Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 53 in total

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  1. Abdulrahman SA, Rampal L, Othman N, Ibrahim F, Hayati KS, Radhakrishnan AP
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2017;11:1273-1284.
    PMID: 28794617 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S141609
    BACKGROUND: Inconsistent literature evidence suggests that sociodemographic, economic, and system- and patient-related factors are associated with clinic attendance among the HIV-positive population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) around the world. We examined the factors that predict outpatient clinic attendance among a cohort of HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed secondary data on outpatient clinic attendance and sociodemographic, economic, psychosocial, and patient-related factors among 242 adult Malaysian patients initiating ART in Selangor, Malaysia. Study cohort was enrolled in a parent randomized controlled trial (RCT) in Hospital Sungai Buloh Malaysia between January and December 2014, during which peer counseling, medication, and clinic appointment reminders were provided to the intervention group through short message service (SMS) and telephone calls for 24 consecutive weeks. Data on outpatient clinic attendance were extracted from the hospital electronic medical records system, while other patient-level data were extracted from pre-validated Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group (AACTG) adherence questionnaires in which primary data were collected. Outpatient clinic attendance was categorized into binary outcome - regular attendee and defaulter categories - based on the number of missed scheduled outpatient clinic appointments within a 6-month period. Multivariate regression models were fitted to examine predictors of outpatient clinic attendance using SPSS version 22 and R software.

    RESULTS: A total of 224 (93%) patients who completed 6-month assessment were included in the model. Out of those, 42 (18.7%) defaulted scheduled clinic attendance at least once. Missed appointments were significantly more prevalent among females (n=10, 37.0%), rural residents (n=10, 38.5%), and bisexual respondents (n=8, 47.1%). Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that Indian ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.235; 95% CI [0.063-0.869]; P=0.030) and heterosexual orientation (AOR =4.199; 95% CI [1.040-16.957]; P=0.044) were significant predictors of outpatient clinic attendance among HIV-positive patients receiving ART in Malaysia.

    CONCLUSION: Ethnicity and sexual orientation of Malaysian patients may play a significant role in their level of adherence to scheduled clinic appointments. These factors should be considered during collaborative adherence strategy planning at ART initiation.

    Study site: Outpatient clinic, Hospital Sungai Buloh Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents*
  2. Jain D, Darrow JJ
    Health Matrix Clevel, 2013;23(2):425-57.
    PMID: 24341078
    Access to affordable drugs for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and other diseases is increasingly challenging in many developing countries such as Brazil, South Africa, and India. These challenges are in part the result of strengthened patent laws mandated by the 1994 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) treaty. However, there are underutilized instruments within TRIPS that governments can use to limit the adverse effects of patent protection and thereby ensure a supply of affordable generic drugs to their people. One such instrument is compulsory licensing, which allows generic manufacturers to produce pharmaceutical products that are currently subject to patent protection. Compulsory licensing has been used by a number of countries in the last few years, including the United States, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil, and Thailand, and is particularly significant for countries such as India, where large numbers of people are infected with HIV. This Article explores the feasibility of compulsory licensing as a tool to facilitate access to essential medicines within the current patent regime in India, drawing on the experiences of other countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/economics; Anti-Retroviral Agents/supply & distribution*
  3. Rajasuriar R, Wright E, Lewin SR
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS, 2015 Jan;10(1):35-42.
    PMID: 25415420 DOI: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000118
    The purpose of this review was to summarize recent studies on the effect of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients on markers of immune activation/inflammation, viral persistence and serious non-AIDS events.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage; Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects*
  4. Vignesh R, Swathirajan CR, Solomon SS, Shankar EM, Murugavel KG
    Indian J Med Microbiol, 2017 Apr-Jun;35(2):279-281.
    PMID: 28681821 DOI: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_16_163
    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) continues to be a complication in HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with developing IRIS to identify a possible biomarker to predict or diagnose IRIS in patients initiating HAART. A total of 175 HIV/TB co-infected patients initiating HAART were followed up longitudinally during September 2010 to May 2013 attending a HIV care clinic in Chennai. Patients were followed up longitudinally after HAART initiation and baseline demographic, laboratory parameters and treatment characteristics between patients with IRIS events and those without IRIS events were compared. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and a Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables were performed using SPSS, version 12.0 software. Patients with IRIS had a significantly lower median baseline CD4+ T-cell count (P = 0.0039). There were no differences in terms of sex, CD4 T-cell %, plasma viral load, time interval between initiating ATT and HAART between the IRIS and non-IRIS patients. Low CD4+ T-cell count (<100 cells/μL) could be used as a marker to screen and monitor patients initiating HAART.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage*; Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects*
  5. Hadi AM, Lee PY, Adibah HI
    PMID: 32843944
    Despite the advancements made in the knowledge and treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) since it was first discovered, people living with HIV (PLWH) continue to be stigmatized. This paper presents the case of an HIV-infected patient who delayed the necessary treatment due to stigma and ultimately presented with AIDS. Through social support, however, he was able to overcome his internalized stigma; he was finally willing to start on antiretroviral treatment (ART). This case report addresses the effect of stigma on and the role of social support in the management of an individual with HIV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents
  6. Koh KC, Ibrahim NM, Ong SCL
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 03;75(2):164-166.
    PMID: 32281599
    We present a rare case of post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) paradoxically worsening of radiological findings in a patient with advanced HIV-infection on treatment for Rhodococcus pneumonia who was misdiagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. Despite clinical improvement, serial chest radiographs showed deteriorations a month after starting ART. This was attributed to Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) which spontaneously resolved without any treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents
  7. Mendelsohn JB, Rhodes T, Spiegel P, Schilperoord M, Burton JW, Balasundaram S, et al.
    Soc Sci Med, 2014 Nov;120:387-95.
    PMID: 25048975 DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.06.010
    HIV-positive refugees confront a variety of challenges in accessing and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and attaining durable viral suppression; however, there is little understanding of what these challenges are, how they are navigated, or how they may differ across humanitarian settings. We sought to document and examine accounts of the threats, barriers and facilitators experienced in relation to HIV treatment and care and to conduct comparisons across settings. We conducted semi-structured interviews among a purposive sample of 14 refugees attending a public, urban HIV clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (July-September 2010), and 12 refugees attending a camp-based HIV clinic in Kakuma, Kenya (February-March 2011). We used framework methods and between-case comparison to analyze and interpret the data, identifying social and environmental factors that influenced adherence. The multiple issues that threatened adherence to antiretroviral therapy or precipitated actual adherence lapses clustered into three themes: "migration", "insecurity", and "resilience". The migration theme included issues related to crossing borders and integrating into treatment systems upon arrival in a host country. Challenges related to crossing borders were reported in both settings, but threats pertaining to integration into, and navigation of, a new health system were exclusive to the Malaysian setting. The insecurity theme included food insecurity, which was most commonly reported in the Kenyan setting; health systems insecurity, reported in both settings; and emotional insecurity, which was most common in the Kenyan setting. Resilient processes were reported in both settings. We drew on the concept of "bounded agency" to argue that, despite evidence of personal and community resilience, these processes were sometimes insufficient for overcoming social and environmental barriers to adherence. In general, interventions might aim to bolster individuals' range of action with targeted support that bolsters resilient processes. Specific interventions are needed to address locally-based food and health system insecurities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  8. Chokephaibulkit K, Kariminia A, Oberdorfer P, Nallusamy R, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2014 Mar;33(3):291-4.
    PMID: 23942457 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182a18223
    More perinatally HIV-infected children in Asia are reaching adolescence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  9. Boettiger DC, Aurpibul L, Hudaya DM, Fong SM, Lumbiganon P, Saphonn V, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2016 May;35(5):e144-51.
    PMID: 26835972 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001074
    BACKGROUND: Information on antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in HIV-infected children with severe malnutrition (SM) is lacking. We investigated long-term ART outcomes in this population.

    METHODS: Children enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database who had SM (weight-for-height or body mass index-for-age Z score less than -3) at ART initiation were analyzed. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate poor weight recovery (weight-for-age Z score less than -3) and poor CD4% recovery (CD4% <25), and competing risk regression was used to analyze mortality and toxicity-associated treatment modification.

    RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-five (11.9%) of 2993 children starting ART had SM. Their median weight-for-age Z score increased from -5.6 at ART initiation to -2.3 after 36 months. Not using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis at baseline was associated with poor weight recovery [odds ratio: 2.49 vs. using; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-3.74; P < 0.001]. Median CD4% increased from 3.0 at ART initiation to 27.2 after 36 months, and 56 (15.3%) children died during follow-up. More profound SM was associated with poor CD4% recovery (odds ratio: 1.78 for Z score less than -4.5 vs. -3.5 to less than -3.0; 95% CI: 1.08-2.92; P = 0.023) and mortality (hazard ratio: 2.57 for Z score less than -4.5 vs. -3.5 to less than -3.0; 95% CI: 1.24-5.33; P = 0.011). Twenty-two toxicity-associated ART modifications occurred at a rate of 2.4 per 100 patient-years, and rates did not differ by malnutrition severity.

    CONCLUSION: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis is important for the recovery of weight-for-age in severely malnourished children starting ART. The extent of SM does not impede weight-for-age recovery or antiretroviral tolerability, but CD4% response is compromised in children with a very low weight-for-height/body mass index-for-age Z score, which may contribute to their high rate of mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects; Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  10. Phanuphak P, Sirivichayakul S, Jiamsakul A, Sungkanuparph S, Kumarasamy N, Lee MP, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2014 May 01;66(1):74-9.
    PMID: 24413039 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000108
    BACKGROUND: We compared treatment outcomes of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in patients on fully or partially sensitive drug regimens.

    METHODS: Factors associated with survival and failure were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards and discrete time conditional logistic models.

    RESULTS: TDR, found in 60 (4.1%) of 1471 Asian treatment-naive patients, was one of the significant predictors of failure. Patients with TDR to >1 drug in their regimen were >3 times as likely to fail compared to no TDR.

    CONCLUSIONS: TDR was associated with failure in the context of non-fully sensitive regimens. Efforts are needed to incorporate resistance testing into national treatment programs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/pharmacology; Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  11. Lam EP, Moore CL, Gotuzzo E, Nwizu C, Kamarulzaman A, Chetchotisakd P, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2016 09;32(9):841-50.
    PMID: 27346600 DOI: 10.1089/AID.2015.0331
    We investigate mutations and correlates according to HIV-1 subtype after virological failure (VF) of standard first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) (non-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NNRTI] +2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [N(t)RTI]). SECOND-LINE study participants were assessed at baseline for HIV-1 subtype, demographics, HIV-1 history, ART exposure, viral load (VL), CD4(+) count, and genotypic ART resistance. We used backward stepwise multivariate regression (MVR) to assess associations between baseline variables and presence of ≥3 N(t)RTI mutations, ≥1 NNRTI mutation, ≥3 thymidine analog-N(t)RTI [ta-N(t)RTI] mutations (TAMs), the K65/K70 mutation, and predicted etravirine (ETV)/rilpivirine (RPV) activity. The inclusion p-value for MVR was p  .05. Of 541 participants, 491 (91%) had successfully characterized baseline viral isolates. Subtype distribution: B (n = 123, 25%), C (n = 202, 41%), CRF01_AE (n = 109, 22%), G (n = 25, 5%), and CRF02_AG (n = 27, 5%). Baseline CD4(+) 200-394 cells/mm(3) were associated with <3 N(t)RTI mutations (OR = 0.47; 95% CI 0.29-0.77; p = .003), absence of the K65/K70 mutation (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.26-0.73; p = .002), and higher ETV sensitivity (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.35-0.78; p = .002). Recent tenofovir (TDF) use was associated with K65/K70 mutations (OR = 8.91; 95% CI 5.00-15.85; p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/pharmacology*; Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  12. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Cain LE, Logan R, Robins JM, Sterne JA, Sabin C, et al.
    Ann. Intern. Med., 2011 Apr 19;154(8):509-15.
    PMID: 21502648 DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-154-8-201104190-00001
    BACKGROUND: Most clinical guidelines recommend that AIDS-free, HIV-infected persons with CD4 cell counts below 0.350 × 10(9) cells/L initiate combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated remains a matter of debate.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated.

    DESIGN: Prospective observational data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and dynamic marginal structural models were used to compare cART initiation strategies for CD4 thresholds between 0.200 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.

    SETTING: HIV clinics in Europe and the Veterans Health Administration system in the United States.

    PATIENTS: 20, 971 HIV-infected, therapy-naive persons with baseline CD4 cell counts at or above 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L and no previous AIDS-defining illnesses, of whom 8392 had a CD4 cell count that decreased into the range of 0.200 to 0.499 × 10(9) cells/L and were included in the analysis.

    MEASUREMENTS: Hazard ratios and survival proportions for all-cause mortality and a combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death.

    RESULTS: Compared with initiating cART at the CD4 cell count threshold of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L, the mortality hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.22) for the 0.350 threshold and 1.20 (CI, 0.97 to 1.48) for the 0.200 threshold. The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.38 (CI, 1.23 to 1.56) and 1.90 (CI, 1.67 to 2.15), respectively, for the combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death.

    LIMITATIONS: CD4 cell count at cART initiation was not randomized. Residual confounding may exist.

    CONCLUSION: Initiation of cART at a threshold CD4 count of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L increases AIDS-free survival. However, mortality did not vary substantially with the use of CD4 thresholds between 0.300 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage*; Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
  13. Wittawatmongkol O, Mohamed TJ, Le TP, Ung V, Maleesatharn A, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Journal of virus eradication, 2015 06 30;1(3):192-195.
    PMID: 27076917
    After a median of 115.9 months of follow-up, 90% of 206 HIV-1-infected children in a cohort in Asia who initiated antiretroviral treatment (ART) with mono or dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were alive and had comparable immunological and virological outcomes as compared to the 1,915 children who had started with highly active antiretroviral regimens. However, these children had higher rates of treatment-related adverse events, opportunistic infections, and cumulative mortality, and were more likely to require protease inhibitor-containing regimens or other more novel ART-based regimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents
  14. Boettiger DC, Muktiarti D, Kurniati N, Truong KH, Saghayam S, Ly PS, et al.
    Clin Infect Dis, 2016 Nov 01;63(9):1236-1244.
    PMID: 27470239
    BACKGROUND:  The growth benefits of cotrimoxazole during early antiretroviral therapy (ART) are not well characterized.

    METHODS:  Individuals enrolled in the Therapeutics Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database were included if they started ART at ages 1 month-14 years and had both height and weight measurements available at ART initiation (baseline). Generalized estimating equations were used to identify factors associated with change in height-for-age z-score (HAZ), follow-up HAZ ≥ -2, change in weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), and follow-up WAZ ≥ -2.

    RESULTS:  A total of 3217 children were eligible for analysis. The adjusted mean change in HAZ among cotrimoxazole and non-cotrimoxazole users did not differ significantly over the first 24 months of ART. In children who were stunted (HAZ < -2) at baseline, cotrimoxazole use was not associated with a follow-up HAZ ≥ -2. The adjusted mean change in WAZ among children with a baseline CD4 percentage (CD4%) >25% became significantly different between cotrimoxazole and non-cotrimoxazole users after 6 months of ART and remained significant after 24 months (overall P < .01). Similar changes in WAZ were observed in those with a baseline CD4% between 10% and 24% (overall P < .01). Cotrimoxazole use was not associated with a significant difference in follow-up WAZ in children with a baseline CD4% <10%. In those underweight (WAZ < -2) at baseline, cotrimoxazole use was associated with a follow-up WAZ ≥ -2 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.70 vs not using cotrimoxazole [95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.25], P < .01). This association was driven by children with a baseline CD4% ≥10%.

    CONCLUSIONS:  Cotrimoxazole use is associated with benefits to WAZ but not HAZ during early ART in Asian children.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents
  15. Bartlett AW, Truong KH, Songtaweesin WN, Chokephaibulkit K, Hansudewechakul R, Ly PS, et al.
    AIDS, 2018 07 31;32(12):1689-1697.
    PMID: 29794827 DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001883
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe characteristics of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVAs), factors associated with mortality, and outcomes at transition.

    DESIGN: Ongoing observational database collating clinical data on HIV-infected children and adolescents in Asia.

    METHODS: Data from 2001 to 2016 relating to adolescents (10-19 years) with perinatal HIV infection were analysed to describe characteristics at adolescent entry and transition and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens across adolescence. A competing risk regression analysis was used to determine characteristics at adolescent entry associated with mortality. Outcomes at transition were compared on the basis of age at cART initiation.

    RESULTS: Of 3448 PHIVA, 644 had reached transition. Median age at HIV diagnosis was 5.5 years, cART initiation 7.2 years and transition 17.9 years. At adolescent entry, 35.0% had CD4+ cell count less than 500 cells/μl and 51.1% had experienced a WHO stage III/IV clinical event. At transition, 38.9% had CD4+ cell count less than 500 copies/ml, and 53.4% had experienced a WHO stage III/IV clinical event. Mortality rate was 0.71 per 100 person-years, with HIV RNA ≥1000 copies/ml, CD4+ cell count less than 500 cells/μl, height-for-age or weight-for-age z-score less than -2, history of a WHO stage III/IV clinical event or hospitalization and at least second cART associated with mortality. For transitioning PHIVA, those who commenced cART age less than 5 years had better virologic and immunologic outcomes, though were more likely to be on at least second cART.

    CONCLUSION: Delayed HIV diagnosis and cART initiation resulted in considerable morbidity and poor immune status by adolescent entry. Durable first-line cART regimens to optimize disease control are key to minimizing mortality. Early cART initiation provides the best virologic and immunologic outcomes at transition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents
  16. Yong YK, Shankar EM, Solomon A, Spelman T, Fairley CK, Elliott JH, et al.
    AIDS, 2016 09 10;30(14):2159-68.
    PMID: 27281059 DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001179
    BACKGROUND: Chronic HIV infection leads to marked depletion of CD4 T cells in the gastrointestinal tract and increased microbial translocation measured by an increase in circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. Here, we hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14, the principal receptors for LPS, were associated with CD4 T-cell recovery postantiretroviral therapy (ART).

    METHODS: Prospective study of predominantly white HIV-infected participants receiving suppressive ART for at least 12 months. We analysed the CD14 SNPs C-260T and the TLR4 SNPs A+896G, C+1196T. We also determined the levels of LPS and soluble CD14 in plasma samples collected pre-ART and post-ART initiation. CD4 T-cell recovery was assessed by linear mixed models.

    RESULTS: Following ART, individuals with a TT genotype compared with a CT or CC genotype for CD14 C-260T SNP showed higher levels of soluble CD14 (P = 0.008 and 0.003, respectively). The CC genotype for the CD14 C-260T SNP, compared with CT or TT, and the TLR4 SNP (AC/GT), compared with the homozygous genotype (AA/CC), were both independently associated with enhanced long-term CD4 T-cell recovery (>3 months; P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  17. Meyer JP, Zelenev A, Wickersham JA, Williams CT, Teixeira PA, Altice FL
    Am J Public Health, 2014 Mar;104(3):434-41.
    PMID: 24432878 DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301553
    We assessed gender differences in longitudinal HIV treatment outcomes among HIV-infected jail detainees transitioning to the community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
  18. Aurpibul L, Bunupuradah T, Sophan S, Boettiger D, Wati DK, Nguyen LV, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2015 Jun;34(6):e153-8.
    PMID: 25970117 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000693
    We determined the prevalence and incidence of liver dysfunction before and after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  19. Leng LK, Pancharoen C, Bunupuradah T, Thisyakorn U, Trinavarat P, Sosothikul D, et al.
    J Med Assoc Thai, 2007 Sep;90(9):1937-42.
    PMID: 17957942
    This report documents a case of infiltrating cervical spinal mass, most likely a spinal tumor, in a girl with HIV infection that regressed following HAART and without treatment of the tumor or any anti-infectives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use*
  20. Sulaiman H, Atiya N, Loi KW, Ng KP
    Eur. J. Intern. Med., 2016 Nov;35:e7-e8.
    PMID: 27498273 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejim.2016.07.014
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects
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