This study was carried out to determine the effects of fermentation on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of noni extract. The analyses carried out included pH value, titratable acidity, total soluble solid (°Brix), total phenolic content (TPC) and free radical scavenging ability (DPPH) involving short (0, 1 and 2 weeks) and long (4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks) period fermentation. For short period fermentation, the results showed that pH value and free radical scavenging ability (DPPH) was significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared with fresh noni extract. The pH value, TPC and scavenging activity of radical DPPH decreased significantly (p<0.05) while titratable acidity increased significantly (p<0.05) for the long period fermentation. The results obtained from this study showed the pH value, titratable acidity, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were significantly different after fermentation except for total soluble solid. Based on the results, fermentation of noni fruit do not give positive effects on noni extract where fermentation obviously leads to reduction of antioxidant activities.
Keywords: Antioxidant; fermentation; Morinda citrifolia L.; physicochemical properties
Diabetes is considered to be one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. There is a growing scientific and public interest in connecting oxidative stress with a variety of pathological conditions including diabetes mellitus (DM) as well as other human diseases. Previous experimental and clinical studies report that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of complications of both types of DM. However, the exact mechanism by which oxidative stress could contribute to and accelerate the development of complications in diabetic mellitus is only partly known and remains to be clarified. On the one hand, hyperglycemia induces free radicals; on the other hand, it impairs the endogenous antioxidant defense system in patients with diabetes. Endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways. Their functions in human cells are to counterbalance toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Common antioxidants include the vitamins A, C, and E, glutathione (GSH), and the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRx). This review describes the importance of endogenous antioxidant defense systems, their relationship to several pathophysiological processes and their possible therapeutic implications in vivo.
Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid were successfully cryopreserved using droplet-vitrification method. Vitrification based cryopreservation protocol is comprised of preculture, osmoprotection, cryoprotection, cooling, rewarming, and growth recovery and each and every step contributes to the achievement of successful cryopreservation. In order to reveal the lethal and nonlethal damage produced by cryopreservation, histological observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and biochemical analysis were carried out in both cryopreserved and noncryopreserved PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid comparing with the control PLBs stock culture. Histological and scanning electron microscopy analyses displayed structural changes in cryopreserved PLBs due to the impact of cryoinjury during exposure to liquid nitrogen. Total soluble protein significantly increased throughout the dehydration process and the highest value was achieved when PLBs were stored in liquid nitrogen. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) showed the highest enzyme activities in both dehydration and cryostorage treatments indicating that stress level of PLBs was high during these stages.
Honey clasps several medicinal and health effects as a natural food supplement. It has been established as a potential therapeutic antioxidant agent for various biodiverse ailments. Data report that it exhibits strong wound healing, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, and antidiabetic effects. It also retains immunomodulatory, estrogenic regulatory, antimutagenic, anticancer, and numerous other vigor effects. Data also show that honey, as a conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant to abate many of the diseases directly or indirectly associated with oxidative stress. In this review, these wholesome effects have been thoroughly reviewed to underscore the mode of action of honey exploring various possible mechanisms. Evidence-based research intends that honey acts through a modulatory road of multiple signaling pathways and molecular targets. This road contemplates through various pathways such as induction of caspases in apoptosis; stimulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IFNGR1, and p53; inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest; inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation, IL-1, IL-10, COX-2, and LOXs; and modulation of other diverse targets. The review highlights the research done as well as the apertures to be investigated. The literature suggests that honey administered alone or as adjuvant therapy might be a potential natural antioxidant medicinal agent warranting further experimental and clinical research.
The mangrove ecosystem of Malaysia remains yet to be fully explored for potential microbes that produce biologically active metabolites. In the present study, a mangrove-derived Streptomyces sp. strain MUSC 14 previously isolated from the state of Pahang, Malaysia Peninsula, was studied for its potential in producing antioxidant metabolites. The identity of Streptomyces sp. strain MUSC14 was consistent with the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the Streptomyces genus. The antioxidant potential of Streptomyces sp. strain MUSC 14 was determined through screening of its methanolic extract against sets of antioxidant assays. The results were indicative of Streptomyces sp. strain MUSC 14 displaying strong antioxidant activity against ABTS, DPPH free radicals and metal chelating activity of 62.71 ± 3.30%, 24.71 ± 2.22%, and 55.82 ± 2.35%, respectively. The result of ferric reducing activity measured in terms of dose was equivalent to 2.35-2.45 μg of positive control ascorbic acid. Furthermore, there was a high correlation between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activities with r = 0.979, r = 0.858, and r = 0.983 representing ABTS, DPPH, and metal chelation, respectively. Overall, the present study suggests that Streptomyces sp. strain MUSC 14 from mangrove forest soil has potential to produce antioxidant metabolites that can be further exploited for therapeutic application.
Anagallis arvensis (L.) is a wild edible food plant that has been used in folklore as a natural remedy for treating common ailments. This study aimed to explore the biochemical properties and toxicity of methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of A. arvensis (aerial and root parts). Bioactive contents were assessed spectrophotometrically, and the secondary metabolites were identified by UHPLC-MS analysis. DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelating assays were employed to assess antioxidant activity. Inhibitory potential against key enzymes (α-glucosidase, urease, lipoxygenase (LOX), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)) were also assessed. MTT assay was employed to test toxicity against SW-480, MDA-MB-231, CaSki, MCF-7, and DU-145 cancer cell lines. Methanolic extracts showed highest phenolic (aerial-MeOH: 27.5 mg GAE/g extract; root-MeOH: 21.17 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoid (aerial-MeOH: 26.15 mg QE/g extract; root-MeOH: 19.07 mg QE/g extract) contents, and potent antioxidant activities. The aerial-MeOH extract was most potent for DPPH (IC50: 231 ug/mL), ABTS (131.12 mg TE/g extract), FRAP (82.97 mg TE/g extract), and CUPRAC (137.15 mg TE/g extract) antioxidant assays. All extracts were cytotoxic towards tested cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 12.57 to 294.5 µg/mL and conferred a comparatively strong inhibition against α-glucosidase (aerial-DCM extract showed the highest inhibition against α-glucosidase with IC50 value of 20.97 µg /mL), while aerial extracts were also considerably active against BChE (aerial-MeOH IC50: 224.63 µg /mL), LOX (aerial-DCM IC50: 385.7 µg /mL). Likewise, aerial-MeOH extract was most active against urease enzyme (IC50: 129.72 µg /mL). UHPLC-MS investigation of methanolic extracts showed the existence of important phenolics, flavonoids, and saponins, including methyl gallte, quercetin, lanceoletin, and balanitesin, amongst others. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) highlighted the correlation amongst bioactive contents and observed biological activities. A. arvensis extracts could be regarded as a natural source of bioactive antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and anticancer agents and can be further investigated as a lead source for food and pharmaceutical products. However, further studies to isolate, purify, and to characterize its bioactive phytochemicals are needed.
A central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction time (X1: 266.4-393.6 min) and temperature (X2: 42.9-57.1°C) of Pleurotus ostreatus aqueous extract with high antioxidant activities, namely DPPH radical-scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation inhibition, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power, as well as total phenolic content (TPC). Results showed that the data were adequately fitted into four second-order polynomial models developed by RSM. The extraction time and temperature were found to have significant quadratic effects on antioxidant activities and TPC. The optimal extraction time and temperature were 282.3 min and 42.9°C (DPPH), 393.6 min and 42.9°C (ABTS), 340.4 min and 49.8°C (FRAP), and 347.6 min, 49.7°C (TPC), with corresponding yields of 53.32%, 73.20%, 37.14 mM Fe2+ equivalents/100 g, and 826.33 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g, respectively. These experimental data were close to their predicted values. The establishment of such a model provides a good experimental basis for employing RSM to optimize the extraction time and temperature for high antioxidant activities from P. ostreatus.
After oil extraction, palm fruit biomass contains abundant water-soluble phytochemicals (PCs) with proven bioactivity in regulating oxidative stress and inflammation (OSI). For optimal bioefficacy following oral consumption, the pharmacokinetic plasma peak (Tmax) should be bio-matched with the onset of OSI, which can be predicted from the Phytochemical Absorption Prediction (PCAP) model and methodology. Predicted absorption and potential for regulation of OSI by measures of total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and hydrogen peroxide production capacity, were applied to characterise eight extracts from mesocarp fibre and kernel shells of oil-depleted palm fruits. Results indicated post-consumption absorption Tmax ranges of 0.5-12 h and 2-6 h for intake in liquid and solid forms, respectively, and generally high antioxidant activity of the extracts. The research supports that PC extracts of palm fruit biomass have broad potential uses for human health as dietary antioxidants in foods, supplements or functional beverages.
Rutin is a common dietary flavonoid that is widely consumed from plant-derived beverages and foods as traditional and folkloric medicine worldwide. Rutin is believed to exhibit significant pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic, anti-adipogenic, neuroprotective and hormone therapy. Till date, over 130 registered therapeutic medicinal preparations are containing rutin in their formulations. This article aims to critically review the extraction methods for plant-based rutin and its pharmacological activities. This review provides comprehensive data on the performance of rutin extraction methods and the extent of its pharmacological activities using various in vitro and in vivo experimental models.
Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/isolation & purification; Antioxidants/pharmacology; Antioxidants/therapeutic use
Astaxanthin colloidal particles were produced using solvent-diffusion technique in the presence of different food grade surface active compounds, namely, Polysorbate 20 (PS20), sodium caseinate (SC), gum Arabic (GA) and the optimum combination of them (OPT). Particle size and surface charge characteristics, rheological behaviour, chemical stability, colour, in vitro cellular uptake, in vitro antioxidant activity and residual solvent concentration of prepared colloidal particles were evaluated. The results indicated that in most cases the mixture of surface active compounds lead to production of colloidal particles with more desirable physicochemical and biological properties, as compared to using them individually. The optimum combination of PS20, SC and GA could produce the astaxanthin colloidal particles with small particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), conductivity and higher zeta potential, mobility, cellular uptake, colour intensity and in vitro antioxidant activity. In addition, all prepared astaxanthin colloidal particles had significantly (p<0.05) higher cellular uptake than pure astaxanthin powder.
Hindered phenols find a wide variety of applications across many different industry sectors. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a most commonly used antioxidant recognized as safe for use in foods containing fats, pharmaceuticals, petroleum products, rubber and oil industries. In the past two decades, there has been growing interest in finding novel antioxidants to meet the requirements of these industries. To accelerate the antioxidant discovery process, researchers have designed and synthesized a series of BHT derivatives targeting to improve its antioxidant properties to be having a wide range of antioxidant activities markedly enhanced radical scavenging ability and other physical properties. Accordingly, some structure-activity relationships and rational design strategies for antioxidants based on BHT structure have been suggested and applied in practice. We have identified 14 very sensitive parameters, which may play a major role on the antioxidant performance of BHT. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current knowledge on this topic, which is of significance in selecting and designing novel antioxidants using a well-known antioxidant BHT as a building-block molecule. Our strategy involved investigation on understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of BHT, whether through hydrogen or electron transfer mechanism to enable promising anti-oxidant candidates to be synthesized.
Honey is a rich source of natural nutrients. Its production is a slow, natural process with the pace of which varies seasonally. However, based on recent reports, we hypothesize that the long-term storage of processed honey, even under the most appropriate storage conditions, results in a deterioration of its quality. To test our hypothesis, we collected Tualang honey samples harvested during the years 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2010 and tested various parameters including physicochemical properties and also performed comparative analyses of antioxidant capacities to assess its medicinal values. Our results indicate that, upon long-term storage, the quality of honey samples deteriorates, as observed in our TH 2008 and TH 2005 year honey samples, which showed unacceptable quality based on the recommended criteria of free acidity (71 .34±1.31 meq/kg), moisture (27.72%), diastase activity (3.38±0.34 Goth scale) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (449.89±3.23 mg/kg) by Codex and European Commission Regulation. A significant (p
Previous studies proved the antioxidant properties of dates. However, studies on date byproducts especially date vinegar are still lacking. Hence, it is the aim of the present study to compare the physicochemical properties, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity between homemade and commercial date vinegar. Physicochemical properties such as total sugar content, pH, and total titratable acidity of homemade and commercial date vinegar were studied. Both homemade and commercial date vinegar showed significant difference in physicochemical properties including pH, sugar content and total titratable acidity (p
Pyroligneous acid (PA) obtained from slow pyrolysis of palm kernel shell (PKS) has high total phenolic contents and exhibits various biological activities including antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal. In this study, PA obtained using slow pyrolysis method and fractionated using column chromatography was characterized (chemical and antioxidative properties) and investigated for its cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition activities using the in vitro and in silico approaches. The F9 PA fraction exhibited highest total phenolic content of 181.75 ± 17.0 μg/mL. Fraction F21-25 showed ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (331.80 ± 4.60 mg TE/g) and IC50 of 18.56 ± 0.01 μg/mL towards COX-2 and 5.25 ± 0.03 μg/mL towards the 5-LOX enzymes, respectively. Molecular docking analysis suggested favourable binding energy for all chemical compounds present in fraction F21-25, notably 1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-2-pentanone, towards both COX-2 (- 6.9 kcal/mol) and 5-LOX (- 6.4 kcal/mol) enzymes. As a conclusion, PA from PKS has the potential to be used as an alternative antioxidant and antiinflammatory agents which is biodegradable and a more sustainable supply of raw materials.
The present study compares water-soluble phenolic content (WPC) and antioxidant activities in Chinese long bean (Vigna unguiculata), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) and broccoli (Brassica olearacea) prior to and after subjecting to boiling, microwaving and pressure cooking. The total antioxidant activity was increased in cooked water convolvulus, broccoli and bitter gourd, estimated based on the ferric reducing antioxidant power, the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Pressure cooking did not cause any significant decline in the antioxidant property. Boiling generally improved the overall antioxidant activity in all the vegetables. Correlation analysis suggests that WPC contributed to significant antioxidant activities in these vegetables. Thus, prudence in selecting an appropriate cooking method for different vegetables may improve or preserve their nutritional value.
Goji berries (Lycium fruits) are usually found in Asia, particularly in northwest regions of China. Traditionally, dried goji berries are cooked before they are consumed. They are commonly used in Chinese soups and as herbal tea. Moreover, goji berries are used for the production of tincture, wine, and juice. Goji berries are high antioxidant potential fruits which alleviate oxidative stress to confer many health protective benefits such as preventing free radicals from damaging DNA, lipids, and proteins. Therefore, the aim of the review was to focus on the bioactive compounds and pharmacological properties of goji berries including their molecular mechanisms of action. The health benefits of goji berries include enhancing hemopoiesis, antiradiation, antiaging, anticancer, improvement of immunity, and antioxidation. There is a better protection through synergistic and additive effects in fruits and herbal products from a complex mixture of phytochemicals when compared to one single phytochemical.
Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%-80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40-70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20-40 mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan.
The Lignosus is a genus of fungi that have useful medicinal properties. In Southeast Asia, three species of Lignosus (locally known collectively as Tiger milk mushrooms) have been reported including L. tigris, L. rhinocerotis, and L. cameronensis. All three have been used as important medicinal mushrooms by the natives of Peninsular Malaysia. In this work, the nutritional composition and antioxidant activities of the wild type and a cultivated strain of L. tigris sclerotial extracts were investigated. The sclerotia are rich in carbohydrates with moderate amount of protein and low fat content. Free radical scavenging activities of L. tigris sclerotial extracts correlate with their phenolic content, which ranges from 6.25 to 45.42 mg GAE/g extract. The FRAP values ranged from 0.002 to 0.041 mmol/min/g extract, while the DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), and superoxide anion (SOA) scavenging activities ranged from 0.18 to 2.53, 0.01 to 0.36, and -4.53 to 10.05 mmol Trolox equivalents/g extract, respectively. L. tigris cultivar shows good prospect to be developed into functional food due to its good nutritional value and potent SOA scavenging activity.
The global prevalence of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer and Alzheimer's disease is on the rise. These diseases, which constitute the major causes of death globally, are associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as an "imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, potentially leading to damage". Individuals with chronic diseases are more susceptible to oxidative stress and damage because they have elevated levels of oxidants and/or reduced antioxidants. This, therefore, necessitates supplementation with antioxidants so as to delay, prevent or remove oxidative damage. Honey is a natural substance with many medicinal effects such as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, reproductive, antihypertensive and antioxidant effects. This review presents findings that indicate honey may ameliorate oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), liver, pancreas, kidney, reproductive organs and plasma/serum. Besides, the review highlights data that demonstrate the synergistic antioxidant effect of honey and antidiabetic drugs in the pancreas, kidney and serum of diabetic rats. These data suggest that honey, administered alone or in combination with conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant in the management of chronic diseases commonly associated with oxidative stress. In view of the fact that the majority of these data emanate from animal studies, there is an urgent need to investigate this antioxidant effect of honey in human subjects with chronic or degenerative diseases.
Aqueous and ethanol extracts of different traditional Malaysian plants (Polygonum minus, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Momordica charantia and Strobilanthes crispus) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties, total phenolic content and cytotoxic activity. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that ethanol extracts contain high antioxidant activities compared to aqueous extracts. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, all the plant extracts showed non-toxic effects against a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (Hs888Lu). Although traditionally aqueous extracts are used, we determined that ethanol extracts usually achieved better activity in the assays.