Seven new Psechrus species are described from South East Asia: P. arietinus sp. nov.(♂♀, Vietnam), P. insulanus sp. nov.(♂, Thailand), P. ampullaceus sp. nov.(♂♀, Vietnam), P. omistes sp. nov.(♂, Indonesia, Sumatra), P. quasillus sp. nov.(♂♀, Malaysia, Borneo), P. huberi sp. nov.(♀, Philippines), and P. wade sp. nov.(♂, Philippines). For the following species, new records are listed and intraspecific variation is discussed and illustrated: P. libelti Kulczyński, 1908, P. norops Bayer, 2012, P. rani Wang & Yin, 2001, P. khammouan Jäger, 2007, P. luangprabang Jäger, 2007, P. jaegeri Bayer, 2012, P. obtectus Bayer, 2012, P. kenting Yoshida, 2009 and P. crepido Bayer, 2012, and Fecenia protensa Thorell, 1891. The latter species is recorded from Vietnam for the first time. P. norops, P. libelti and an unidentified Psechrus species from Baluno, Mindanao are for the first time characterised and illustrated by their pre-epigynes and pre-vulvae.
The Humpback whale tubercles have been studied for more than a decade. Tubercle Leading Edge (TLE) effectively reduces the separation bubble size and helps in delaying stall. They are very effective in case of low Reynolds number flows. The current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study is on NACA 4415 airfoil, at a Reynolds number 120,000. Two TLE shapes are tested on NACA 4415 airfoil. The tubercle designs implemented on the airfoil are sinusoidal and spherical. A parametric study is also carried out considering three amplitudes (0.025c, 0.05c and 0.075c), the wavelength (0.25c) is fixed. Structured mesh is utilized to generate grid and Transition SST turbulence model is used to capture the flow physics. Results clearly show spherical tubercles outperform sinusoidal tubercles. Furthermore experimental study considering spherical TLE is carried out at Reynolds number 200,000. The experimental results show that spherical TLE improve performance compared to clean airfoil.
A new genus and species of the subtribe Batrisina from western Sarawak, Bryantinus matangus gen. et sp. n., is described, illustrated, and compared with related taxa. In addition, examination of a small series of batrisine material from Thailand revealed a new country record for Cerochusa cilioceps Yin & Nomura, which was previously known only from the island of Hainan in southern China.
A new species, Megatyrus femoralis sp. n., is described from the Koshi Zone, East Nepal, with major diagnostic features illustrated. Megatyrus masumotoi Nomura, Sakchoowong & Chanpaisaeng, originally described from southwestern Thailand, is recorded from the Noring Timur Mountain, West Malaysia. The above data extends the known range of Megatyrus about 1,200 km to the west, and 870 km to the south.
Mycomya Rondani specimens from the islands of South-East Asia, i.e. Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, are revised. The paper includes a key to the Mycomya species of the South-East Asian islands. The following six new species are described: M. shimai sp. n. from Java, Indonesia, M. pongo sp. n. from Sabah, Malaysia, and M. apoensis sp. n., M. nakanishii sp. n., M. paraklossi sp. n. and M. yatai sp. n. from Mindanao, the Philippines. The holotypes of M. klossi Edwards from Borneo, Malaysia, and M. minutata Edwards from Sumatra, Indonesia, were examined and their genitalia are described. M. occultans (Winnertz) is recorded from Java, Indonesia.
T. iban sp. nov. is described from the Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Both sexes can be distinguished from all other species of Telosticta by the form of the antehumeral markings.
Three new species of Dasyrhicnoessa Hendel, 1934 and one of Pseudorhicnoessa Malloch, 1914 from the Indo-Pacific area are described and the male terminalia illustrated. Among these new species, Dasyrhicnoessa paradoxa sp. nov. and Pseudorhicnoessa longicerca sp. nov. are especially noteworthy for the morphological peculiarities of the male terminalia.
Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic nematode parasite of sheep and goats. This work was conducted to investigate the population and host variations of the parasitic nematode H. contortus of sheep and goats from Malaysia and Yemen. Eight morphological characters were investigated, namely the total body length, cervical papillae, right spicule, left spicule, right barb, left barb, gubernaculum and cuticular ridge (synlophe) pattern. Statistical analysis showed the presence of morphological variation between populations of H. contortus from Malaysia and Yemen, with minor variation in the synlophe pattern of these isolates. Isolates from each country were grouped together in the scatterplots with no host isolation. Body, cervical papillae and spicule lengths were the most important characters that distinguished between populations of the two countries. This variation between Malaysia and Yemen may be attributed to geographical isolation and the possible presence of a different isolate of this worm in each country.
The direction that a snail (Mollusca: Gastropoda) coils, whether dextral (right-handed) or sinistral (left-handed), originates in early development but is most easily observed in the shell form of the adult. Here, we review recent progress in understanding snail chirality from genetic, developmental and ecological perspectives. In the few species that have been characterized, chirality is determined by a single genetic locus with delayed inheritance, which means that the genotype is expressed in the mother's offspring. Although research lags behind the studies of asymmetry in the mouse and nematode, attempts to isolate the loci involved in snail chirality have begun, with the final aim of understanding how the axis of left-right asymmetry is established. In nature, most snail taxa (>90%) are dextral, but sinistrality is known from mutant individuals, populations within dextral species, entirely sinistral species, genera and even families. Ordinarily, it is expected that strong frequency-dependent selection should act against the establishment of new chiral types because the chiral minority have difficulty finding a suitable mating partner (their genitalia are on the 'wrong' side). Mixed populations should therefore not persist. Intriguingly, however, a very few land snail species, notably the subgenus Amphidromus sensu stricto, not only appear to mate randomly between different chiral types, but also have a stable, within-population chiral dimorphism, which suggests the involvement of a balancing factor. At the other end of the spectrum, in many species, different chiral types are unable to mate and so could be reproductively isolated from one another. However, while empirical data, models and simulations have indicated that chiral reversal must sometimes occur, it is rarely likely to lead to so-called 'single-gene' speciation. Nevertheless, chiral reversal could still be a contributing factor to speciation (or to divergence after speciation) when reproductive character displacement is involved. Understanding the establishment of chirality, the preponderance of dextral species and the rare instances of stable dimorphism is an important target for future research. Since the genetics of chirality have been studied in only a few pulmonate species, we also urge that more taxa, especially those from the sea, should be investigated.
Tree snails of the subgenus Amphidromus s. str. are unusual because of the chiral dimorphism that exists in many species, with clockwise (dextrally) and counter-clockwise (sinistrally) coiled individuals co-occurring in the same population. Given that mating in snails is normally impeded when the two partners have opposite coil, positive frequency-dependent selection should prevent such dimorphism from persisting. We test the hypothesis that a strong population structure with little movement between tree-based demes may result in the fixation of coiling morphs at a very small spatial scale, but apparent dimorphism at all larger scales. To do so, we describe the spatial structure in a Malaysian population of A. inversus (Müller, 1774) with 36% dextrals. We marked almost 700 juvenile and adult snails in a piece of forest consisting of 92 separate trees, and recorded dispersal and the proportions of dextrals and sinistrals in all trees over a 7-day period. We observed frequent movement between trees (155 events), and found that no trees had snail populations with proportions of dextrals and sinistrals that were significantly different from random. Upon recapture 1 year later, almost two-thirds of the snails had moved away from their original tree. We conclude that population structure alone cannot stabilise the coil dimorphism in Amphidromus.
The manner in which a gastropod shell coils has long intrigued laypersons and scientists alike. In evolutionary biology, gastropod shells are among the best-studied palaeontological and neontological objects. A gastropod shell generally exhibits logarithmic spiral growth, right-handedness and coils tightly around a single axis. Atypical shell-coiling patterns (e.g. sinistroid growth, uncoiled whorls and multiple coiling axes), however, continue to be uncovered in nature. Here, we report another coiling strategy that is not only puzzling from an evolutionary perspective, but also hitherto unknown among shelled gastropods. The terrestrial gastropod Opisthostoma vermiculum sp. nov. generates a shell with: (i) four discernable coiling axes, (ii) body whorls that thrice detach and twice reattach to preceding whorls without any reference support, and (iii) detached whorls that coil around three secondary axes in addition to their primary teleoconch axis. As the coiling strategies of individuals were found to be generally consistent throughout, this species appears to possess an unorthodox but rigorously defined set of developmental instructions. Although the evolutionary origins of O. vermiculum and its shell's functional significance can be elucidated only once fossil intermediates and live individuals are found, its bewildering morphology suggests that we still lack an understanding of relationships between form and function in certain taxonomic groups.
The male, pupa and mature larva of Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, one of the four species of the small Oriental black fly subgenus Asiosimulium, are described for the first time based on samples collected from Thailand. The male S. (A.) wanchaii is characterized based on the enlarged hind basitarsus and the ventral plate which is much wider than long. The pupa and larva are characterized by the gill with 19 filaments and the deep postgenal cleft, respectively. Keys are provided to identify all the four species of the subgenus Asiosimulium for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
The taxonomy of poorly known Mesagraecia Ingrisch, 1998 is reviewed. A new species of Mesagraecia spine-headed katydid (Conocephalinae: Agraeciini) is described from Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia: Mesagraecia larutensis sp. n. A key to species is also presented.
The previously known distribution area of the genus Grossander Slater, 1976 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Rhyparochromidae, Drymini) is broadened with the description of two new species: Grossander papuanus sp. nov. (New Guinea) and Grossander eylesi sp. nov. (Burma, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia). Grossander (Oculoander) subgen. nov. is created for these new taxa. Drawings of habitus and male genitalia are presented. Keys to the subgenera of Grossander, and to the species of the new subgenus are provided.
A new species of Narrow-mouthed frog of the genus Kaloula is described from northern Peninsular Malaysia. Kaloula latidisca sp. nov. is genetically and morphologically most similar to K. baleata and K. indochinensis but differs from those and other congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: (1) adult males SVL 49.2-56.2 mm (x̅=53.5 ± 3.0; N=4); (2) finger tips expanded into large, transversely expanded discs (disc width 2.8-3.1 mm, x̅=3.0 ± 0.1); (3) inner metatarsal tubercle large, oval, distinctly raised, slightly shorter than first toe; (4) three subarticular tubercles on fourth toe; (5) toe webbing formula: I 1-2 II 1-3 III 2-3.5 IV 4-2 V; and (6) yellow to orange irregularly shaped patch on the axillary, inguinal and posterior region of thigh.
New species of the Scirtes flavoguttatus species-group are described from SE Asia. Altogether 34 species are newly described, including Scirtes beccus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. bocakorum sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. crockerensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. decorus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. dumogensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. gunongmulensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. ishikawai sp. nov. (Vietnam), S. kinabalensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. kundasangensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. lambriensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. leuserensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. luteus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. malaisei sp. nov. (Myanmar), S. melinauensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. noonadan sp. nov. (Philippines), S. pallicolor sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. penampangensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. phoupanensis sp. nov. (Laos), S. prodigiosus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. punctatus sp. nov. (Philippines), S. quasibalehensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. ranauensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. sarawakensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. seblatensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. sibayensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. sibolangitensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. sulawesicus sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. sulcigeroides sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. talinisensis sp. nov. (Philippines), S. ulukimanisensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. velutinus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. vietnamicus sp. nov. (Vietnam), S. wallacei sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. yangsinensis sp. nov. (Vietnam). New localities of six species are provided. An updated identification key, checklist and a summary of distributional data are included. Probability of the occurrence of the Scirtes flavoguttatus species-group was evaluated with an analysis in MaxEnt software. It is highly plausible that members of the group occur in most mountainous rainforests of SE Asia.
We describe two new species and provide one new species record of the family Comesomatidae from a submarine canyon habitat on the Southern Hikurangi margin, New Zealand. Vasostoma hexodontium n. sp. is characterized by having an amphideal fovea with three turns, buccal cavity with six teeth and gubernaculum with long and straight caudal apophyses. Sabatieria dispunctata n. sp. is characterized by the absence of cuticle punctations, large amphideal fovea with 4.5 turns, pharynx with posterior bulb, absence of pre-cloacal supplements, strongly arcuate and cuticularized spicules, simple gubernaculum with short caudal apophyses, and vulva opening directed posteriorly. Laimella subterminata Chen & Vincx, 2000, which was originally described from the Beagle Channel and the Magellan Strait (Chile), is recorded from the Southwest Pacific for the first time.
Two new species of Pharta, P. sudmannorum sp. nov. (♂♀, Borneo) and P. koponeni sp. nov. (♂, Thailand) are described. Furthermore, Ibana senagang gen. nov. & sp. nov. from Malaysia is described based on its exceptional palp, which has a reduced, movable conductor and thick-long spines on the distal, ventral surface of the tibia, reminiscent of Epidius Thorell, 1877.