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  1. Kim CK, Durham NA
    Med J Malaya, 1965 Mar;19(3):172-83.
    PMID: 4220469
    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics*
  2. Nik Sumayyah, N. M. N., Shafiee, M. N., Kalok, A., Nagandla, K.
    Medicine & Health, 2017;12(2):352-356.
    MyJurnal
    Sickle cell disease (SCD) in pregnancy is uncommon in Malaysia. We present a case of sickle cell disease in pregnancy with maternal and fetal complications. The patient presented with acute pain crisis and hemolysis in the third trimester. Despite thromboprophylaxis, she developed deep vein thrombosis. The pregnancy was further complicated by severe pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction which require preterm caesarean section. The baby was admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit due to prematurity and low birth weight. Multidisciplinary
    approach in managing pregnant patient with SCD is essential in achieving good obstetrics outcome.
    Keywords: anemia, sickle cell disease, pregnancy outcomes
    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell*
  3. VELLA F, HART PL
    Med J Malaya, 1959 Dec;14:144-50.
    PMID: 13841616
    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology*
  4. Dixit R, Nettem S, Madan SS, Soe HHK, Abas AB, Vance LD, et al.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018 03 16;3:CD011130.
    PMID: 29546732 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011130.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of disorders that affects haemoglobin, which causes distorted sickle- or crescent-shaped red blood cells. It is characterized by anaemia, increased susceptibility to infections and episodes of pain. The disease is acquired by inheriting abnormal genes from both parents, the combination giving rise to different forms of the disease. Due to increased erythropoiesis in people with SCD, it is hypothesized that they are at an increased risk for folate deficiency. For this reason, children and adults with SCD, particularly those with sickle cell anaemia, commonly take 1 mg of folic acid orally every day on the premise that this will replace depleted folate stores and reduce the symptoms of anaemia. It is thus important to evaluate the role of folate supplementation in treating SCD.

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the efficacy and possible adverse effects of folate supplementation (folate occurring naturally in foods, provided as fortified foods or additional supplements such as tablets) in people with SCD.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also conducted additional searches in both electronic databases and clinical trial registries.Date of last search of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 17 November 2017.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, placebo-controlled trials of folate supplementation for SCD.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Four review authors assessed We used the standard Cochrane-defined methodological procedures.Four review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the included trials and extracted and analysed the data included in the review. The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE.

    MAIN RESULTS: One trial, undertaken in 1983, was eligible for inclusion in the review. This was a double-blind placebo-controlled quasi-randomised triaI of supplementation of folic acid in people with SCD. A total of 117 children with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease aged six months to four years of age participated over a one-year period (analysis was restricted to 115 children).Serum folate measures, obtained after trial entry at six and 12 months, were available in 80 of 115 (70%) participants. There were significant differences between the folic acid and placebo groups with regards to serum folate values above 18 µg/L and values below 5 µg/L (low-quality evidence). In the folic acid group, values above 18 µg/L were observed in 33 of 41 (81%) compared to six of 39 (15%) participants in the placebo (calcium lactate) group. Additionally, there were no participants in the folic acid group with serum folate levels below 5 µg/L, whereas in the placebo group, 15 of 39 (39%) participants had levels below this threshold. Haematological indices were measured in 100 of 115 (87%) participants at baseline and at one year. After adjusting for sex and age group, the investigators reported no significant differences between the trial groups with regards to total haemoglobin concentrations, either at baseline or at one year (low-quality evidence). It is important to note that none of the raw data for the outcomes listed above were available for analysis.The proportions of participants who experienced certain clinical events were analysed in all 115 participants, for which raw data were available. There were no statistically significant differences noted; however, the trial was not powered to investigate differences between the folic acid and placebo groups with regards to: minor infections, risk ratio (RR) 0.99 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85 to 1.15) (low-quality evidence); major infections, RR 0.89 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.66) (low-quality evidence); dactylitis, RR 0.67 (95% CI 0.35 to 1.27) (low-quality evidence); acute splenic sequestration, RR 1.07 (95% CI 0.44 to 2.57) (low-quality evidence); or episodes of pain, RR 1.16 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.92) (low-quality evidence). However, the investigators reported a higher proportion of repeat dactylitis episodes in the placebo group, with two or more attacks occurring in 10 of 56 participants compared to two of 59 in the folic acid group (P < 0.05).Growth, determined by height-for-age and weight-for-age, as well as height and growth velocity, was measured in 103 of the 115 participants (90%), for which raw data were not available. The investigators reported no significant differences in growth between the two groups.The trial had a high risk of bias with regards to random sequence generation and incomplete outcome data. There was an unclear risk of bias in relation to allocation concealment, outcome assessment, and selective reporting. Finally, There was a low risk of bias with regards to blinding of participants and personnel. Overall the quality of the evidence in the review was low.There were no trials identified for other eligible comparisons, namely: folate supplementation (fortified foods and physical supplementation with tablets) versus placebo; folate supplementation (naturally occurring in diet) versus placebo; folate supplementation (fortified foods and physical supplementation with tablets) versus folate supplementation (naturally occurring in diet).

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: One doubIe-blind, placebo-controlled triaI on folic acid supplementation in children with SCD was included in the review. Overall, the trial presented mixed evidence on the review's outcomes. No trials in adults were identified. With the limited evidence provided, we conclude that, while it is possible that folic acid supplementation may increase serum folate levels, the effect of supplementation on anaemia and any symptoms of anaemia remains unclear.If further trials were conducted, these may add evidence regarding the efficacy of folate supplementation. Future trials should assess clinical outcomes such as folate concentration, haemoglobin concentration, adverse effects and benefits of the intervention, especially with regards to SCD-related morbidity. Such trials should include people with SCD of all ages and both sexes, in any setting. To investigate the effects of folate supplementation, trials should recruit more participants and be of longer duration, with long-term follow-up, than the trial currently included in this review. However, we do not envisage further trials of this intervention will be conducted, and hence the review will no longer be regularly updated.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood; Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy*
  5. Hafiza A, Noor HH, Noor FA, Azlin I, Ainoon O
    Malays J Pathol, 2010 Dec;32(2):137-41.
    PMID: 21329186 MyJurnal
    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited red cell disorder, characterized by the tendency of haemoglobin S or sickle haemoglobin to polymerize and assume a characteristic sickle shape. Molecular analysis has been the mainstay of detection method when confirmation is required. Previously a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction enzyme analysis was used for this purpose. A simple bidirectional allele-specific amplification, recently described by Waterfall in 2001 was used to detect the GAG --> GTG mutation on codon 6 of the beta globin gene. Two sets of primers for the mutant and the wild type alleles were used in a single PCR reaction to amplify the regions of interest. The resultant PCR products will produce two fragments at 517 and 267 base pair (bp) respectively. This report highlights the investigations for SCD in the family of a 16-year old girl with recurrent painful crisis affecting the lower limbs whereby the family members are asymptomatic for the disease. Her haemoglobin electrophoresis at an alkaline pH showed dense bands at the HbS and HbF regions, while her father and two sisters had bands at HbS, HbF and HbA. The PCR analysis showed that she was homozygous for the mutation by the presence of only one band at 267 bp fragment, while the father and her sisters were heterozygotes, with the presence of two bands at 267 as well as 517 bp fragments. DNA sequencing of the sample confirmed the mutation. In conclusion, this case report highlighted the simple and cheap yet practical method for molecular confirmation of the presence of HbS gene in subjects with homozygous or heterozygous state of the condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis*; Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics*
  6. Dixit R, Nettem S, Madan SS, Soe HH, Abas AB, Vance LD, et al.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2016 Feb 16;2:CD011130.
    PMID: 26880182 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011130.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a group of disorders that affects haemoglobin, which causes distorted sickle- or crescent-shaped red blood cells. It is characterized by anaemia, increased susceptibility to infections and episodes of pain. The disease is acquired by inheriting abnormal genes from both parents, the combination giving rise to different forms of the disease. Due to increased erythropoiesis in people with sickle cell disease, it is hypothesized that they are at an increased risk for folate deficiency. For this reason, children and adults with sickle cell disease, particularly those with sickle cell anaemia, commonly take 1 mg of folic acid orally every day on the premise that this will replace depleted folate stores and reduce the symptoms of anaemia. It is thus important to evaluate the role of folate supplementation in treating sickle cell disease.

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the efficacy and possible adverse effects of folate supplementation (folate occurring naturally in foods, provided as fortified foods or additional supplements such as tablets) in people with sickle cell disease.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also conducted additional searches in both electronic databases and clinical trial registries.Date of last search: 07 December 2015.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, placebo-controlled trials of folate supplementation for sickle cell disease.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Four review authors assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the included trials and extracted and analysed the data included in the review. We used the standard Cochrane-defined methodological procedures.

    MAIN RESULTS: One trial, undertaken in 1983, was eligible for inclusion in the review. This was a double-blind placebo-controlled quasi-randomised triaI of supplementation of folic acid in people with sickle cell disease. A total of 117 children with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease aged six months to four years of age participated over a one-year period (analysis was restricted to 115 children).Serum folate measures, obtained after trial entry at six and 12 months, were available in 80 of 115 (70%) participants. There were significant differences between the folic acid and placebo groups with regards to serum folate values above 18 µg/l and values below 5 µg/l. In the folic acid group, values above 18 µg/l were observed in 33 of 41 (81 %) compared to six of 39 (15%) participants in the placebo (calcium lactate) group. Additionally, there were no participants in the folic acid group with serum folate levels below 5 µg/l, whereas in the placebo group, 15 of 39 (39%) participants had levels below this threshold. Haematological indices were measured in 100 of 115 (87%) participants at baseline and at one year. After adjusting for sex and age group, the investigators reported no significant differences between the trial groups with regards to total haemoglobin concentrations, either at baseline or at one year. It is important to note that none of the raw data for the outcomes listed above were available for analysis.The proportions of participants who experienced certain clinical events were analysed in all 115 participants, for which raw data were available. There were no statistically significant differences noted; however, the trial was not powered to investigate differences between the folic acid and placebo groups with regards to: minor infections, risk ratio 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.15); major infections, risk ratio 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.47 to 1.66); dactylitis, risk ratio 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.35 to 1.27); acute splenic sequestration, risk ratio 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 2.57); or episodes of pain, risk ratio 1.16 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 1.92). However, the investigators reported a higher proportion of repeat dactylitis episodes in the placebo group, with two or more attacks occurring in 10 of 56 participants compared to two of 59 in the folic acid group (P < 0.05).Growth, determined by height-for-age and weight-for-age, as well as height and growth velocity, was measured in 103 of the 115 participants (90%), for which raw data were not available. The investigators reported no significant differences in growth between the two groups.The trial had a high risk of bias with regards to random sequence generation and incomplete outcome data. There was an unclear risk of bias in relation to allocation concealment, outcome assessment, and selective reporting. Finally, There was a low risk of bias with regards to blinding of participants and personnel. Overall the quality of the evidence in the review was low.There were no trials identified for other eligible comparisons, namely: folate supplementation (fortified foods and physical supplementation with tablets) versus placebo; folate supplementation (naturally occurring in diet) versus placebo; folate supplementation (fortified foods and physical supplementation with tablets) versus folate supplementation (naturally occurring in diet).

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: One doubIe-blind, placebo-controlled triaI on folic acid supplementation in children with sickle cell disease was included in the review. Overall, the trial presented mixed evidence on the review's outcomes. No trials in adults were identified. With the limited evidence provided, we conclude that, while it is possible that folic acid supplementation may increase serum folate levels, the effect of supplementation on anaemia and any symptoms of anaemia remains unclear.Further trials may add evidence regarding the efficacy of folate supplementation. Future trials should assess clinical outcomes such as folate concentration, haemoglobin concentration, adverse effects and benefits of the intervention, especially with regards to sickle cell disease-related morbidity. Trials should include people with sickle cell disease of all ages and both sexes, in any setting. To investigate the effects of folate supplementation, trials should recruit more participants and be of longer duration, with long-term follow up, than the trial currently included in this review.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood; Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy*
  7. Swe KM, Abas AB, Bhardwaj A, Barua A, Nair NS
    PMID: 23807756 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009415.pub2
    Haemoglobinopathies, inherited disorders of haemoglobin synthesis (thalassaemia) or structure (sickle cell disease), are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The WHO estimates that, globally, 5% of adults are carriers of a haemoglobin condition, 2.9% are carriers of thalassaemia and 2.3% are carriers of sickle cell disease. Carriers are found worldwide as a result of migration of various ethnic groups to different regions of the world. Zinc is an easily available supplement and intervention programs have been carried out to prevent deficiency in people with thalassaemia or sickle cell anaemia. It is important to evaluate the role of zinc supplementation in the treatment of thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia to reduce deaths due to complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood; Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy*
  8. Soe HH, Abas AB, Than NN, Ni H, Singh J, Said AR, et al.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017 01 20;1:CD010858.
    PMID: 28105733 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010858.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a genetic chronic haemolytic and pro-inflammatory disorder. The clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease result from the presence of mutations on the beta globin genes that generate an abnormal haemoglobin product (called haemoglobin S) within the red blood cell. Sickle cell disease can lead to many complications such as acute chest syndrome, stroke, acute and chronic bone complications (including painful vaso-occlusive crisis, osteomyelitis, osteonecrosis and osteoporosis). With increased catabolism and deficits in energy and nutrient intake, individuals with sickle cell disease suffer multiple macro- and micro-nutritional deficiencies, including vitamin D deficiency. Since vitamin D maintains calcium homeostasis and is essential for bone mineralisation, its deficiency may worsen musculoskeletal health problems encountered in sickle cell disease. Therefore, there is a need to review the effects and the safety of vitamin D supplementation in sickle cell disease.

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in children and adults with sickle cell disease.To determine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on general health such as growth status and health-related quality of life; on musculoskeletal health including bone mineral density, pain crises, bone fracture and muscle health; on respiratory health which includes lung function tests, acute chest syndrome, acute exacerbation of asthma and respiratory infections; and the safety of vitamin D supplementation in children and adults with sickle cell disease.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched database such as PubMed, clinical trial registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search: 15 December 2016.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled studies and quasi-randomised controlled studies (controlled clinical studies) comparing oral administration of any form of vitamin D supplementation to another type of vitamin D or placebo or no supplementation at any dose and for any duration, in people with sickle cell disease, of all ages, gender, and phenotypes including sickle cell anaemia, haemoglobin sickle cell disease and sickle beta-thalassaemia diseases.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included study. They used the GRADE guidelines to assess the quality of the evidence.

    MAIN RESULTS: One double-blind randomised controlled study including 46 people with sickle cell disease (HbSS, HbSC, HbSβ+thal and HbSβ0thal) was eligible for inclusion in this review. Of the 46 enrolled participants, seven withdrew before randomisation leaving 39 participants who were randomised. Only 25 participants completed the full six months of follow up. Participants were randomised to receive oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) (n = 20) or placebo (n = 19) for six weeks and were followed up to six months. Two participants from the treatment group have missing values of baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, therefore the number of samples analysed was 37 (vitamin D n = 18, placebo n = 19).The included study had a high risk of bias with regards to incomplete outcome data (high dropout rate in the placebo group), but a low risk of bias for other domains such as random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, personnel and outcome assessors, selective outcome reporting; and an unclear risk of other biases.Compared to the placebo group, the vitamin D group had significantly higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels at eight weeks, mean difference 29.79 (95% confidence interval 26.63 to 32.95); at 16 weeks, mean difference 12.67 (95% confidence interval 10.43 to 14.90); and at 24 weeks, mean difference 15.52 (95% confidence interval 13.50 to 17.54). We determined the quality of the evidence for this outcome to be moderate. There was no significant difference of adverse events (tingling of lips or hands) between the vitamin D and placebo groups, risk ratio 3.16 (95% confidence interval 0.14 to 72.84), but the quality of the evidence was low. Regarding the frequency of pain, the vitamin D group had significantly fewer pain days compared to the placebo group, mean difference -10.00 (95% confidence interval -16.47 to -3.53), but again the quality of the evidence was low. Furthermore, the review included physical functioning PedsQL scores which was reported as absolute change from baseline. The vitamin D group had a lower (worse) health-related quality of life score than the placebo group but this was not significant at eight weeks, mean difference -2.02 (95% confidence interval -6.34 to 2.30). However, the difference was significant at both 16 weeks, mean difference -12.56 (95% confidence interval -16.44 to -8.69) and 24 weeks, mean difference -12.59 (95% confidence interval -17.43 to -7.76). We determined the quality of evidence for this outcome to be low.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We included only one low-quality clinical study which had a high risk of bias with regards to incomplete outcome data. Therefore, we consider that the evidence is not of sufficient quality to guide clinical practice. Until further evidence becomes available, clinicians should consider the relevant existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation (e.g. the Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines) and dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D (e.g. from the USA Institute of Medicine). Evidence of vitamin D supplementation in sickle cell disease from high quality studies is needed. Well-designed, randomised, placebo-controlled studies of parallel design, are required to determine the effects and the safety of vitamin D supplementation in children and adults with sickle cell disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood*; Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications*
  9. Sasongko TH, Nagalla S, Ballas SK
    PMID: 26041152 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009191.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a group of disorders characterized by deformation of erythrocytes. Renal damage is a frequent complication in sickle cell disease as a result of long-standing anemia and disturbed circulation through the renal medullary capillaries. Due to the improvement in life expectancy of people with sickle cell disease, there has been a corresponding significant increase in the incidence of renal complications. Microalbuminuria and proteinuria are noted to be a strong predictor of subsequent renal failure. There is extensive experience and evidence with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors over many years in a variety of clinical situations for patients who do not have sickle cell disease, but their effect in people with this disease is unknown. It is common practice to administer ACE inhibitors for sickle nephropathy due to their renoprotective properties; however, little is known about their effectiveness and safety in this setting. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2013.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of ACE inhibitor administration in people with sickle cell disease for decreasing intraglomerular pressure, microalbuminuria and proteinuria and to to assess the safety of ACE inhibitors as pertains to their adverse effects.

    SEARCH METHODS: The authors searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Hameoglobinopathies Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 03 June 2015.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials of ACE inhibitors designed to reduce microalbuminuria and proteinuria in people with sickle cell disease compared to either placebo or standard treatment regimen.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three authors independently applied the inclusion criteria in order to select studies for inclusion in the review. Two authors assessed the risk of bias of studies and extracted data and the third author verified these assessments.

    MAIN RESULTS: Five studies were identified through the searches, only one met our inclusion criteria. The included study randomized 22 participants (seven males and 15 females) having proteinuria or microalbuminuria with sickle cell disease and treated the participants for six months (median length of follow up of three months) with captopril or placebo. The overall quality of the outcomes reported was high, since most aspects that may contribute to bias were regarded to be of low risk, although allocation concealment was not reported. At six months, the study reported no significant difference in urinary albumin excretion between the captopril group and the placebo group, although the mean urinary albumin excretion in the captopril group was lower by a mean difference of -49.00 (95% confidence interval -124.10 to 26.10) compared to that of placebo. However, our analysis on the absolute change score showed significant changes between the two groups by a mean difference of -63.00 (95% confidence interval -93.78 to -32.22). At six months albumin excretion in the captopril group was noted to decrease from baseline by a mean of 45 ± 23 mg/day and the placebo group was noted to increase by 18 ± 45 mg/day. Serum creatinine and potassium levels were reported constant throughout the study. The potential for inducing hypotension should be highlighted; the study reported a decrease of 8 mmHg in systolic pressure and 5 mmHg in diastolic and mean blood pressure.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is not enough evidence to show that the administration of ACE inhibitors is associated with a reduction of microalbuminuria and proteinuria in people with sickle cell disease, although a potential for this was seen. More long-term studies involving multiple centers and larger cohorts using a randomized-controlled design are warranted, especially among the pediatric age group. Detailed reporting of each outcome measure is necessary to allow a clear cut interpretation in a systematic review. One of the difficulties encountered in this review was the lack of detailed data reported in the included study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications*; Anemia, Sickle Cell/urine
  10. Than NN, Soe HHK, Palaniappan SK, Abas AB, De Franceschi L
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2019 09 09;9:CD011358.
    PMID: 31498421 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011358.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive inherited haemoglobinopathy which causes painful vaso-occlusive crises due to sickle red blood cell dehydration. Vaso-occlusive crises are common painful events responsible for a variety of clinical complications; overall mortality is increased and life expectancy decreased compared to the general population. Experimental studies suggest that intravenous magnesium has proven to be well-tolerated in individuals hospitalised for the immediate relief of acute (sudden onset) painful crisis and has the potential to decrease the length of hospital stay. Some in vitro studies and open studies of long-term oral magnesium showed promising effect on pain relief but failed to show its efficacy. The studies show that oral magnesium therapy may prevent sickle red blood cell dehydration and prevent recurrent painful episodes. There is a need to access evidence for the impact of oral and intravenous magnesium effect on frequency of pain, length of hospital stay and quality of life. This is an updated version of the review.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of short-term intravenous magnesium on the length of hospital stay and quality of life in children and adults with sickle cell disease. To determine the effects of long-term oral magnesium therapy on the frequency of painful crises and the quality of life in children and adults with sickle cell disease.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books.Date of last search of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 03 February 2019.Date of last search of other resources (clinical trials registries): 04 April 2019.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled studies of oral or intravenous magnesium compared to placebo or no magnesium.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Authors independently assessed the study quality and extracted the data using standard Cochrane methodologies.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included five randomized placebo-controlled studies with a total of 386 participants (aged three to 53 years). Of these, two shorter parallel studies (n = 306) compared intravenous magnesium sulphate to placebo (normal saline) for admission to hospital due to a vaso-occlusive crisis, for which we were able to analyse data. The quality of evidence was moderate for studies in this comparison, mainly due to limitations due to risk of bias and imprecision. Two of the three longer-term studies comparing oral magnesium pidolate to placebo had a cross-over design. The third was a parallel factorial study which compared hydroxyurea and oral magnesium to each other and to placebo over a longer period of time; we only present the comparison of oral magnesium to placebo from this study. The quality of evidence was very low with uncertainty of the estimation.The eight-hourly dose levels in the two studies of intravenous magnesium were different; one used 100 mg/kg while the second used 40 mg/kg. Only one of these studies (n = 104) reported the mean daily pain score while hospitalised (a non-significant difference between groups, moderate quality evidence). The second study (n = 202) reported a number of child- and parent-reported quality of life scores. None of the scores showed any difference between treatment groups (low quality evidence). Data from one study (n = 106) showed no difference in length of stay in hospital between groups (low quality evidence). Both studies reported on adverse events, but not defined by severity as we had planned. One study showed significantly more participants receiving intravenous magnesium experienced warmth at infusion site compared to placebo; there were no differences between groups for other adverse events (low quality evidence).Three studies (n = 80) compared oral magnesium pidolate to placebo. None of them reported data which we were able to analyse. One study (n = 24) reported on the number of painful days and stated there was no difference between two groups (low quality evidence). None of the studies reported on quality of life or length of hospital stay. Two studies (n = 68) reported there were no differences in levels of magnesium in either plasma or red blood cells (moderate quality evidence). Two studies (n = 56) reported adverse events. One reported episodes of mild diarrhoea and headache, all of which resolved without stopping treatment. The second study reported adverse events as gastrointestinal disorders, headache or migraine, upper respiratory infections and rash; which were all evenly distributed across treatment groups (moderate quality evidence).

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to low quality evidence showed neither intravenous magnesium and oral magnesium therapy has an effect on reducing painful crisis, length of hospital stay and changing quality of life in treating sickle cell disease. Therefore, no definitive conclusions can be made regarding its clinical benefit. Further randomized controlled studies, perhaps multicentre, are necessary to establish whether intravenous and oral magnesium therapies have any effect on improving the health of people with sickle cell disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood; Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy*
  11. Lie-Injo LE, Hassan K, Joishy SK, Lim ML
    Am. J. Hematol., 1986 Jul;22(3):265-74.
    PMID: 2424302
    The Indian rubber estate workers in Negri Sembilan, Malaysia, who originated from Orissa in India were found to have a high frequency of Hb S (Joishy SK, Hassan K: Clin Res 28:280, 1980). Unlike the usually severe clinical picture of sickle cell anemia seen in African and American blacks, the clinical picture of the disease in this population was mild and many have reached old age. We studied the leukocyte DNA of 12 patients with sickle cell anemia, ranging in age from 4 to 61 years and 30 sickle cell trait carriers, ranging in age from 7 to 63 years, for the presence of alpha-globin gene deletions by gene mapping according to Southern (Southern EM: J Mol Biol 98:503, 1975), using alpha- and zeta-globin gene probes obtained by nick translation of the alpha- and zeta-globin genes cloned into plasmid. All 12 sickle cell anemia patients were found to have alpha-thalassemia2 (alpha-thal2), either in the homozygous or heterozygous condition. Of the Hb S trait carriers, six did not have alpha-thal2 or alpha-thal1 and 24 had alpha-thal2 (15 heterozygous, 9 homozygous). Seven of these Hb S trait carriers with alpha-thal2 had an additional gene abnormality. Five of them had a fast-moving Eco RI fragment 5.6 kb long that hybridized with zeta-specific probe but not with alpha-specific probe. An unusual DNA pattern of a different type was further found in the other two. Bgl II restriction analysis showed that the alpha-thal2 was mostly of the rightward deletion alpha-thal1 genotype. None of the sickle cell anemia patients and Hb S trait carriers had deletion type alpha-thal1. The sickle cell anemia patients had very high levels of Hb F and low levels of Hb A2. The Hb S trait carriers with alpha-thal2 had relatively low levels of Hb S.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood; Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications; Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics*
  12. Hussein N, Weng SF, Kai J, Kleijnen J, Qureshi N
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018 03 14;3:CD010849.
    PMID: 29537064 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010849.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Globally, about five per cent of children are born with congenital or genetic disorders. The most common autosomal recessive conditions are thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease, with higher carrier rates in specific patient populations. Identifying and counselling couples at genetic risk of the conditions before pregnancy enables them to make fully informed reproductive decisions, with some of these choices not being available if genetic counselling is only offered in an antenatal setting. This is an update of a previously published review.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of systematic preconception genetic risk assessment to improve reproductive outcomes in women and their partners who are identified as carriers of thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease in healthcare settings when compared to usual care.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Registers. In addition, we searched for all relevant trials from 1970 (or the date at which the database was first available if after 1970) to date using electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO), clinical trial databases (National Institutes of Health, Clinical Trials Search portal of the World Health Organization, metaRegister of controlled clinical trials), and hand searching of key journals and conference abstract books from 1998 to date (European Journal of Human Genetics, Genetics in Medicine, Journal of Community Genetics). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, reviews and guidelines and also contacted subject experts in the field to request any unpublished or other published trials.Date of latest search of the registers: 20 June 2017.Date of latest search of all other sources: 16 November 2017.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Any randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (published or unpublished) comparing reproductive outcomes of systematic preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease when compared to usual care.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We identified 25 papers, describing 16 unique trials which were potentially eligible for inclusion in the review. However, after assessment, no randomised controlled trials of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease were found.

    MAIN RESULTS: No randomised controlled trials of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease were included. One ongoing trial has been identified which may potentially eligible for inclusion once completed.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: As no randomised controlled trials of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, or Tay-Sachs disease were found for inclusion in this review, the research evidence for current policy recommendations is limited to non-randomised studies.Information from well-designed, adequately powered, randomised trials is desirable in order to make more robust recommendations for practice. However, such trials must also consider the legal, ethical, and cultural barriers to implementation of preconception genetic risk assessment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics*
  13. Wiesenfeld SL
    Science, 1967 Sep 08;157(3793):1134-40.
    PMID: 6038684
    The particular agricultural adaptation we have been considering is the ultimate determinant of the presence of malaria parasites in the intracellular environment of the human red blood cell. This change in the cellular environment is deleterious for normal individuals, but individuals with the sickle-cell gene are capable of changing their red-cell environment so that intense parasitism never develops. Normal individuals suffer higher mortality rates and lower fertility rates in a malarious environment than individuals with the sickle-cell trait do, so the latter contribute proportionately more people to succeeding generations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology*
  14. Saidi HT, Duraisamy G
    Trop Geogr Med, 1978 Mar;30(1):103-8.
    PMID: 675819
    Four cases of Hb S were seen between Jan. 1976 and June 1976; three of them were newly discovered while the fourth was previously diagnosed. Out of the four cases, two were Malays and the other Indians. The family members of one Malay case were investigated. Six members had Hb S and three had Hb CoSp. Association of Hb CoSp and Hb S was seen in two of the members. Clinically they were healthy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics*
  15. Hussein N, Weng SF, Kai J, Kleijnen J, Qureshi N
    PMID: 26264938 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010849.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Globally, about five per cent of children are born with congenital or genetic disorders. The most common autosomal recessive conditions are thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease, with higher carrier rates in specific patient populations. Identifying and counselling couples at genetic risk of the conditions before pregnancy enables them to make fully informed reproductive decisions, with some of these choices not being available if genetic counselling is only offered in an antenatal setting.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of systematic preconception genetic risk assessment to improve reproductive outcomes in women and their partners who are identified as carriers of thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease in healthcare settings when compared to usual care.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Registers. In addition, we searched for all relevant trials from 1970 (or the date at which the database was first available if after 1970) to date using electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO), clinical trial databases (National Institutes of Health, Clinical Trials Search portal of the World Health Organization, metaRegister of controlled clinical trials), and hand searching of key journals and conference abstract books from 1998 to date (European Journal of Human Genetics, Genetics in Medicine, Journal of Community Genetics). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, reviews and guidelines and also contacted subject experts in the field to request any unpublished or other published trials.Date of latest search of the registers: 25 June 2015.Date of latest search of all other sources: 10 December 2014.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Any randomised or quasi-randomised control trials (published or unpublished) comparing reproductive outcomes of systematic preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease when compared to usual care.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We identified 19 papers, describing 13 unique trials which were potentially eligible for inclusion in the review. However, after assessment, no randomised controlled trials of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease were found.

    MAIN RESULTS: No randomised controlled trials of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease were found.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: As no randomised controlled trials of preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, or Tay-Sachs disease were found for inclusion in this review, the research evidence for current policy recommendations is limited to non-randomised studies.Information from well-designed, adequately powered, randomised trials is desirable in order to make more robust recommendations for practice. However, such trials must also consider the legal, ethical, and cultural barriers to implementation of preconception genetic risk assessment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics*
  16. Than NN, Soe HHK, Palaniappan SK, Abas AB, De Franceschi L
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017 Apr 14;4:CD011358.
    PMID: 28409830 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011358.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive inherited haemoglobinopathy which causes painful vaso-occlusive crises due to sickle red blood cell dehydration. Vaso-occlusive crises are common painful events responsible for a variety of clinical complications; overall mortality is increased and life expectancy decreased compared to the general population. Experimental studies suggest that intravenous magnesium has proven to be well-tolerated in individuals hospitalised for the immediate relief of acute (sudden onset) painful crisis and has the potential to decrease the length of hospital stay. Some in vitro studies and open studies of long-term oral magnesium showed promising effect on pain relief but failed to show its efficacy. The studies show that oral magnesium therapy may prevent sickle red blood cell dehydration and prevent recurrent painful episodes. There is a need to access evidence for the impact of oral and intravenous magnesium effect on frequency of pain, length of hospital stay and quality of life.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of short-term intravenous magnesium on the length of hospital stay and quality of life in children and adults with sickle cell disease. To determine the effects of long-term oral magnesium therapy on the frequency of painful crises and the quality of life in children and adults with sickle cell disease.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books.Date of last search of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 01 December 2016.Date of last search of other resources (clinical trials registries): 29 March 2017.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled studies of oral or intravenous magnesium compared to placebo or no magnesium.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Authors independently assessed the study quality and extracted the data using standard Cochrane methodologies.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included five randomized placebo-controlled studies with a total of 386 participants (aged three to 53 years). Two shorter parallel studies (n = 306) compared intravenous magnesium sulphate to placebo (normal saline) for admission to hospital due to a vaso-occlusive crisis, for which we were able to analyse data. The quality of evidence was moderate for studies presenting this comparison mainly due to limitations due to risk of bias and imprecision. Two of the three longer-term studies comparing oral magnesium pidolate to placebo had a cross-over design. The third was a parallel factorial study which compared hydroxyurea and oral magnesium to each other and to placebo over a longer period of time; we only present the comparison of oral magnesium to placebo from this study. The quality of evidence was very low with uncertainty of the estimation.The eight-hourly dose levels in the two studies of intravenous magnesium were different; one used 100 mg/kg while the second used 40 mg/kg. Only one of these studies (n = 104) reported the mean daily pain score while hospitalised (a non-significant difference between groups, moderate quality evidence). The second study (n = 202) reported a number of child- and parent-reported quality of life scores. None of the scores showed any difference between treatment groups (low quality evidence). Data from one study (n = 106) showed no difference in length of stay in hospital between groups (low quality evidence). Both studies reported on adverse events, but not defined by severity as we had planned. One study showed significantly more participants receiving intravenous magnesium experienced warmth at infusion site compared to placebo; there were no differences between groups for other adverse events (low quality evidence).Three studies (n = 80) compared oral magnesium pidolate to placebo. None of them reported data which we were able to analyse. One study (n = 24) reported on the number of painful days and stated there was no difference between two groups (low quality evidence). None of the studies reported on quality of life or length of hospital stay. Two studies (n = 68) reported there were no differences in levels of magnesium in either plasma or red blood cells (moderate quality evidence). Two studies (n = 56) reported adverse events. One reported episodes of mild diarrhoea and headache, all of which resolved without stopping treatment. The second study reported adverse events as gastrointestinal disorders, headache or migraine, upper respiratory infections and rash; which were all evenly distributed across treatment groups (moderate quality evidence).

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to low quality evidence showed neither intravenous magnesium and oral magnesium therapy has an effect on reducing painful crisis, length of hospital stay and changing quality of life in treating sickle cell disease. Therefore, no definitive conclusions can be made regarding its clinical benefit. Further randomized controlled studies, perhaps multicentre, are necessary to establish whether intravenous and oral magnesium therapies have any effect on improving the health of people with sickle cell disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood; Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy*
  17. Teoh HK, Cheong SK
    Malays J Pathol, 2012 Jun;34(1):1-13.
    PMID: 22870592 MyJurnal
    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are derived from human somatic cells through ectopic expression of transcription factors. This landmark discovery has been considered as a major development towards patient-specific iPSC for various biomedical applications. Unlimited self renewal capacity, pluripotency and ease of accessibility to donor tissues contribute to the versatility of iPSC. The therapeutic potential of iPSC in regenerative medicine, cell-based therapy, disease modelling and drug discovery is indeed very promising. Continuous progress in iPSC technology provides clearer understanding of disease pathogenesis and ultimately new optimism in developing treatment or cure for human diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics; Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy
  18. Rahimah A, Syahira Lazira O, Siti Hida HM, Faidatul Syazlin AH, Nur Aisyah A, Nik Hafidzah NM, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Feb;69(1):42-3.
    PMID: 24814631 MyJurnal
    Haemoglobin S D-Punjab is a rare compound heterozygous haemoglobinopathy characterised by the presence of two β globin gene variants: Β6(GAG→GTG) and Β121(GAA→CAA). These patients' clinical and haematological features mimic haemoglobin S disease. We describe the first case of doubly heterozygous HbSD-Punjab from Malaysia managed with regular blood transfusion at the age of one. This case highlights the propensity for occurrence of rare phenotypes within our multi-ethnic population and emphasises the importance of accurate genotyping to avoid erroneous counselling, and to plan an effective patient management strategy before complication evolves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell
  19. Asnawi AW, Sathar J, Mohamed R, Deraman R, Kumaran S, Hamid SS, et al.
    Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus, 2016 Jun;32(Suppl 1):251-3.
    PMID: 27408406 DOI: 10.1007/s12288-014-0495-9
    Clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) arise from the tendency of the sickle haemoglobin to polymerize and deform red blood cells into the characteristic sickle shape. Sickle cell crisis is a devastating complication that may occur in patients with SCD. If not managed properly permanent organ damage and even death may be the final outcome. A case of a 32-year-old Nigerian lady, Gravida 1 Para 0 in her first trimester, with SCD who developed signs and symptoms of delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction after receiving packed red cell transfusion is demonstrated. Multiple red cell alloantibodies were detected in the patient's plasma; anti-Fy a, anti-Jk b and anti-E. The patient miscarriaged and succumbed to complications of hyperhaemolysis with delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction, acute chest syndrome and renal failure. There is an urgent need for mandatory red cell antibody screen and identification especially in high-risk cases. Prevention of alloimmunization by supplying phenotype-specific red cells is also required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell
  20. Asbeutah AM, Adekile A, AlMajran AA, Asbeutah AAA, Naief AA, Al-Jafar H
    J Ultrasound Med, 2019 Oct 30.
    PMID: 31663639 DOI: 10.1002/jum.15158
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate renal blood flow patterns and renovascular parameters in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) without laboratory evidence of renal impairment.

    METHODS: Sixty-five steady-state adult patients with SCD (50 hemoglobin SS [HbSS], 12 HbSβ0 , and 3 HbSD) and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. The kidney length, echo pattern, peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity, renal-to-aortic ratio, resistive index (RI), acceleration time (AT), and renal vein velocity were acquired, recorded, and analyzed with a 1-5-MHz curvilinear transducer through the abdomen.

    RESULTS: The mean age ± SD of the patients with SCD was 32.89 ± 13.89 years. The highest means for the ultrasound-measured renal length and cortical thickness in the SCD and control groups were 11.78 ± 1.30 and 11.27 ± 0.77 cm and 1.86 ± 0.41 and 1.78 ± 0.28 cm, respectively. The figures were significantly higher in the SCD group than the control group (P  .05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Increased renal length and cortical echogenicity with elevated PSV, RI, and AT values can serve as early ultrasound changes in adult patients with SCD without renal impairment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anemia, Sickle Cell
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