Clitoria ternatea Linn. (C. ternatea) is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used as medicine to relieve inflammatory, rheumatism, ear diseases, fever, arthritis, eye ailments, sore throat and body ache. This study aims to evaluate and elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the antinociceptive action of methanolic extracts of C. ternatea leaf and root using several antinociception models.
The current study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties of andrographolide isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata using two animal models. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid- induced writhing and the hot-plate tests, while antiedematogenic activity was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of andrographolide (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) did not affect the motor coordination of the experimental animals but produced significant (p < .05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using both tests. However, 2 mg/kg naloxone failed to affect the 25 mg/kg andrographolide activity in both tests, indicating that the activity was modulated via nonopioid mechanisms. Furthermore, andrographolide showed significant (p < .05) antiedematogenic activity. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that andrographolide has antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities; it may be useful for treating pain and inflammation once human studies are conducted.
Alpinia conchigera Griff. (Zingiberaceae), locally known to the Malays as "lengkuas ranting", is native to Peninsular Malaysia. The Malays traditionally used it to treat infection and rashes, and as a health drink. This study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of A. conchigera rhizomes in mice and rats, respectively. The analgesic activity was elucidated using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate test, and formalin test, while the anti-inflammatory activity was determined using carrageenan-induced paw edema. The extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally (i.p.) exhibited antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in all tests used. The range of percentage of analgesia obtained for all doses of extract in the writhing test was 50-92%, and in the early and late phases of the formalin test was 25-62% and 63-98%, respectively. In addition, naloxone (5 mg/kg) given subcutaneously (s.c.) was found to reverse the extract (300 mg/kg)-induced antinociceptive activity in the writhing, hot plate, and formalin tests. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the ethanol extract of A. conchigera rhizomes possessed a peripheral and central antinociceptive activity that was mediated, in part, via the opioid receptor, as well as anti-inflammatory activity.
The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of Corchorus capsularis leaves chloroform extract were investigated in experimental animal models. The antinociceptive activity was measured using the writhing, hot plate and formalin tests, while the anti-inflammatory activity was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The extract, obtained after 72 h soaking of the air-dried leaves in chloroform followed by in vacuo evaporation to dryness, was weighed and prepared by serial dilution in DMSO in the doses of 20, 100 and 200 mg/kg. The extract was administered (s.c.) 30 min prior to subjection to the respective assays. The extract was found to exhibit significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. As a conclusion, the present study confirmed the traditional claims of using C. capsularis to treat various ailments related to inflammation and pain.
We have investigated the antinociceptive activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test and hot plate test in mice. 1 given by intraperitoneal route produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all the test models used. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of 1 in the hot plate test was reversed by the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, suggesting that the opioid system is involved in its analgesic mechanism of action.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models. The extract, at concentrations of 10, 50 and 100%, was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in distilled water (dH2O) for 72 h. The extract solutions were administered subcutaneously in mice/rats 30 min prior to the tests. The extract exhibited significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. Overall, these activities occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, except for the 50% concentration of the extract, which was not effective in the abdominal constriction test. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects and thus supported traditional claims of its medicinal uses.
The ethanolic extract of Alpinia conchigera Griff. leaves (EACL) was evaluated for its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in several in vivo experimental models. Antinociceptive activity was determined using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, the hot plate test and the formalin test. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The extract (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg i.p.) was found to possess significant, dose-dependent inhibitory activity in all test models. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of the extract in the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests was reversed by naloxone, suggesting that this activity is mediated through activation of the opioid system. These findings suggest that EACL presents notable analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, which support its folkloric use for painful and inflammatory conditions.
Methanolic extract of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (MECN) has been proven to possess antinociceptive activity that works via the opioid and NO-dependent/cGMP-independent pathways. In the present study, we aimed to further determine the possible mechanisms of antinociception of MECN using various nociceptive assays. The antinociceptive activity of MECN was (i) tested against capsaicin-, glutamate-, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-, bradykinin-induced nociception model; (ii) prechallenged against selective antagonist of opioid receptor subtypes (β-funaltrexamine, naltrindole, and nor-binaltorphimine); (iii) prechallenged against antagonist of nonopioid systems, namely, α2-noradrenergic (yohimbine), β-adrenergic (pindolol), adenosinergic (caffeine), dopaminergic (haloperidol), and cholinergic (atropine) receptors; (iv) prechallenged with inhibitors of various potassium channels (glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, and tetraethylammonium chloride). The results demonstrated that the orally administered MECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the nociceptive effect of all models in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the antinociceptive activity of 500 mg/kg MECN was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by (i) antagonists of μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors; (ii) antagonists of α2-noradrenergic, β-adrenergic, adenosinergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic receptors; and (iii) blockers of different K+ channels (voltage-activated-, Ca2+-activated, and ATP-sensitive-K+ channels, resp.). In conclusion, MECN-induced antinociception involves modulation of protein kinase C-, bradykinin-, TRVP1 receptors-, and glutamatergic-signaling pathways; opioidergic, α2-noradrenergic, β-adrenergic, adenosinergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic receptors; and nonopioidergic receptors as well as the opening of various K+ channels. The antinociceptive activity could be associated with the presence of several flavonoid-based bioactive compounds and their synergistic action with nonvolatile bioactive compounds.