Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

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  1. Abdulrahman SA, Rampal L, Othman N, Ibrahim F, Hayati KS, Radhakrishnan AP
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2017;11:1273-1284.
    PMID: 28794617 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S141609
    BACKGROUND: Inconsistent literature evidence suggests that sociodemographic, economic, and system- and patient-related factors are associated with clinic attendance among the HIV-positive population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) around the world. We examined the factors that predict outpatient clinic attendance among a cohort of HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed secondary data on outpatient clinic attendance and sociodemographic, economic, psychosocial, and patient-related factors among 242 adult Malaysian patients initiating ART in Selangor, Malaysia. Study cohort was enrolled in a parent randomized controlled trial (RCT) in Hospital Sungai Buloh Malaysia between January and December 2014, during which peer counseling, medication, and clinic appointment reminders were provided to the intervention group through short message service (SMS) and telephone calls for 24 consecutive weeks. Data on outpatient clinic attendance were extracted from the hospital electronic medical records system, while other patient-level data were extracted from pre-validated Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group (AACTG) adherence questionnaires in which primary data were collected. Outpatient clinic attendance was categorized into binary outcome - regular attendee and defaulter categories - based on the number of missed scheduled outpatient clinic appointments within a 6-month period. Multivariate regression models were fitted to examine predictors of outpatient clinic attendance using SPSS version 22 and R software.

    RESULTS: A total of 224 (93%) patients who completed 6-month assessment were included in the model. Out of those, 42 (18.7%) defaulted scheduled clinic attendance at least once. Missed appointments were significantly more prevalent among females (n=10, 37.0%), rural residents (n=10, 38.5%), and bisexual respondents (n=8, 47.1%). Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that Indian ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.235; 95% CI [0.063-0.869]; P=0.030) and heterosexual orientation (AOR =4.199; 95% CI [1.040-16.957]; P=0.044) were significant predictors of outpatient clinic attendance among HIV-positive patients receiving ART in Malaysia.

    CONCLUSION: Ethnicity and sexual orientation of Malaysian patients may play a significant role in their level of adherence to scheduled clinic appointments. These factors should be considered during collaborative adherence strategy planning at ART initiation.

    Study site: Outpatient clinic, Hospital Sungai Buloh Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents*
  2. Jain D, Darrow JJ
    Health Matrix Clevel, 2013;23(2):425-57.
    PMID: 24341078
    Access to affordable drugs for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and other diseases is increasingly challenging in many developing countries such as Brazil, South Africa, and India. These challenges are in part the result of strengthened patent laws mandated by the 1994 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) treaty. However, there are underutilized instruments within TRIPS that governments can use to limit the adverse effects of patent protection and thereby ensure a supply of affordable generic drugs to their people. One such instrument is compulsory licensing, which allows generic manufacturers to produce pharmaceutical products that are currently subject to patent protection. Compulsory licensing has been used by a number of countries in the last few years, including the United States, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil, and Thailand, and is particularly significant for countries such as India, where large numbers of people are infected with HIV. This Article explores the feasibility of compulsory licensing as a tool to facilitate access to essential medicines within the current patent regime in India, drawing on the experiences of other countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/economics; Anti-Retroviral Agents/supply & distribution*
  3. Rajasuriar R, Wright E, Lewin SR
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS, 2015 Jan;10(1):35-42.
    PMID: 25415420 DOI: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000118
    The purpose of this review was to summarize recent studies on the effect of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients on markers of immune activation/inflammation, viral persistence and serious non-AIDS events.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage; Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects*
  4. Vignesh R, Swathirajan CR, Solomon SS, Shankar EM, Murugavel KG
    Indian J Med Microbiol, 2017 Apr-Jun;35(2):279-281.
    PMID: 28681821 DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_163
    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) continues to be a complication in HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with developing IRIS to identify a possible biomarker to predict or diagnose IRIS in patients initiating HAART. A total of 175 HIV/TB co-infected patients initiating HAART were followed up longitudinally during September 2010 to May 2013 attending a HIV care clinic in Chennai. Patients were followed up longitudinally after HAART initiation and baseline demographic, laboratory parameters and treatment characteristics between patients with IRIS events and those without IRIS events were compared. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and a Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables were performed using SPSS, version 12.0 software. Patients with IRIS had a significantly lower median baseline CD4+ T-cell count (P = 0.0039). There were no differences in terms of sex, CD4 T-cell %, plasma viral load, time interval between initiating ATT and HAART between the IRIS and non-IRIS patients. Low CD4+ T-cell count (<100 cells/μL) could be used as a marker to screen and monitor patients initiating HAART.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage*; Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects*
  5. Mendelsohn JB, Rhodes T, Spiegel P, Schilperoord M, Burton JW, Balasundaram S, et al.
    Soc Sci Med, 2014 Nov;120:387-95.
    PMID: 25048975 DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.06.010
    HIV-positive refugees confront a variety of challenges in accessing and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and attaining durable viral suppression; however, there is little understanding of what these challenges are, how they are navigated, or how they may differ across humanitarian settings. We sought to document and examine accounts of the threats, barriers and facilitators experienced in relation to HIV treatment and care and to conduct comparisons across settings. We conducted semi-structured interviews among a purposive sample of 14 refugees attending a public, urban HIV clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (July-September 2010), and 12 refugees attending a camp-based HIV clinic in Kakuma, Kenya (February-March 2011). We used framework methods and between-case comparison to analyze and interpret the data, identifying social and environmental factors that influenced adherence. The multiple issues that threatened adherence to antiretroviral therapy or precipitated actual adherence lapses clustered into three themes: "migration", "insecurity", and "resilience". The migration theme included issues related to crossing borders and integrating into treatment systems upon arrival in a host country. Challenges related to crossing borders were reported in both settings, but threats pertaining to integration into, and navigation of, a new health system were exclusive to the Malaysian setting. The insecurity theme included food insecurity, which was most commonly reported in the Kenyan setting; health systems insecurity, reported in both settings; and emotional insecurity, which was most common in the Kenyan setting. Resilient processes were reported in both settings. We drew on the concept of "bounded agency" to argue that, despite evidence of personal and community resilience, these processes were sometimes insufficient for overcoming social and environmental barriers to adherence. In general, interventions might aim to bolster individuals' range of action with targeted support that bolsters resilient processes. Specific interventions are needed to address locally-based food and health system insecurities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  6. Chokephaibulkit K, Kariminia A, Oberdorfer P, Nallusamy R, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2014 Mar;33(3):291-4.
    PMID: 23942457 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182a18223
    More perinatally HIV-infected children in Asia are reaching adolescence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  7. Boettiger DC, Aurpibul L, Hudaya DM, Fong SM, Lumbiganon P, Saphonn V, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2016 May;35(5):e144-51.
    PMID: 26835972 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001074
    BACKGROUND: Information on antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in HIV-infected children with severe malnutrition (SM) is lacking. We investigated long-term ART outcomes in this population.

    METHODS: Children enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database who had SM (weight-for-height or body mass index-for-age Z score less than -3) at ART initiation were analyzed. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate poor weight recovery (weight-for-age Z score less than -3) and poor CD4% recovery (CD4% <25), and competing risk regression was used to analyze mortality and toxicity-associated treatment modification.

    RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-five (11.9%) of 2993 children starting ART had SM. Their median weight-for-age Z score increased from -5.6 at ART initiation to -2.3 after 36 months. Not using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis at baseline was associated with poor weight recovery [odds ratio: 2.49 vs. using; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-3.74; P < 0.001]. Median CD4% increased from 3.0 at ART initiation to 27.2 after 36 months, and 56 (15.3%) children died during follow-up. More profound SM was associated with poor CD4% recovery (odds ratio: 1.78 for Z score less than -4.5 vs. -3.5 to less than -3.0; 95% CI: 1.08-2.92; P = 0.023) and mortality (hazard ratio: 2.57 for Z score less than -4.5 vs. -3.5 to less than -3.0; 95% CI: 1.24-5.33; P = 0.011). Twenty-two toxicity-associated ART modifications occurred at a rate of 2.4 per 100 patient-years, and rates did not differ by malnutrition severity.

    CONCLUSION: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis is important for the recovery of weight-for-age in severely malnourished children starting ART. The extent of SM does not impede weight-for-age recovery or antiretroviral tolerability, but CD4% response is compromised in children with a very low weight-for-height/body mass index-for-age Z score, which may contribute to their high rate of mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects; Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  8. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Cain LE, Logan R, Robins JM, Sterne JA, Sabin C, et al.
    Ann. Intern. Med., 2011 Apr 19;154(8):509-15.
    PMID: 21502648 DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-154-8-201104190-00001
    BACKGROUND: Most clinical guidelines recommend that AIDS-free, HIV-infected persons with CD4 cell counts below 0.350 × 10(9) cells/L initiate combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated remains a matter of debate.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated.

    DESIGN: Prospective observational data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and dynamic marginal structural models were used to compare cART initiation strategies for CD4 thresholds between 0.200 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.

    SETTING: HIV clinics in Europe and the Veterans Health Administration system in the United States.

    PATIENTS: 20, 971 HIV-infected, therapy-naive persons with baseline CD4 cell counts at or above 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L and no previous AIDS-defining illnesses, of whom 8392 had a CD4 cell count that decreased into the range of 0.200 to 0.499 × 10(9) cells/L and were included in the analysis.

    MEASUREMENTS: Hazard ratios and survival proportions for all-cause mortality and a combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death.

    RESULTS: Compared with initiating cART at the CD4 cell count threshold of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L, the mortality hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.22) for the 0.350 threshold and 1.20 (CI, 0.97 to 1.48) for the 0.200 threshold. The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.38 (CI, 1.23 to 1.56) and 1.90 (CI, 1.67 to 2.15), respectively, for the combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death.

    LIMITATIONS: CD4 cell count at cART initiation was not randomized. Residual confounding may exist.

    CONCLUSION: Initiation of cART at a threshold CD4 count of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L increases AIDS-free survival. However, mortality did not vary substantially with the use of CD4 thresholds between 0.300 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage*; Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
  9. Phanuphak P, Sirivichayakul S, Jiamsakul A, Sungkanuparph S, Kumarasamy N, Lee MP, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2014 May 1;66(1):74-9.
    PMID: 24413039 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000108
    We compared treatment outcomes of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in patients on fully or partially sensitive drug regimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/pharmacology; Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  10. Lam EP, Moore CL, Gotuzzo E, Nwizu C, Kamarulzaman A, Chetchotisakd P, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2016 09;32(9):841-50.
    PMID: 27346600 DOI: 10.1089/AID.2015.0331
    We investigate mutations and correlates according to HIV-1 subtype after virological failure (VF) of standard first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) (non-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NNRTI] +2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [N(t)RTI]). SECOND-LINE study participants were assessed at baseline for HIV-1 subtype, demographics, HIV-1 history, ART exposure, viral load (VL), CD4(+) count, and genotypic ART resistance. We used backward stepwise multivariate regression (MVR) to assess associations between baseline variables and presence of ≥3 N(t)RTI mutations, ≥1 NNRTI mutation, ≥3 thymidine analog-N(t)RTI [ta-N(t)RTI] mutations (TAMs), the K65/K70 mutation, and predicted etravirine (ETV)/rilpivirine (RPV) activity. The inclusion p-value for MVR was p  .05. Of 541 participants, 491 (91%) had successfully characterized baseline viral isolates. Subtype distribution: B (n = 123, 25%), C (n = 202, 41%), CRF01_AE (n = 109, 22%), G (n = 25, 5%), and CRF02_AG (n = 27, 5%). Baseline CD4(+) 200-394 cells/mm(3) were associated with <3 N(t)RTI mutations (OR = 0.47; 95% CI 0.29-0.77; p = .003), absence of the K65/K70 mutation (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.26-0.73; p = .002), and higher ETV sensitivity (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.35-0.78; p = .002). Recent tenofovir (TDF) use was associated with K65/K70 mutations (OR = 8.91; 95% CI 5.00-15.85; p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/pharmacology*; Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  11. Yong YK, Shankar EM, Solomon A, Spelman T, Fairley CK, Elliott JH, et al.
    AIDS, 2016 09 10;30(14):2159-68.
    PMID: 27281059 DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001179
    BACKGROUND: Chronic HIV infection leads to marked depletion of CD4 T cells in the gastrointestinal tract and increased microbial translocation measured by an increase in circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. Here, we hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14, the principal receptors for LPS, were associated with CD4 T-cell recovery postantiretroviral therapy (ART).

    METHODS: Prospective study of predominantly white HIV-infected participants receiving suppressive ART for at least 12 months. We analysed the CD14 SNPs C-260T and the TLR4 SNPs A+896G, C+1196T. We also determined the levels of LPS and soluble CD14 in plasma samples collected pre-ART and post-ART initiation. CD4 T-cell recovery was assessed by linear mixed models.

    RESULTS: Following ART, individuals with a TT genotype compared with a CT or CC genotype for CD14 C-260T SNP showed higher levels of soluble CD14 (P = 0.008 and 0.003, respectively). The CC genotype for the CD14 C-260T SNP, compared with CT or TT, and the TLR4 SNP (AC/GT), compared with the homozygous genotype (AA/CC), were both independently associated with enhanced long-term CD4 T-cell recovery (>3 months; P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  12. Aurpibul L, Bunupuradah T, Sophan S, Boettiger D, Wati DK, Nguyen LV, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2015 Jun;34(6):e153-8.
    PMID: 25970117 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000693
    We determined the prevalence and incidence of liver dysfunction before and after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  13. Meyer JP, Zelenev A, Wickersham JA, Williams CT, Teixeira PA, Altice FL
    Am J Public Health, 2014 Mar;104(3):434-41.
    PMID: 24432878 DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301553
    We assessed gender differences in longitudinal HIV treatment outcomes among HIV-infected jail detainees transitioning to the community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
  14. Leng LK, Pancharoen C, Bunupuradah T, Thisyakorn U, Trinavarat P, Sosothikul D, et al.
    J Med Assoc Thai, 2007 Sep;90(9):1937-42.
    PMID: 17957942
    This report documents a case of infiltrating cervical spinal mass, most likely a spinal tumor, in a girl with HIV infection that regressed following HAART and without treatment of the tumor or any anti-infectives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  15. Sulaiman H, Atiya N, Loi KW, Ng KP
    Eur. J. Intern. Med., 2016 Nov;35:e7-e8.
    PMID: 27498273 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejim.2016.07.014
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects
  16. Rajasuriar R, Chong ML, Ahmad Bashah NS, Abdul Aziz SA, Mcstea M, Lee ECY, et al.
    AIDS, 2017 06 19;31(10):1393-1403.
    PMID: 28358731 DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001475
    BACKGROUND: Aging among HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a significant clinical challenge; however, studies assessing multidimensional aspects of aging are lacking. We characterized 10 geriatric conditions encompassing multiple functional domains, its health impact and associated risk factors in HIV-infected and age-matched uninfected controls.

    METHODS: HIV-infected individuals were recruited from the outpatient clinic in University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia and controls from the community. All participants were aged at least 25 years of age with no acute illness, and HIV-infected individuals were on stable ART. Geriatric conditions were assessed and the burden scored as a composite of geriatric conditions present in an individual (total score = 10). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors and health impact associated with the burden of geriatric conditions.

    RESULTS: We analyzed data from 336 HIV-infected individuals (total HIV+), of whom 172 were matched for age, sex, and ethnicity with 172 HIV-uninfected controls (matched subset). In the total HIV-positive cohort, median (interquartile range) age was 44 (38-51) years and CD4 T-cell count was 562 (398-737) cells/μl. The burden of geriatric conditions was significantly higher in the HIV-infected group compared with controls (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  17. Ross JL, Teeraananchai S, Lumbiganon P, Hansudewechakul R, Chokephaibulkit K, Khanh TH, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2019 06 01;81(2):e28-e38.
    PMID: 30865173 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002008
    BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) have poorer adherence and clinical outcomes than adults. We conducted a study to assess behavioral risks and antiretroviral therapy outcomes among ALHIV in Asia.

    METHODS: A prospective cohort study among ALHIV and matched HIV-uninfected controls aged 12-18 years was conducted at 9 sites in Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam from July 2013 to March 2017. Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview at weeks 0, 48, 96, and 144. Virologic failure (VF) was defined as ≥1 viral load (VL) measurement >1000 copies/mL. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify predictors for VF.

    RESULTS: Of 250 ALHIV and 59 HIV-uninfected controls, 58% were Thai and 51% females. The median age was 14 years at enrollment; 93% of ALHIV were perinatally infected. At week 144, 66% of ALHIV were orphans vs. 28% of controls (P < 0.01); similar proportions of ALHIV and controls drank alcohol (58% vs. 65%), used inhalants (1% vs. 2%), had been sexually active (31% vs. 21%), and consistently used condoms (42% vs. 44%). Of the 73% of ALHIV with week 144 VL testing, median log VL was 1.60 (interquartile range 1.30-1.70) and 19% had VF. Over 70% of ALHIV had not disclosed their HIV status. Self-reported adherence ≥95% was 60% at week 144. Smoking cigarettes, >1 sexual partner, and living with nonparent relatives, a partner or alone, were associated with VF at any time.

    CONCLUSIONS: The subset of ALHIV with poorer adherence and VF require comprehensive interventions that address sexual risk, substance use, and HIV-status disclosure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
  18. Bijker R, Jiamsakul A, Uy E, Kumarasamy N, Ditango R, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    HIV Med., 2019 03;20(3):183-191.
    PMID: 30620108 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12687
    OBJECTIVES: With aging of the HIV-positive population, cardiovascular disease (CVD) increasingly contributes to morbidity and mortality. We investigated CVD-related and other causes of death (CODs) and factors associated with CVD in a multi-country Asian HIV-positive cohort.

    METHODS: Patient data from 2003-2017 were obtained from the Therapeutics, Research, Education and AIDS Training in Asia (TREAT Asia) HIV Observational Database (TAHOD). We included patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with > 1 day of follow-up. Cumulative incidences were plotted for CVD-related, AIDS-related, non-AIDS-related, and unknown CODs, and any CVD (i.e. fatal and nonfatal). Competing risk regression was used to assess risk factors of any CVD.

    RESULTS: Of 8069 patients with a median follow-up of 7.3 years [interquartile range (IQR) 4.4-10.7 years], 378 patients died [incidence rate (IR) 6.2 per 1000 person-years (PY)], and this total included 22 CVD-related deaths (IR 0.36 per 1000 PY). Factors significantly associated with any CVD event (IR 2.2 per 1000 PY) were older age [sub-hazard ratio (sHR) 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.58 for age 41-50 years; sHR 5.52; 95% CI 3.43-8.91 for ≥ 51 years, compared with < 40 years], high blood pressure (sHR 1.62; 95% CI 1.04-2.52), high total cholesterol (sHR 1.89; 95% CI 1.27-2.82), high triglycerides (sHR 1.55; 95% CI 1.02-2.37) and high body mass index (BMI) (sHR 1.66; 95% CI 1.12-2.46). CVD crude IRs were lower in the later ART initiation period and in lower middle- and upper middle-income countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: The development of fatal and nonfatal CVD events in our cohort was associated with older age, and treatable risk factors such as high blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol and BMI. Lower CVD event rates in middle-income countries may indicate under-diagnosis of CVD in Asian-Pacific resource-limited settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  19. Lin YW, Abdul Rahim N, Zhao J, Han ML, Yu HH, Wickremasinghe H, et al.
    PMID: 30670431 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02176-18
    Polymyxins are used as a last-line therapy against multidrug-resistant (MDR) New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae However, polymyxin resistance can emerge with monotherapy; therefore, novel strategies are urgently needed to minimize the resistance and maintain their clinical utility. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B in combination with the antiretroviral drug zidovudine against K. pneumoniae Three isolates were evaluated in static time-kill studies (0 to 64 mg/liter) over 48 h. An in vitro one-compartment pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model (IVM) was used to simulate humanized dosage regimens of polymyxin B (4 mg/liter as continuous infusion) and zidovudine (as bolus dose thrice daily to achieve maximum concentration of drug in broth [Cmax] of 6 mg/liter) against K. pneumoniae BM1 over 72 h. The antimicrobial synergy of the combination was further evaluated in a murine thigh infection model against K. pneumoniae 02. In the static time-kill studies, polymyxin B monotherapy produced rapid and extensive killing against all three isolates followed by extensive regrowth, whereas zidovudine produced modest killing followed by significant regrowth at 24 h. Polymyxin B in combination with zidovudine significantly enhanced the antimicrobial activity (≥4 log10 CFU/ml) and minimized bacterial regrowth. In the IVM, the combination was synergistic and the total bacterial loads were below the limit of detection for up to 72 h. In the murine thigh infection model, the bacterial burden at 24 h in the combination group was ≥3 log10 CFU/thigh lower than each monotherapy against K. pneumoniae 02. Overall, the polymyxin B-zidovudine combination demonstrates superior antimicrobial efficacy and minimized emergence of resistance to polymyxins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/pharmacology*
  20. Yap PK, Loo Xin GL, Tan YY, Chellian J, Gupta G, Liew YK, et al.
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2019 Sep;71(9):1339-1352.
    PMID: 31144296 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.13107
    OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral agents (ARVs) have been the most promising line of therapy in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Some of these ARVs are used in the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to suppress the transmission of HIV. Prophylaxis is primarily used in uninfected people, before exposure, to effectively prevent HIV infection. Several studies have shown that ART PrEP prevents HIV acquisition from sexual, blood and mother-to-child transmissions. However, there are also several challenges and limitations to PrEP. This review focuses on the current antiretroviral therapies used in PrEP.

    KEY FINDINGS: Among ARVs, the most common drugs employed from the class of entry inhibitors are maraviroc (MVC), which is a CCR5 receptor antagonist. Other entry inhibitors like emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) are also used. Rilpivirine (RPV) and dapivirine (DPV) are the most common drugs employed from the Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) class, whereas, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is primarily used in the Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTIs) class. Cabotegravir (CAB) is an analog of dolutegravir, and it is an integrase inhibitor. Some of these drugs are also used in combination with other drugs from the same class.

    SUMMARY: Some of the most common pre-exposure prophylactic strategies employed currently are the use of inhibitors, namely entry inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, integrase and protease inhibitors. In addition, we have also discussed on the adverse effects caused by ART in PrEP, pharmacoeconomics factors and the use of antiretroviral prophylaxis in serodiscordant couples.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
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