Corresponding the high presence of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters (GE) in refined palm oil, this paper re-evaluated degumming and bleaching processes of physical palm oil refining to reduce the amount of said contaminants. Separation-free water degumming was incorporated into the process, and this significantly (p
Diacylglycerol (DAG) is commonly known as one of the precursors for 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters (GE) formation. Besides, 3-MCPDE and GE are heat-induced contaminants which can be formed in fat-containing baked products during the baking process. This study attempted to replace the conventional palm-based shortening (SH) with a healthier fat, namely soybean oil-based diacylglycerol stearin (SDAG) in producing biscuits. The effects of different baking temperatures (200, 210 and 220 °C) and SDAG:SH fat blend ratios (0:100, 60:40 (D64S), 80:20 (D82S), 100:0, w/w) towards the biscuits' physical properties were evaluated. Moreover, the oxidative stability, 3-MCPDPE and GE formation in the fats extracted from the biscuits were also investigated. SDAG-produced biscuit showed slight reductions in the spread ratio compared to the SH-produced biscuit. The elevated baking temperatures resulted in biscuits with increased hardness and low moisture content. Pure SDAG and the other fat blends exhibited significant (p
Chloride reduction in crude palm oil (CPO) of greater than 80% was achieved with water washing conducted at 90°C. Inorganic chloride content in CPO was largely removed through washing, with no significant reduction in the organic chloride. Phosphorous content of CPO reduced by 20%, while trace elements such as calcium, magnesium and iron were also reduced in the washing operation. The 3-MCPDE formed in the refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil displayed (RBDPO) a linear relationship with the chloride level in washed CPO, which could be represented by the equation y = 0.91x, where y is 3-MCPDE and x represents the chloride in RBDPO refined from washed CPO. In plant scale trials using 5% water at 90°C, mild acidification of the wash water at 0.05% reduced chloride by average 76% in washed CPO. Utilising selected bleaching earths, controlled wash water temperature and wash water volume produced low chloride levels in RBDPO. Chloride content less than 1.4 mg kg-1 in plant RBDPO production was achieved, through physical refining of washed CPO containing less than 2 mg kg-1 chloride and would correspond to 3-MCPDE levels of 1.25 mg kg-1 in RBDPO. The 3-MCPDE reduced further to 1.1 mg kg-1 as the chloride level of washed CPO decreased below 1.8 mg kg-1. Chloride has been shown to facilitate the 3-MCPDE formation and its removal in lab scale washing study has yielded lower 3-MCPDE levels formed in RBDPO. In actual plant operations using washed CPO, 3-MCPDE levels below 1.25 mg kg-1 were achieved consistently in RBDPO.
Chlorinated compounds such as sphingolipid-based organochlorine compounds are precursors for the formation of 3-monochlororopanediol (3-MCPD) esters in palm oil. This study evaluates the effects of several factors within the palm oil supply chain on the levels of sphingolipid-based organochlorine, which in turn may influence the formation of 3-MCPD esters during refining. These factors include application of inorganic chlorinated fertiliser in the oil palm plantation, bruising and degradation of oil palm fruits after harvest, recycling of steriliser condensate as water for dilution of crude oil during oil palm milling, water washing of palm oil and different refining conditions. It was observed that bruised and degraded oil palm fruits showed higher content of sphingolipid-based organochlorine than control. In addition, recycling steriliser condensate during milling resulted in elevated content of sphingolipid-based organochlorine in palm oil. However, the content of sphingolipid-based organochlorine compounds was reduced by neutralisation, degumming and bleaching steps during refining. Although water washing of crude palm oils (CPO) prior to refining did not reduce the content of sphingolipid-based organochlorine, it did reduce the formation of 3-MCPD esters through the removal of water-soluble chlorinated compounds. It was found that the use of inorganic chlorinated fertiliser in plantations did not increase the content of chlorinated compounds in oil palm fruits and extracted oil, and hence chlorinated fertiliser does not seem to play a role in the formation of 3-MCPD esters in palm oil. Overall, this study concluded that lack of freshness and damage to the fruits during transport to mills, combined with water and oil recycling in mills are the major contributors of chlorinated precursor for 3-MCPD esters formation in palm oil.
This paper examines the interactions of degumming and bleaching processes as well as their influences on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters in refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil by using D-optimal design. Water degumming effectively reduced the 3-MCPDE content up to 50%. Acid activated bleaching earth had a greater effect on 3-MCPDE reduction compared to natural bleaching earth and acid activated bleaching earth with neutral pH, indicating that performance and adsorption capacities of bleaching earth are the predominant factors in the removal of esters, rather than its acidity profile. The combination of high dosage phosphoric acid during degumming with the use of acid activated bleaching earth eliminated almost all glycidyl esters during refining. Besides, the effects of crude palm oil quality was assessed and it was found that the quality of crude palm oil determines the level of formation of 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters in palm oil during the high temperature deodorization step of physical refining process. Poor quality crude palm oil has strong impact towards 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters formation due to the intrinsic components present within. The findings are useful to palm oil refining industry in choosing raw materials as an input during the refining process.
3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GE) are heat-induced contaminants which form during oil refining process, particularly at the high temperature deodorization stage. It is worth to investigate the content of 3-MCPD and GE in fries which also involved high temperature. The content of 3-MCPD esters and GE were monitored in fries. The factors that been chosen were temperature and duration of frying, and different concentration of salt (NaCl). The results in our study showed that the effect was in the order of concentration of sodium chloride
Quantifiable levels of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) were found in domestically manufactured soy-based sauces. Selected commercial foods in the Malaysian market (n = 43) were analyzed for their 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP contents using a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP contents of the analyzed food samples varied from not detectable levels to 0.1223 ± 0.0419 mg kg-1 and not detectable levels to 0.025 ± 0.0041 mg kg-1, respectively. High concentrations of 3-MCPD, exceeding Malaysia's maximum tolerable limit of 0.02 mg kg-1, were found in chicken seasoning cubes (mean = 0.0898 ± 0.0378 mg kg-1). Monte Carlo simulation-based health risk assessment revealed that 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP intakes in the 50th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were lower than 4 µg kg-1 bw day-1, the limit recommended by JECFA in 2016. Hence, it was concluded that the exposure of Malaysian citizens to chloropropanols through soy sauce consumption does not present a health risk.
The reduction of the 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters (GE) was successfully achieved by the optimization of four processing parameters: phosphoric acid dosage, degumming temperature, bleaching earth dosage, and deodorization temperature by response surface methodology without the need for additional processing steps. The optimized processing conditions were 0.31% phosphoric acid dosage, 50 °C degumming temperature, 3% bleaching earth dosage, and 240 °C deodorization temperature. The optimization resulted in more than 80% and 65% reduction of 3-MCPDE and GE levels, respectively with color and FFA contents maintained in the acceptable range specified by Palm Oil Refiners Association of Malaysia. The optimized refining condition was transferred to macro scale refining units of 1 kg and 3 kg capacities to investigate its successful application during scale-up process.
This paper reports the application of hexamethyldisilazane-trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (HMDS-TMSOTf) for the simultaneous silylation of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dicholoropropanol (1,3-DCP) in solid and liquid food samples. 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP are chloropropanols that have been established as Group 2B carcinogens in clinical testing. They can be found in heat-processed food, especially when an extended high-temperature treatment is required. However, the current AOAC detection method is time-consuming and expensive. Thus, HMDS-TMSOTf was used in this study to provide a safer, and cost-effective alternative to the HFBI method. Three important steps are involved in the quantification of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP: extraction, derivatization and quantification. The optimization of the derivatization process, which involved focusing on the catalyst volume, derivatization temperature, and derivatization time was performed based on the findings obtained from both the Box-Behnken modeling and a real experimental set up. With the optimized conditions, the newly developed method was used for actual food sample quantification and the results were compared with those obtained via the standard AOAC method. The developed method required less samples and reagents but it could be used to achieve lower limits of quantification (0.0043mgL(-1) for 1,3-DCP and 0.0011mgL(-1) for 3-MCPD) and detection (0.0028mgL(-1) for 1,3-DCP and 0.0008mgL(-1) for 3-MCPD). All the detected concentrations are below the maximum tolerable limit of 0.02mgL(-1). The percentage of recovery obtained from food sample analysis was between 83% and 96%. The new procedure was validated with the AOAC method and showed a comparable performance. The HMDS-TMSOTf derivatization strategy is capable of simultaneously derivatizing 1,3-DCP and 3-MCPD at room temperature, and it also serves as a rapid, sensitive, and accurate analytical method for food samples analysis.
Process-based contaminants in food-particularly in vegetable oils-have been a topic of interest due to their potential health risk on humans. Oral consumption above the tolerable daily intake might result in health risks. Therefore, it is critical to correctly address the food contaminant issues with a proper mitigation plan, in order to reduce and subsequently remove the occurrence of the contaminant. 3-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (3-MCPD), an organic chemical compound, is one of the heat- and process-induced food contaminants, belonging to a group called chloropropanols. This review paper discusses the occurrence of the 3-MCPD food contaminant in different types of vegetable oils, possible 3-MCPD formation routes, and also methods of reduction or removal of 3-MCPD in its free and bound esterified forms in vegetable oils, mostly in palm oil due to its highest 3-MCPD content.
Cockle (Anadara granosa) meat wash water precipitate was hydrolyzed using bromelain. Experiments were carried out to determine optimum conditions for temperature, enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) to obtain the highest value of nitrogen content (NC) and degree of hydrolysis (DH). Results revealed that the optimum conditions for temperature, enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time were 33.7°C, 1.45% (E/S) and 28.42 hrs, respectively. At the optimum condition, hydrolysis of cockle meat wash water precipitate using bromelain resulted in a NC of 0.6% and DH of 48%. The NC and DH were significantly influenced by temperature, enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time. When the bromelain concentration, hydrolysis time and temperature were increased, the values of NC and DH also increased. The hydrolysate produced contained flavor compounds found in clam and oyster which were 3-methylbutanol and 1-pentanol. The compound 3-MCPD was not found in the hydrolysate.
Unprocessed ‘budu’ is a mixture of anchovies and salt that has been fermented for a period of time, and has not been heat-treated nor formulated with additional ingredients. This study analyzed Malaysian
unprocessed ‘budu’ from 12 producers for microbiological, salt, protein, histamine and 3-MCPD contents.
The results demonstrated that Malaysian unprocessed ‘budu’ were free from pathogenic Coliform, E. coli,
V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae contaminations. Carcinogenic 3-MCPD was below detection level of 2 ppb for all 12 samples tested. However, 58% of the unprocessed ‘budu’ had histamine content greater than the hazardous levels of 50 mg/100 g sample.
This paper examines the processing steps of extracting palm oil from fresh fruit bunches in a way that may impact on the formation of chloropropandiol fatty esters (3-MCPD esters), particularly during refining. Diacylglycerols (DAGs) do not appear to be a critical factor when crude palm oils are extracted from various qualities of fruit bunches. Highly hydrolysed oils, in spite of the high free fatty acid (FFA) contents, did not show exceptionally high DAGs, and the oils did not display a higher formation of 3-MCPD esters upon heat treatment. However, acidity measured in terms of pH appears to have a strong impact on 3-MCPD ester formation in the crude oil when heated at high temperatures. The differences in the extraction process of crude palm oil from current commercial processes and that from a modified experimental process showed clearly the effect of acidity of the oil on the formation of 3-MCPD esters. This paper concludes that the washing or dilution step in palm oil mills removes the acidity of the vegetative materials and that a well-optimised dilution/washing step in the extraction process will play an important role in reducing formation of 3-MCPD esters in crude palm oil upon further heat processing.
This study was conducted to investigate on the effect of different sampling regions of palm-refined oils and fats on the 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol fatty acid esters (MCPDE) and glycidol fatty acid esters (GE) levels. The American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) Official Method Cd 29a-13 on the determination of MCPDE and GE in edible oils and fats by acid transesterification was successfully verified and optimised, with slight modification using 7890A Agilent GC system equipped with 5975C quadrupole detector. The determined limits of detection (LOD) for MCPDE were 0.02 mg kg-1 and 0.05 mg kg-1 for GE. The method performance has showed good recovery between 80% and 120% for all pertinent compounds with seven replicates assayed in three separate days. Round robin test with two European laboratories, i.e. Eurofins and SGS, has shown compliance results with those of the present study. Among the sampling regions, only one refinery located in the central region of Malaysia showed a significant increment of the MCPDE and GE levels after refining process. The GE level averaging at 2.5 mg kg-1 was slightly higher than that of 3-MCPDE averaging at 1.3 mg kg-1. Both esters were preferentially partitioned into the liquid phase rather than the solid phase after fractionation. However, the overall results exhibited no direct correlation between the esters content and the different sampling locations of the palm oil products in Malaysia. Analysis of total chlorine content also displayed significant variations between sampling locations which clearly show its effect on the chlorine content in the CPO samples.
The study aimed to establish the detection method for bound 3-, 2-MCPD, and glycidol using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ASE was modified for reduced solvent volume and process time to extract lipid from the chocolate spread, infant formula, potato chips, and sweetened creamer. The solvent selected for ASE was a mixture of iso-hexane and acetone at 100°C with the lipid and analyte recovery ranging from 96.9% to 98.6% and 84.1% to 107.5%, respectively. The derivatisation of analytes was adopted from the AOCS method Cd29a-13 for GC-MS analysis. The results showed that the coefficient of determination (R2) of all analytes was >0.99. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1 mg kg-1 expressed in lipid basis for both bound 3- and 2-MCPD and 0.2 mg kg-1 expressed in lipid basis for bound glycidol. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.3 mg kg-1 expressed in lipid basis for both bound 3- and 2-MCPD and 0.6 mg kg-1 expressed in lipid basis for bound glycidol. A blank spiked with 3-monochloropropanediols fatty acid esters (MCPDE) and 2-MCPDE (0.3, 2.1, and 7.2 mg kg-1) and glycidol esters (0.6, 4.7, and 16.6 mg kg-1) were chosen for accuracy and precision tests. The recoveries were 91.7% to 105.9%. Both repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility of the analysis were within the acceptable level of precision ranging from 1.7% to 16%. This is the first time that a full validation procedure extending to both accuracy and precision tests has been carried out for sweetened creamer and chocolate spread. Overall, the combined protocol of ASE and AOCS Cd29a-13 was successfully validated for both solid and liquid food samples with lipid content from 10% to 30%.
The detection of 3- and 2-MCPD ester and glycidyl ester was transformed from selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by gas chromatography triple quadrupole spectrometry. The derivatization process was adapted from AOCS method Cd 29a-13. The results showed that the coefficient of determination (R2) of all detected compounds obtained from both detection mode was comparable, which falls between 0.997 and 0.999. The limit of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were improved in MRM mode as compared to SIM mode. In MRM mode, the LOD of 3- and 2-MCPD ester was achieved 0.01 mg/kg while the LOQ was 0.05 mg/kg. Besides, LOD and LOQ of glycidyl ester were 0.024 and 0.06 mg/kg respectively. A blank spiked with MCPD esters (0.03, 0.10 and 0.50 mg/kg) and GE (0.06, 0.24 and 1.20 mg/kg) were chosen for repeatability and recovery tests. MRM mode showed better repeatability in area ratio and recovery with relative standard deviation (RSD %)
The formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in refined palm oil during deodorisation is attributed to the intrinsic composition of crude palm oil. Utilising D-optimal design, the effects of the degumming and bleaching processes on the reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation in refined palm oil from poor-quality crude palm oil were studied relative to the palm oil minor components that are likely to be their precursors. Water degumming remarkably reduced 3-MCPD ester formation by up to 84%, from 9.79 mg/kg to 1.55 mg/kg. Bleaching with synthetic magnesium silicate caused a further 10% reduction, to 0.487 mg/kg. The reduction in 3-MCPD ester formation could be due to the removal of related precursors prior to the deodorisation step. The phosphorus content of bleached palm oil showed a significant correlation with 3-MCPD ester formation.
The reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) ester formation in refined palm oil was achieved by incorporation of additional processing steps in the physical refining process to remove chloroester precursors prior to the deodorization step. The modified refining process was optimized for the least 3-MCPD ester formation and acceptable refined palm oil quality using response surface methodology (RSM) with five processing parameters: water dosage, phosphoric acid dosage, degumming temperature, activated clay dosage, and deodorization temperature. The removal of chloroester precursors was largely accomplished by increasing the water dosage, while the reduction of 3-MCPD esters was a compromise in oxidative stability and color of the refined palm oil because some factors such as acid dosage, degumming temperature, and deodorization temperature showed contradictory effects. The optimization resulted in 87.2% reduction of 3-MCPD esters from 2.9 mg/kg in the conventional refining process to 0.4 mg/kg, with color and oil stability index values of 2.4 R and 14.3 h, respectively.
Soy sauce, a dark-colored seasoning, is added to enhance the sensory properties of foods. Soy sauce can be consumed as a condiment or added during the preparation of food. There are 3 types of soy sauce: fermented, acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein (acid- HVP), and mixtures of these. 3-Chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a heat-produced contaminants formed during the preparation of soy sauce and was found to be a by-product of acid-HVP-produced soy sauce in 1978. 3-MCPD has been reported to be carcinogenic, nephrotoxic, and reproductively toxic in laboratory animal testing and has been registered as a chemosterilant for rodent control. 3-MCPD is classified as a possible carcinogenic compound, and the maximum tolerated limit in food has been established at both national and international levels. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on the detection of 3-MCPD in soy sauce, its toxic effects, and the potential methods to reduce its concentration, especially during the production of acid-HVP soy sauce. The methods of quantification are also critically reviewed with a focus on efficiency, suitability, and challenges encountered in analysis.
3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters (GE) are processed-developed contaminants presence in vegetable oils after undergo refining process under excessive heat. Refined oils are extensively used in various frying applications, nevertheless, the reservation against their quality and safety aspects are of major concern to consumers and food industry. Realizing the importance to address these issues, this article deliberates an overview of published studies on the manifestation of 3-MCPDE and GE when vegetable oils undergo for frying process. With the modest number of published frying research associated to 3-MCPDE and GE, we confined our review from the perspectives of frying conditions, product properties, antioxidants and additives, pre-frying treatments and frying oil management. Simplicity of the frying process is often denied by the complexity of reactions occurred between oil and food which led to the development of unwanted contaminants. The behavior of 3-MCPDE and GE is closely related to physico-chemical characteristics of oils during frying. As such, relationships between 3-MCPDE and/or GE with frying quality indices - i.e. acidity in term of free fatty acid or acid value); secondary oxidation in term of p-anisidine value, total polar compounds and its fractions, and refractive index - were also discussed when oils were subjected under intermittent and continuous frying conditions.