Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 2308 in total

  1. Ali Akbari Ghavimi S, Ebrahimzadeh MH, Solati-Hashjin M, Abu Osman NA
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2015 Jul;103(7):2482-98.
    PMID: 25407786 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35371
    Interests in the use of biodegradable polymers as biomaterials have grown. Among the different polymeric composites currently available, the blend of starch and polycaprolactone (PCL) has received the most attention since the 1980s. Novamont is the first company that manufactured a PCL/starch (SPCL) composite under the trademark Mater-Bi®. The properties of PCL (a synthetic, hydrophobic, flexible, expensive polymer with a low degradation rate) and starch (a natural, hydrophilic, stiff, abundant polymer with a high degradation rate) blends are interesting because of the composite components have completely different structures and characteristics. PCL can adjust humidity sensitivity of starch as a biomaterial; while starch can enhance the low biodegradation rate of PCL. Thus, by appropriate blending, SPCL can overcome important limitations of both PCL and starch components and promote controllable behavior in terms of mechanical properties and degradation which make it suitable for many biomedical applications. This article reviewed the different fabrication and modification methods of the SPCL composite; different properties such as structural, physical, and chemical as well as degradation behavior; and different applications as biomaterials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyesters/administration & dosage*; Starch/administration & dosage*
  2. Ling Tan JS, Roberts CJ, Billa N
    Pharm Dev Technol, 2019 Apr;24(4):504-512.
    PMID: 30132723 DOI: 10.1080/10837450.2018.1515225
    This study describes the properties of an amphotericin B-containing mucoadhesive nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC), with the intent to maximize uptake within the gastrointestinal tract. We have reported previously that lipid nanoparticles can significantly improve the oral bioavailability of amphotericin B (AmpB). On the other hand, the aggregation state of AmpB within the NLC has been ascribed to some of the side effects resulting from IV administration. In the undissolved state, AmpB (UAmpB) exhibited the safer monomeric conformation in contrast to AmpB in the dissolved state (DAmpB), which was aggregated. Chitosan-coated NLC (ChiAmpB NLC) presented a slightly slower AmpB release profile as compared to the uncoated formulation, achieving 26.1% release in 5 hours. Furthermore, the ChiAmpB NLC formulation appeared to prevent the expulsion of AmpB upon exposure to simulated gastrointestinal pH media, whereby up to 63.9% of AmpB was retained in the NLC compared to 56.1% in the uncoated formulation. The ChiAmpB NLC demonstrated mucoadhesive properties in pH 5.8 and 6.8. Thus, the ChiAmpB NLC formulation is well-primed for pharmacokinetic studies to investigate whether delayed gastrointestinal transit may be exploited to improve the systemic bioavailability of AmpB, whilst simultaneously addressing the side-effect concerns of AmpB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adhesives/administration & dosage; Amphotericin B/administration & dosage; Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage; Drug Carriers/administration & dosage; Chitosan/administration & dosage; Nanostructures/administration & dosage
  3. Taha AM, Zainab T, Lau D, Yeo P
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1995 Dec;50(4):391-5.
    PMID: 8668062
    Three hundred and forty five salt samples were randomly taken from 106 sources where iodised salts were supplied or put for sale in all areas gazetted as endemic goitre areas in Sarawak. The samples were analysed for the presence of iodine. In areas in Sibu, Sarikei and Kapit Divisions, 53-70% of salt put for sale were iodised while in the other 6 Divisions, it was less than 27%. As iodisation of salt is an interventive measure in addressing the goitre problem in the State, regular monitoring of iodisation facilities and iodine content of iodised salt in the affected areas is important to ensure the effectiveness of the programme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Iodine/administration & dosage*; Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage*
  4. O'Holohan DR, Dondero TJ, Ponnampalam JT
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1973 Jun;27(4):310.
    PMID: 4270792
    Matched MeSH terms: Antimalarials/administration & dosage*; Pyrimethamine/administration & dosage*
  5. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Chatterjee B, Mandal UK, Sengupta P, Tekade RK
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2017;23(17):2504-2531.
    PMID: 27908273 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161201143600
    BACKGROUND: Most of the active pharmaceutical ingredients discovered recently in pharmaceutical field exhibits poor aqueous solubility that pose major problem in their oral administration. The oral administration of these drugs gets further complicated due to their short bioavailability, inconsistent absorption and inter/intra subject variability.

    METHODS: Pharmaceutical emulsion holds a significant place as a primary choice of oral drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs used in pediatric and geriatric patients. Pharmacokinetic studies on nanoemulsion mediated drugs delivery approach indicates practical feasibility in regards to their clinical translation and commercialization.

    RESULTS: This review article is to provide an updated understanding on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of nanoemulsion delivered via oral, intravenous, topical and nasal route.

    CONCLUSION: The article is of huge interest to formulation scientists working on range of lipophilic drug molecules intended to be administered through oral, intravenous, topical and nasal routes for vivid medical benefits.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*; Emulsions/administration & dosage*; Nanostructures/administration & dosage*
  6. Shimbo S, Zhang ZW, Miyake K, Watanabe T, Nakatsuka H, Matsuda-Inoguchi N, et al.
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 1999 Mar;53(3):233-8.
    PMID: 10201806
    To examine the accuracy of food composition table (FCT)-based estimation of dietary nutrient element intake in reference to the instrumental measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as an extension of the first part of this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Copper/administration & dosage*; Magnesium/administration & dosage*; Potassium/administration & dosage*; Sodium/administration & dosage*; Zinc/administration & dosage*
  7. Haque ST, Chowdhury EH
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2018;15(4):485-496.
    PMID: 29165073 DOI: 10.2174/1567201814666171120114034
    BACKGROUND: Delivery of conventional small molecule drugs and currently evolving nucleic acid-based therapeutics, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and genes, and contrast agents for high resolution imaging, to the target site of action is highly demanding to increase the therapeutic and imaging efficacy while minimizing the off-target effects of the delivered molecules, as well as develop novel therapeutic and imaging approaches.

    METHODS: We have undertaken a structured search for peer-reviewed research and review articles predominantly indexed in PubMed focusing on the organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles with evidence of their potent roles in intracellular delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents in different animal models.

    RESULTS: Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles offer a number of advantages by combining the unique properties of the organic and inorganic counterparts, thus improving the pharmacokinetic behavior and targetability of drugs and contrast agents, and conferring the exclusive optical and magnetic properties for both therapeutic and imaging purposes. Different polymers, lipids, dendrimers, peptides, cell membranes, and small organic molecules are attached via covalent or non-covalent interactions with diverse inorganic nanoparticles of gold, mesoporous silica, magnetic iron oxide, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots for efficient drug delivery and imaging purposes.

    CONCLUSION: We have thus highlighted here the progress made so far in utilizing different organicinorganic hybrid nanoparticles for in vivo delivery of anti-cancer drugs, siRNA, genes and imaging agents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Contrast Media/administration & dosage*; Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*; Inorganic Chemicals/administration & dosage; Organic Chemicals/administration & dosage; Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  8. Tan YZ, Chong YQ, Khong E, Liew YK, Chieng N
    Int J Pharm, 2019 Jul 20;566:400-409.
    PMID: 31136777 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.05.063
    Live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), marketed as Bacille Calmette-Guérin is the only FDA-approved vaccine against tuberculosis. The prerequisite of cold chain storage between 2 and 8 °C hinders the global vaccination effort. The study aims to investigate the effect of trehalose, sucrose and glycerol combinations in enhancing the stability of M. bovis. The bacilli were formulated in various ratios of trehalose-glycerol, sucrose-glycerol, trehalose-sucrose-glycerol systems (test samples) and sodium glutamate (control), freeze-dried and stored for 28 days at 4 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. Bacteria viability at pre-, post-freeze-drying and after storage were quantified by its density in colony-forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL) as obtained through the pour plate method. Formulations were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry. Structural collapsed cakes were found on all freeze-dried formulations because of the low Tg'. Comparing between binary and ternary formulations, trehalose-sucrose-glycerol was found to be a superior lyoprotectant. Upon storage, the viability of bacteria in disaccharide-polyol formulations was highest when stored at 4 °C followed by 25 °C. The lowest viability was found after storage at 37 °C. While the ternary disaccharide-polyol system may be used as a thermoprotectant up to 25 °C, sodium glutamate has a superior thermoprotective effect at temperature above 25 °C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Excipients/administration & dosage*; Glycerol/administration & dosage*; Polymers/administration & dosage*; Sucrose/administration & dosage*; Trehalose/administration & dosage*
  9. Citartan M, Kaur H, Presela R, Tang TH
    Int J Pharm, 2019 Aug 15;567:118483.
    PMID: 31260780 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.118483
    Aptamers, nucleic acid ligands that are specific against their corresponding targets are increasingly employed in a variety of applications including diagnostics and therapeutics. The specificity of the aptamers against their targets is also used as the basis for the formulation of the aptamer-based drug delivery system. In this review, we aim to provide an overview on the chaperoning roles of aptamers in acting as the cargo or load carriers, delivering contents to the targeted sites via cell surface receptors. Internalization of the aptamer-biomolecule conjugates via receptor-mediated endocytosis and the strategies to augment the rate of endocytosis are underscored. The cargos chaperoned by aptamers, ranging from siRNAs to DNA origami are illuminated. Possible impediments to the aptamer-based drug deliveries such as susceptibility to nuclease resistance, potentiality for immunogenicity activation, tumor heterogeneity are speculated and the corresponding amendment strategies to address these shortcomings are discussed. We prophesy that the future of the aptamer-based drug delivery will take a trajectory towards DNA nanorobot-based assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA/administration & dosage; RNA, Small Interfering/administration & dosage; MicroRNAs/administration & dosage; Nanostructures/administration & dosage; Aptamers, Nucleotide/administration & dosage*
  10. Nájera F, Hearn AJ, Ross J, Ramírez Saldivar DA, Evans MN, Guerrero-Sánchez S, et al.
    J. Vet. Med. Sci., 2017 Nov 17;79(11):1892-1898.
    PMID: 28904261 DOI: 10.1292/jvms.17-0259
    There is currently no available information regarding the veterinary management of Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi), either in captivity or in the wild. In this study, 12 Sunda clouded leopards were anesthetized between January 2008 and February 2014 for medical exams, and/or GPS-collaring. Seven wild-caught individuals were kept in captivity and 5 free-ranging animals were captured by cage traps. Two anesthesia combinations were used: medetomidine-ketamine (M-K) or tiletamine-zolazepam (T-Z). Atipamezole (0.2 mg/kg im) was used as an antagonist for medetomidine. Medetomidine (range: 0.039-0.054 mg/kg) and ketamine (range: 3-4.39 mg/kg) were administered during 5 immobilizations, resulting in median induction times of 7 min. After a median anesthesia time of 56 min, atipamezole was injected, observing effects of antagonism at a median time of 12 min. T-Z (range: 6.8-10.8 mg/kg) was administered on 7 occasions. Median induction times observed with this combination were shorter than with M-K (4 min vs 7 min; P=0.04), and anesthesia and recovery times were significantly longer (244 and 35 min vs 56 and 16 min, respectively; P=0.02). Lower heart rates were measured in the M-K group, while lower rectal temperatures were found in the T-Z group. Both combinations resulted in safe and reliable immobilizations, although given the favorable anesthesia and recovery times of M-K, we recommend this approach over T-Z for the veterinary handling of Sunda clouded leopards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Imidazoles/administration & dosage; Ketamine/administration & dosage*; Tiletamine/administration & dosage*; Zolazepam/administration & dosage*; Anesthetics, Combined/administration & dosage; Medetomidine/administration & dosage*
  11. Freisling H, Pisa PT, Ferrari P, Byrnes G, Moskal A, Dahm CC, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2016 Sep;55(6):2093-104.
    PMID: 26303194 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-1023-x
    PURPOSE: Various food patterns have been associated with weight change in adults, but it is unknown which combinations of nutrients may account for such observations. We investigated associations between main nutrient patterns and prospective weight change in adults.

    METHODS: This study includes 235,880 participants, 25-70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires using the harmonized EPIC Nutrient DataBase. Four nutrient patterns, explaining 67 % of the total variance of nutrient intakes, were previously identified from principal component analysis. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The relationship between nutrient patterns and annual weight change was examined separately for men and women using linear mixed models with random effect according to center controlling for confounders.

    RESULTS: Mean weight gain was 460 g/year (SD 950) and 420 g/year (SD 940) for men and women, respectively. The annual differences in weight gain per one SD increase in the pattern scores were as follows: principal component (PC) 1, characterized by nutrients from plant food sources, was inversely associated with weight gain in men (-22 g/year; 95 % CI -33 to -10) and women (-18 g/year; 95 % CI -26 to -11). In contrast, PC4, characterized by protein, vitamin B2, phosphorus, and calcium, was associated with a weight gain of +41 g/year (95 % CI +2 to +80) and +88 g/year (95 % CI +36 to +140) in men and women, respectively. Associations with PC2, a pattern driven by many micro-nutrients, and with PC3, a pattern driven by vitamin D, were less consistent and/or non-significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: We identified two main nutrient patterns that are associated with moderate but significant long-term differences in weight gain in adults.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage; Calcium, Dietary/administration & dosage; Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage; Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage; Folic Acid/administration & dosage; Riboflavin/administration & dosage; Phosphorus, Dietary/administration & dosage; beta Carotene/administration & dosage
  12. Mahachai V, Vilaichone RK, Pittayanon R, Rojborwonwitaya J, Leelakusolvong S, Maneerattanaporn M, et al.
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2018 Jan;33(1):37-56.
    PMID: 28762251 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.13911
    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection remains to be the major cause of important upper gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H. pylori management in ASEAN: the Bangkok consensus report gathered key opinion leaders for the region to review and evaluate clinical aspects of H. pylori infection and to develop consensus statements, rationales, and grades of recommendation for the management of H. pylori infection in clinical practice in ASEAN countries. This ASEAN Consensus consisted of 34 international experts from 10 ASEAN countries, Japan, Taiwan, and the United States. The meeting mainly focused on four issues: (i) epidemiology and disease association; (ii) diagnostic tests; (iii) management; and (iv) follow-up after eradication. The final results of each workshop were presented for consensus voting by all participants. Statements, rationale, and recommendations were developed from the available current evidence to help clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori and its clinical diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin/administration & dosage; Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage; Bismuth/administration & dosage; Metronidazole/administration & dosage; Tetracycline/administration & dosage; Clarithromycin/administration & dosage; Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage; Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage
  13. Fong CY, Tay CG, Ong LC, Lai NM
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017 11 03;11:CD011786.
    PMID: 29099542 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011786.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Paediatric neurodiagnostic investigations, including brain neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG), play an important role in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders. The use of an appropriate sedative agent is important to ensure the successful completion of the neurodiagnostic procedures, particularly in children, who are usually unable to remain still throughout the procedure.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of chloral hydrate as a sedative agent for non-invasive neurodiagnostic procedures in children.

    SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Epilepsy Group. We searched MEDLINE (OVID SP) (1950 to July 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, Issue 7, 2017), Embase (1980 to July 2017), and the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (via CENTRAL) using a combination of keywords and MeSH headings.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that assessed chloral hydrate agent against other sedative agent(s), non-drug agent(s), or placebo for children undergoing non-invasive neurodiagnostic procedures.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the studies for their eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Results were expressed in terms of risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous data, mean difference (MD) for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 studies with a total of 2390 children. The studies were all conducted in hospitals that provided neurodiagnostic services. Most studies assessed the proportion of sedation failure during the neurodiagnostic procedure, time for adequate sedation, and potential adverse effects associated with the sedative agent.The methodological quality of the included studies was mixed, as reflected by a wide variation in their 'Risk of bias' profiles. Blinding of the participants and personnel was not achieved in most of the included studies, and three of the 13 studies had high risk of bias for selective reporting. Evaluation of the efficacy of the sedative agents was also underpowered, with all the comparisons performed in single small studies.Children who received oral chloral hydrate had lower sedation failure when compared with oral promethazine (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.82; 1 study, moderate-quality evidence). Children who received oral chloral hydrate had a higher risk of sedation failure after one dose compared to those who received intravenous pentobarbital (RR 4.33, 95% CI 1.35 to 13.89; 1 study, low-quality evidence), but after two doses there was no evidence of a significant difference between the two groups (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.33 to 27.46; 1 study, very low-quality evidence). Children who received oral chloral hydrate appeared to have more sedation failure when compared with music therapy, but the quality of evidence was very low for this outcome (RR 17.00, 95% CI 2.37 to 122.14; 1 study). Sedation failure rates were similar between oral chloral hydrate, oral dexmedetomidine, oral hydroxyzine hydrochloride, and oral midazolam.Children who received oral chloral hydrate had a shorter time to achieve adequate sedation when compared with those who received oral dexmedetomidine (MD -3.86, 95% CI -5.12 to -2.6; 1 study, moderate-quality evidence), oral hydroxyzine hydrochloride (MD -7.5, 95% CI -7.85 to -7.15; 1 study, moderate-quality evidence), oral promethazine (MD -12.11, 95% CI -18.48 to -5.74; 1 study, moderate-quality evidence), and rectal midazolam (MD -95.70, 95% CI -114.51 to -76.89; 1 study). However, children with oral chloral hydrate took longer to achieve adequate sedation when compared with intravenous pentobarbital (MD 19, 95% CI 16.61 to 21.39; 1 study, low-quality evidence) and intranasal midazolam (MD 12.83, 95% CI 7.22 to 18.44; 1 study, moderate-quality evidence).No data were available to assess the proportion of children with successful completion of neurodiagnostic procedure without interruption by the child awakening. Most trials did not assess adequate sedation as measured by specific validated scales, except in the comparison of chloral hydrate versus intranasal midazolam and oral promethazine.Compared to dexmedetomidine, chloral hydrate was associated with a higher risk of nausea and vomiting (RR 12.04 95% CI 1.58 to 91.96). No other adverse events were significantly associated with chloral hydrate (including behavioural change, oxygen desaturation) although there was an increased risk of adverse events overall (RR 7.66, 95% CI 1.78 to 32.91; 1 study, low-quality evidence).

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The quality of evidence for the comparisons of oral chloral hydrate against several other methods of sedation was very variable. Oral chloral hydrate appears to have a lower sedation failure rate when compared with oral promethazine for children undergoing paediatric neurodiagnostic procedures. The sedation failure was similar for other comparisons such as oral dexmedetomidine, oral hydroxyzine hydrochloride, and oral midazolam. When compared with intravenous pentobarbital and music therapy, oral chloral hydrate had a higher sedation failure rate. However, it must be noted that the evidence for the outcomes for the comparisons of oral chloral hydrate against intravenous pentobarbital and music therapy was of very low to low quality, therefore the corresponding findings should be interpreted with caution.Further research should determine the effects of oral chloral hydrate on major clinical outcomes such as successful completion of procedures, requirements for additional sedative agent, and degree of sedation measured using validated scales, which were rarely assessed in the studies included in this review. The safety profile of chloral hydrate should be studied further, especially the risk of major adverse effects such as bradycardia, hypotension, and oxygen desaturation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chloral Hydrate/administration & dosage*; Hydroxyzine/administration & dosage; Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage*; Melatonin/administration & dosage; Midazolam/administration & dosage; Pentobarbital/administration & dosage; Promethazine/administration & dosage; Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage
  14. Sani MH, Taher M, Susanti D, Kek TL, Salleh MZ, Zakaria ZA
    Biol Res Nurs, 2015 Jan;17(1):68-77.
    PMID: 25504952 DOI: 10.1177/1099800414529648
    Elucidate the antinociceptive mechanisms of α-mangostin isolated from Garcinia malaccensis Linn.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arginine/administration & dosage; Capsaicin/administration & dosage; Glutamic Acid/administration & dosage; NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage
  15. Talei D, Valdiani A, Maziah M, Sagineedu SR, Saad MS
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:319047.
    PMID: 24371819 DOI: 10.1155/2013/319047
    Salinity causes the adverse effects in all physiological processes of plants. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of salt stress to enhance the accumulation of the anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata accessions. For this purpose, 70-day-old plants were grown in different salinity levels (0.18, 4, 8, 12, and 16 dSm(-1)) on sand medium. After inducing a period of 30-day salinity stress and before flowering, all plants were harvested and the data on morphological traits, proline content and the three anticancer phytochemicals, including andrographolide (AG), neoandrographolide (NAG), and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDAG), were measured. The results indicated that salinity had a significant effect on the aforementioned three anticancer phytochemicals. In addition, the salt tolerance index (STI) was significantly decreased, while, except for DDAG, the content of proline, the AG, and NAG was significantly increased (P ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, it was revealed that significant differences among accessions could happen based on the total dry weight, STI, AG, and NAG. Finally, we noticed that the salinity at 12 dSm(-1) led to the maximum increase in the quantities of AG, NAG, and DDAG. In other words, under salinity stress, the tolerant accessions were capable of accumulating the higher amounts of proline, AG, and NAG than the sensitive accessions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diterpenes/administration & dosage; Glucosides/administration & dosage; Tetrahydronaphthalenes/administration & dosage; Phytochemicals/administration & dosage*
  16. Jegasothy R, Paranthaman S
    J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res., 1996 Feb;22(1):21-4.
    PMID: 8624887
    OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to compare the efficacy of sublingual nifedipine with intravenous hydrallazine in the control of acute hypertension of pregnancy and to make a preliminary assessment whether sublingual nifedipine could be recommended for use by midwives faced with severe hypertension in pregnancy in a rural setting.

    METHODS: Subjects were 200 consecutive patients admitted to Kuala Tereng-ganu General Hospital, Malaysia with severe hypertension in pregnancy between August 1989 and June 1990. Admission criteria were an ongoing viable pregnancy more than 28 weeks and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more than 120 mmHg. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. In group I, sublingual nifedipine 5 mg was administered and repeated after 15 minutes if DBP > 120 mmHg; and in group II hydrallazine 5 mg was intravenously injected and repeated after 15 minutes if DBP > 120 mmHg. Both groups were put on hydrallazine infusion if DBP > 120 mmHg after 30 minutes. The Chi-square test was used for analysis with significance at p < 0.05.

    RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in the efficacy of therapy for decreasing blood pressure between the 2 groups. The groups were comparable by age, parity, gestational age at presentation, birth weight of infants, incidence of postpartum haemorrhage and fetal distress. Caesarian section rates were similar. In the observational studies on nurses administering the drugs, no significant difficulties were observed.

    CONCLUSION: Sublingual nifedipine was comparable to IV hydrallazine in the treatment of acute hypertension of pregnancy. Nurses were able to administer lingual nifedipine without difficulty.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage*; Calcium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage*; Hydralazine/administration & dosage*; Nifedipine/administration & dosage*
  17. Tan NH, Saifuddin MN
    PMID: 1982873
    1. The edema-inducing activity of 24 venoms from snakes of the subfamilies of Elapinae, Hydrophiini, Crotalinae and Viperinae was determined. 2. All snake venoms tested are very potent edema inducers. The minimum edema doses of the venoms ranged from 0.16 to 3.41 micrograms per mouse paw. 3. The venoms induced a rapid onset edema which peaked within 1 h of injection and declined thereafter; at low dose, however, some venoms induced a rapid onset edema that sustained over a longer duration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Crotalid Venoms/administration & dosage; Elapid Venoms/administration & dosage; Snake Venoms/administration & dosage; Viper Venoms/administration & dosage
  18. Ng A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1975 Dec;30(2):133-4.
    PMID: 1241709
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage*; Doxycycline/administration & dosage; Sulfamethoxazole/administration & dosage; Trimethoprim/administration & dosage
  19. Tamilvanan S, Karmegam S
    Pharm Dev Technol, 2012 Jul-Aug;17(4):494-501.
    PMID: 21609308 DOI: 10.3109/10837450.2010.550622
    Methyl salicylate-lactose physical mixture (1:1 and 1:1.5 ratios) was incorporated into calcium alginate beads by a coacervation method involving an ionotropic gelation/polyelectrolyte complexation approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lactose/administration & dosage; Salicylates/administration & dosage*; Sweetening Agents/administration & dosage; Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage*
  20. Tamilvanan S, Venkatesh Babu R, Nappinai A, Sivaramakrishnan G
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2011 Apr;37(4):436-45.
    PMID: 20923389 DOI: 10.3109/03639045.2010.521161
    Hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer-based nicorandil (10 mg)-loaded peroral tablets were prepared using the wet granulation technique. The influence of varying amounts of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (30-50 mg), ethylcellulose (2-4 mg), microcrystalline cellulose (5-20 mg) and Aerosil® (5-12 mg) in conjunction with the constant amounts (3 mg) of glidant and lubricant (magnesium stearate and talc) on the in vitro performances of the tablets (hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness uniformity, drug content, and drug release behavior) were investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulose/administration & dosage; Methylcellulose/administration & dosage; Silicon Dioxide/administration & dosage; Nicorandil/administration & dosage*
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