
  12. Xian TH, Parasuraman S, Sinniah K, Ravichandran M, Prabhakaran G
    Vaccine, 2019 01 29;37(5):711-720.
    PMID: 30630696 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.12.027
    The repeated dose toxicity of a prototype cold chain-free, live, attenuated oral cholera vaccine containing 5 × 106 CFU/mL of the VCUSM14P strain was evaluated in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (single dose administered daily for 30 days) to ascertain its safety for clinical use. Repeated dose toxicity studies for cholera vaccines in the literature have administered 2 or 3 fixed doses at 7, 14, 21 or 69 day intervals. The present study reports an evaluation of 30 repeated doses of cholera vaccine administered at three different concentrations (Group II (1.25 × 106 CFU), Group III (2.5 × 106 CFU) and Group IV (5 × 106 CFU)) in SD rats. The liquid vaccine was administered orally to the rats with the respective dose every day, and normal saline was administered to the control group (Group I). No significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the body weights and biochemical parameters of the rats after 15 and 30 repeated doses compared to those of the control group. However, compared to those of Group I, a significant increase (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral*
  13. Cohen A, Jeyaindran S, Kim JY, Park K, Sompradeekul S, Tambunan KL, et al.
    Thromb. Res., 2015 Aug;136(2):196-207.
    PMID: 26139085 DOI: 10.1016/j.thromres.2015.05.024
    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the principal preventable cause of in-hospital deaths. Prevalence of PE in Asians is uncertain but undoubtedly underestimated. Asians and Caucasians have similar non-genetic risk factors for PE, and there is mounting evidence that PE affects Asians much more commonly than previously supposed; incidence, especially among high-risk patients, may approach that in Caucasians. Furthermore, PE incidence in Asia is increasing, due to both increased ascertainment, and also population ageing and growing numbers of patients with predisposing risk factors. Despite being warranted, thromboprophylaxis for high-risk patients is not routine in Pacific Asian countries/regions. There also appears to be scope to implement venous thromboembolism (VTE) management guidelines more assiduously. Anticoagulants, primarily heparins and warfarin, have been the mainstays of VTE management for years; however, these agents have limitations that complicate routine use. The complexity of current guidelines has been another barrier to applying evidence-based recommendations in everyday practice. Updated management approaches have considerable potential to improve outcomes. New oral anticoagulants that are easier to administer, require no, or much less, monitoring or dose-adjustment and have a favourable risk/benefit profile compared with conventional modalities, may offer an alternative with the potential to simplify VTE management. However, more information is required on practical management and the occurrence and treatment of bleeding complications. Increasing recognition of the burden of PE and new therapeutic modalities are altering the VTE management landscape in Pacific Asia. Consequently, there is a need to further raise awareness and bridge gaps between the latest evidence and clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  14. Wong TW
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2011 Dec;63(12):1497-512.
    PMID: 22060280 DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01347.x
    Use of alginate graft copolymers in oral drug delivery reduces dosage form manufacture complexity with reference to mixing or coating processes. It is deemed to give constant or approximately steady weight ratio of alginate to covalently attached co-excipient in copolymers, thereby leading to controllable matrix processing and drug release. This review describes various grafting approaches and their outcome on oral drug release behaviour of alginate graft copolymeric matrices. It examines drug release modulation mechanism of alginate graft copolymers against that of co-excipients in non-grafted formulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  15. Yeong CH, Blackshaw PE, Ng KH, Abdullah BJ, Blaauw M, Dansereau RJ, et al.
    Appl Radiat Isot, 2011 Sep;69(9):1181-4.
    PMID: 21550260 DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.04.017
    Neutron activation of Sm-152 offers a method of radiolabeling for the in vivo study of oral dose formulations by gamma scintigraphy. Reproducibility measurements are needed to ensure the robustness of clinical studies. 204 enteric-coated guaifenesin core tablets (10mg of Sm(2)O(3)) were irradiated by thermal neutrons to achieve 1 MBq at 48 h. Administered activities were 0.86±0.03 MBq. Good reproducibility (CV=3.5%) was observed over 24 weeks ensuring that volunteer doses were within the dose reference level of 0.8 mSv.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  16. Leong YH, Isa ASM, Mohamed Mahmood M, Moey CEJ, Utar Z, Soon YI, et al.
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2018 Jun;95:280-288.
    PMID: 29567329 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.03.011
    This study aimed to investigate the oral acute and subacute toxicity of Poly [3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate], P(3HB-co-4HB) in the form of nanoparticles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute oral administration of P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles was performed as a single dose up to 2000 mg/kg in six female rats for 14 days. Subacute toxicity study via oral administration for 28 days at doses of 0 (control), 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg in rats (10 rats in each group, female:male = 1:1) was conducted. The estimated lethal dose (LD50) of P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles was >2000 mg/kg. No mortality, unusual changes in behaviour, adverse clinical signs, abnormal changes in body weights or food consumption were observed on all animals treated with P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles during 14 days of the acute toxicity study. In the subacute test, there was no mortality and toxicologically significant changes in clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, clinical biochemistry, urinalysis, macroscopic findings, organ weights as well as histopathological examination were observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  17. Chellappan DK, Yenese Y, Wei CC, Chellian J, Gupta G
    PMID: 29431061 DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2017020182
    Oral delivery of insulin is one of the most promising and anticipated areas in the treatment of diabetes, primarily because it may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetics who receive insulin regularly. Several problems have been reported regarding the subcutaneous delivery of insulin, ranging from cardiovascular complications to weight gain. One of the approaches to overcoming these issues is to administer insulin through the oral route. However, there are several challenges in developing an oral route for insulin delivery; insulin has extremely poor bioavailability and a low diffusion rate through the mucus layer. A wide range of oral insulin delivery techniques have recently been researched, ranging from nanoparticles to liposomes, self-emulsifying systems, and hydrogels. These techniques have shown promising potential in the oral delivery of insulin. This review considers the current literature on the advances and challenges in the development of oral insulin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  18. Pandey M, Choudhury H, Yeun OC, Yin HM, Lynn TW, Tine CLY, et al.
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2018;19(4):276-292.
    PMID: 29874994 DOI: 10.2174/1389201019666180605125234
    BACKGROUND: Targeting chemotherapeutic agents to the tumor tissues and achieving accumulation with ideal release behavior for desired therapy requires an ideal treatment strategy to inhibit division of rapid growing cancerous cells and as an outcome improve patient's quality of life. However, majority of the available anticancer therapies are well known for their systemic toxicities and multidrug resistance.

    METHODS: Application of nanotechnology in medicine have perceived a great evolution during past few decades. Nanoemulsion, submicron sized thermodynamically stable distribution of two immiscible liquids, has gained extensive importance as a nanocarrier to improve chemotherapies seeking to overcome the limitations of drug solubilization, improving systemic delivery of the chemotherapeutics to the site of action to achieve a promising inhibitory in tumor growth profile with reduced systemic toxicity.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This review has focused on potential application of nanoemulsion in the translational research and its role in chemotherapy using oral, parenteral and transdermal route to enhance systemic availability of poorly soluble drug. In summary, nanoemulsion is a multifunctional nanocarrier capable of enhancing drug delivery potential of cytotoxic agents, thereby, can improve the outcomes of cancer treatment by increasing the life-span of the patient and quality of life, however, further clinical research and characterization of interactive reactions should need to be explored.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  19. Jamaludin A, Mohamad M, Navaratnam V, Selliah K, Tan SC, Wernsdorfer WH, et al.
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 1988 Feb;25(2):261-3.
    PMID: 3358888
    The hydrochloride, sulphate and ethylcarbonate salts of quinine were given in single oral doses (600 mg base equivalent) to nine healthy male subjects according to a cross-over design. No statistically significant differences were noted in the plasma drug concentration-time profiles although inter- and intra-subject variation in AUC, Cmax and tmax values was appreciable. The ethylcarbonate salt may be preferred for use in paediatric patients because of its neutral taste.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  20. Ang LT, Frith KM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1977 Mar;31(3):226-8.
    PMID: 904516
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
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