Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 54 in total

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  1. Taherikalani M, Sekawi Z, Azizi-Jalilian F, Keshavarz B, Soroush S, Akbari M, et al.
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents, 2013 Jul-Sep;27(3):883-9.
    PMID: 24152853
    Antimicrobial susceptibility and ESBLs genes of 42 imipenem resistant A. baumannii carried out by DDST and PCR. The most antimicrobial agents against A. baumannii strains, harboring blaOXA-23-like carbapenemases, were meropenem (33.4 percent), piperacillin-tazobactam (23.9 percent), ceftazidime (14.3 percent) and gatifoxacin (19.1 percent), respectively. All the 42 isolates harbored the blaTEM gene, but the bla SHV and VEB genes were not present among all the isolates. With the exception of seven isolates, all the A. baumannii strains harbor blaTEM showed ESBL positivity in DDST. The result of this study show that resistance against antimicrobial agents, especially carbapenems, has increased and that blaTEM harboring A. baumannii strains can be help the blaOXA-like carbapenemase genes to code for resistance against carbapenem antibiotics.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics*
  2. Ibrahim N, Wajidi MF, Yusof MY, Tay ST
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;28(3):668-71.
    PMID: 22433898 MyJurnal
    The increased frequency of antibiotic resistance is known to be associated with the dissemination of integrons in the Enterobacteriaceae. This study determined the prevalence and type of integrons amongst 160 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacterial isolates kept in our culture collection. Integrons were detected in 98(61.3%) isolates, including 28(62.2%) Escherichia coli, 34(64.2%) Klebsiella spp., 27(61.4%), Enterobacter spp. and 9(50.0%) Citrobacter spp. investigated in this study. Restriction analysis of the integron gene fragments revealed that class I integron was the principal integron detected in 92(57.5%) of our isolates. Class II integron was detected in 6(3.8%) of our isolates, while no class III integron was detected in this study. The high rates of integron prevalence particularly of the class I integron in the E. coli and Klebsiella spp. concur with previous studies in other geographical regions. The higher (≥50%) integron prevalence of Citrobacter and Enterobacter isolates comparing to previous studies suggests the potential of these isolates as sources for dissemination of resistance determinants. The finding in this study serves as a basis for further study on the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of enterobacterial species in this teaching hospital.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics*
  3. Karunakaran R, Tay ST, Rahim FF, Lim BB, Sam IC, Kahar-Bador M, et al.
    Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 2012;65(5):433-5.
    PMID: 22996219
    The prevalence of ceftriaxone resistance and the associated genes encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) was determined in 149 non-duplicate non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated in 2008-2009 from patients in a tertiary care hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The resistance rate to ceftriaxone was 2.7% (2/74) in 2008, 4.0% (3/75) in 2009, and 3.4% (5/149) overall. CTX-M ESBL genes were detected in 2 of the 5 ceftriaxone-resistant isolates. The prevalence of ceftriaxone resistance, although low, is a concern because it limits therapeutic options. Continued surveillance of ceftriaxone resistance is important to monitor its trends.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics*
  4. Hwa WE, Subramaniam G, Navaratnam P, Sekaran SD
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2009 Feb;42(1):54-62.
    PMID: 19424559
    To detect and characterize class 1 integrons among carbapenem-resistant strains of Acinetobacter spp. at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics*
  5. Mohd Khari FI, Karunakaran R, Rosli R, Tee Tay S
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0150643.
    PMID: 26963619 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150643
    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of chromosomal and plasmid-mediated β-lactamases (AmpC) genes in a collection of Malaysian isolates of Enterobacter species. Several phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC production of Enterobacter spp. were evaluated and the agreements between tests were determined.

    METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for 117 Enterobacter clinical isolates obtained from the Medical Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratory, University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, from November 2012-February 2014 were determined in accordance to CLSI guidelines. AmpC genes were detected using a multiplex PCR assay targeting the MIR/ACT gene (closely related to chromosomal EBC family gene) and other plasmid-mediated genes, including DHA, MOX, CMY, ACC, and FOX. The AmpC β-lactamase production of the isolates was assessed using cefoxitin disk screening test, D69C AmpC detection set, cefoxitin-cloxacillin double disk synergy test (CC-DDS) and AmpC induction test.

    RESULTS: Among the Enterobacter isolates in this study, 39.3% were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone and 23.9% were resistant to ceftazidime. Ten (8.5%) of the isolates were resistant to cefepime, and one isolate was resistant to meropenem. Chromosomal EBC family gene was amplified from 36 (47.4%) E. cloacae and three (25%) E. asburiae. A novel blaDHA type plasmid-mediated AmpC gene was identified for the first time from an E. cloacae isolate. AmpC β-lactamase production was detected in 99 (89.2%) of 111 potential AmpC β-lactamase producers (positive in cefoxitin disk screening) using D69C AmpC detection set. The detection rates were lower with CC-DDS (80.2%) and AmpC induction tests (50.5%). There was low agreement between the D69C AmpC detection set and the other two phenotypic tests. Of the 40 isolates with AmpC genes detected in this study, 87.5%, 77.5% and 50.0% of these isolates were positive by the D69C AmpC detection set, CC-DDS and AmpC induction tests, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Besides MIR/ACT gene, a novel plasmid-mediated AmpC gene belonging to the DHA-type was identified in this study. Low agreement was noted between the D69C AmpC detection set and two other phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC production in Enterobacter spp. As plasmid-mediated genes may serve as the reservoir for the emergence of antibiotic resistance in a clinical setting, surveillance and infection control measures are necessary to limit the spread of these genes in the hospital.

    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics*
  6. Hasan MJ, Shamsuzzaman SM
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Dec;39(3):277-283.
    PMID: 29279590
    BACKGROUND: The adeB gene in Acinetobacter baumannii regulates the bacterial internal drug efflux pump that plays a significant role in drug resistance. The aim of our study was to determine the occurrence of adeB gene in multidrug resistant and New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM- 1) gene in imipenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from wound swab samples in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh.

    METHODS: A total of 345 wound swab samples were tested for bacterial pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii was identified by culture and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined by the disc diffusion method according to CLSI standards. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases were screened using the double disc synergy technique. Gene encoding AdeB efflux pump and NDM-1 were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

    RESULTS: A total 22 (6.37%) Acinetobacter baumannii were identified from 345 wound swab samples and 20 (91%) of them were multidrug resistant. High resistance rates to some antibiotics were seen namely, cefotaxime (95%), amoxyclavulanic acid (90%) and ceftriaxone (82%). All the identified Acinetobacter baumannii were sensitive to colistin and 82% to imipenem. Two (9%) ESBL producing Acinetobacter baumannii strains were detected. adeB gene was detected in 16 (80%) out of 20 multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. 4 (18%) of 22 Acinetobacter baumannii were imipenem resistant. NDM-1 gene was detected in 2 (50%) of the imipenem resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide insight into the role of adeB gene as a potential regulator of drug resistance in Acinetobacter baumanni in Bangladesh. NDM-1 gene also contributes in developing such resistance for Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics*
  7. Khosravi Y, Loke MF, Chua EG, Tay ST, Vadivelu J
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:654939.
    PMID: 22792048 DOI: 10.1100/2012/654939
    Carbapenems are the primary choice of treatment for severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. However, the emergence of carbapenem resistance due to the production of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) is of global concern. In this study, 90 imipenem- (IPM- or IP-) resistant P. aeruginosa (IRPA) isolates, including 32 previously tested positive and genotyped for MBL genes by PCR, were subjected to double-disk synergy test (DDST), combined disk test (CDT), and imipenem/imipenem-inhibitor (IP/IPI) E-test to evaluate their MBLs detection capability. All three methods were shown to have a sensitivity of 100%. However, DDST was the most specific of the three (96.6%), followed by IP/IPI E-test interpreted based on the single criteria of IP/IPI ≥8 as positive (62.1%), and CDT was the least specific (43.1%). Based on the data from this evaluation, we propose that only IRPA with IP MIC >16 μg/mL and IP/IPI ≥8 by IP/IPI E-test should be taken as positive for MBL activity. With the new dual interpretation criteria, the MBL IP/IPI E-test was shown to achieve 100% sensitivity as well as specificity for the IRPA in this study. Therefore, the IP/IPI E-test is a viable alternative phenotypic assay to detect MBL production in IRPA in our population in circumstances where PCR detection is not a feasible option.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics*
  8. Hashim RB, Husin S, Rahman MM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2011 Jan 01;14(1):41-6.
    PMID: 21913496
    The present study was aimed to identify the gene of drug resistance betalactamase producing bacteria and clinical features of the infected patients at Hospital University Kebangsaan Malaysia. Blood samples from the patients were collected, processed and betalactamase producing drug resistance bacteria were identified by antibiotic sensitivity testing. Genes of the drug resistance bacteria were detected and characterized by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 34 isolates of drug resistance Betalactamase producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were isolated from 2,502 patients. Most common drug resistance gene TEM was found in 50% of the isolates. 11% was found positive for both TEM and SHV. Next 11% of the isolates expressed only SHV genes. Clinical features of the patients were recorded from where the bacteria isolated. Regarding community affiliations 70.5% of the infected patients were Malay 17.6% were Indian and 11.7% were Chinese. Majority of the patients has an underlying pre-morbid condition as reflected by their diagnosis. Better infection control and hygiene in hospitals, plus controlled and prudent use of antibiotics, is required to minimize the impact of drug resistance betalactamase producing bacteria and the spread of infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics
  9. Ho SE, Subramaniam G, Palasubramaniam S, Navaratnam P
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2002 Oct;46(10):3286-7.
    PMID: 12234862
    We have isolated and identified a carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain from Malaysia that produces an IMP-7 metallo-beta-lactamase. This isolate showed high-level resistance to meropenem and imipenem, the MICs of which were 256 and 128 micro g/ml, respectively. Isoelectric focusing analyses revealed pI values of >9.0, 8.2, and 7.8, which indicated the possible presence of IMP and OXA. DNA sequencing confirmed the identity of the IMP-7 determinant.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics
  10. Hancock SJ, Phan MD, Peters KM, Forde BM, Chong TM, Yin WF, et al.
    PMID: 27872077 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01740-16
    Plasmids of incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C) are becoming increasingly prevalent within pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae They are associated with the dissemination of multiple clinically relevant resistance genes, including blaCMY and blaNDM Current typing methods for IncA/C plasmids offer limited resolution. In this study, we present the complete sequence of a blaNDM-1-positive IncA/C plasmid, pMS6198A, isolated from a multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Hypersaturated transposon mutagenesis, coupled with transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), was employed to identify conserved genetic elements required for replication and maintenance of pMS6198A. Our analysis of TraDIS data identified roles for the replicon, including repA, a toxin-antitoxin system; two putative partitioning genes, parAB; and a putative gene, 053 Construction of mini-IncA/C plasmids and examination of their stability within E. coli confirmed that the region encompassing 053 contributes to the stable maintenance of IncA/C plasmids. Subsequently, the four major maintenance genes (repA, parAB, and 053) were used to construct a new plasmid multilocus sequence typing (PMLST) scheme for IncA/C plasmids. Application of this scheme to a database of 82 IncA/C plasmids identified 11 unique sequence types (STs), with two dominant STs. The majority of blaNDM-positive plasmids examined (15/17; 88%) fall into ST1, suggesting acquisition and subsequent expansion of this blaNDM-containing plasmid lineage. The IncA/C PMLST scheme represents a standardized tool to identify, track, and analyze the dissemination of important IncA/C plasmid lineages, particularly in the context of epidemiological studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics
  11. Kim SY, Ko KS
    Microb Drug Resist, 2019 Mar;25(2):227-232.
    PMID: 30212274 DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2018.0020
    To reveal whether an increase of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 isolates is due to clonal dissemination across the countries, plasmids (pHK02-026, pM16-13, pIN03-01, and pTH02-34) were extracted from four K. pneumoniae isolates collected in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia, respectively. Complete sequencing of blaCTX-M-15-carrying plasmids was performed. In addition to the four plasmids, a previously sequenced plasmid (pKP12226) of a K. pneumoniae ST11 isolate from Korea was included in the analysis. While pIN03-01 and pTH02-34, which belonged to the incompatibility group IncX3, showed nearly the same structure, the others of IncF1A or IncFII exhibited very different structures. The number and kinds of antibiotic genes found in the plasmids were also different from each other. Cryptic prophage genes were identified in all five blaCTX-M-15-harboring plasmids from the ST11 isolates; P1-like region in pKP12226, CPZ-55 prophage region in pHK02-026, phage shock operon pspFABCD in pM16-13, and SPBc2 prophage yokD in pIN03-01 and pTH02-34. The plasmids with blaCTX-M-15 in the prevailing K. pneumoniae ST11 isolates in Asian countries might emerge from diverse origins by recombination. The prevalence of CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae ST11 clone in Asian countries is not mainly due to the dissemination of a single strain.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics*
  12. Ko WC, Stone GG
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob, 2020 Apr 01;19(1):14.
    PMID: 32238155 DOI: 10.1186/s12941-020-00355-1
    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance among nosocomial Gram-negative pathogens is a cause for concern in the Asia-Pacific region. The aims of this study were to measure the rates of resistance among clinical isolates collected in Asia-Pacific countries, and to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators against these isolates.

    METHODS: CLSI broth microdilution methodology was used to determine antimicrobial activity and EUCAST breakpoints version 9.0 were used to determine rates of susceptibility and resistance. Isolates were also screened for the genes encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or carbapenemases (including metallo-β-lactamases [MBLs]).

    RESULTS: Between 2015 and 2017, this study collected a total of 7051 Enterobacterales isolates and 2032 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitalized patients in Australia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand. In the Asia-Pacific region, Enterobacterales isolates that were ESBL-positive, carbapenemase-negative (17.9%) were more frequently identified than isolates that were carbapenemase-positive, MBL-negative (0.7%) or carbapenemase-positive, MBL-positive (1.7%). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of P. aeruginosa were more commonly identified (23.4%) than isolates that were ESBL-positive, carbapenemase-negative (0.4%), or carbapenemase-positive, MBL-negative (0.3%), or carbapenemase-positive, MBL-positive (3.7%). More than 90% of all Enterobacterales isolates, including the ESBL-positive, carbapenemase-negative subset and the carbapenemase-positive, MBL-negative subset, were susceptible to amikacin and ceftazidime-avibactam. Among the carbapenemase-positive, MBL-positive subset of Enterobacterales, susceptibility to the majority of agents was reduced, with the exception of colistin (93.4%). Tigecycline was active against all resistant subsets of the Enterobacterales (MIC90, 1-4 mg/L) and among Escherichia coli isolates, > 90% from each resistant subset were susceptible to tigecycline. More than 99% of all P. aeruginosa isolates, including MDR isolates and the carbapenemase-positive, MBL-positive subset, were susceptible to colistin.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this study, amikacin, ceftazidime-avibactam, colistin and tigecycline appear to be potential treatment options for infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics
  13. Jiménez-Castellanos JC, Wan Nur Ismah WAK, Takebayashi Y, Findlay J, Schneiders T, Heesom KJ, et al.
    J Antimicrob Chemother, 2018 Jan 01;73(1):88-94.
    PMID: 29029194 DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkx345
    Objectives: In Klebsiella pneumoniae, overproduction of RamA results in reduced envelope permeability and reduced antimicrobial susceptibility but clinically relevant resistance is rarely observed. Here we have tested whether RamA overproduction can enhance acquired β-lactam resistance mechanisms in K. pneumoniae and have defined the envelope protein abundance changes upon RamA overproduction during growth in low and high osmolarity media.

    Methods: Envelope permeability was estimated using a fluorescent dye accumulation assay. β-Lactam susceptibility was measured using disc testing. Total envelope protein production was quantified using LC-MS/MS proteomics and transcript levels were quantified using real-time RT-PCR.

    Results: RamA overproduction enhanced β-lactamase-mediated β-lactam resistance, in some cases dramatically, without altering β-lactamase production. It increased production of efflux pumps and decreased OmpK35 porin production, though micF overexpression showed that OmpK35 reduction has little impact on envelope permeability. A survey of K. pneumoniae bloodstream isolates revealed ramA hyperexpression in 3 of 4 carbapenemase producers, 1 of 21 CTX-M producers and 2 of 19 strains not carrying CTX-M or carbapenemases.

    Conclusions: Whilst RamA is not a key mediator of antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae on its own, it is potentially important for enhancing the spectrum of acquired β-lactamase-mediated β-lactam resistance. LC-MS/MS proteomics analysis has revealed that this enhancement is achieved predominantly through activation of efflux pump production.

    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics
  14. Hamzan NI, Yean CY, Rahman RA, Hasan H, Rahman ZA
    Emerg Health Threats J, 2015;8:26011.
    PMID: 25765342 DOI: 10.3402/ehtj.v8.26011
    Background : Antibiotic resistance among Enterobacteriaceae posts a great challenge to the health care service. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is attracting significant attention due to its rapid and global dissemination. The infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus creating challenges for infection control and managing teams to curb the infection. In Southeast Asia, there have been limited reports and subsequent research regarding CRKP infections. Thus, the study was conducted to characterize CRKP that has been isolated in our setting. Methods : A total of 321 K. pneumoniae were included in the study. Each isolate went through an identification process using an automated identification system. Phenotypic characterization was determined using disk diffusion, modified Hodge test, Epsilometer test, and inhibitor combined disk test. Further detection of carbapenemase genes was carried out using polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by gene sequence analysis. Results : All together, 13 isolates (4.05%) were CRKP and the majority of them were resistant to tested antibiotics except colistin and tigercycline. Among seven different carbapenemase genes studied (blaKPC, bla IMP, bla SME, bla NDM, bla IMI, bla VIM, and bla OXA), only two, bla IMP4 (1.87%) and bla NDM1 (2.18%), were detected in our setting. Conclusion : Evidence suggests that the prevalence of CRKP in our setting is low, and knowledge of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and CRKP has improved and become available among clinicians.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics
  15. Ghafourian S, Sadeghifard N, Soheili S, Sekawi Z
    Curr Issues Mol Biol, 2015;17:11-21.
    PMID: 24821872
    Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are defined as enzymes produced by certain bacteria that are able to hydrolyze extended spectrum cephalosporin. They are therefore effective against beta-lactam antibiotics such as ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and oxyimino-monobactam. The objective of the current review is to provide a better understanding of ESBL and the epidemiology of ESBL producing organisms which are among those responsible for antibiotic resistant strains. Globally, ESBLs are considered to be problematic, particularly in hospitalized patients. There is an increasing frequency of ESBL in different parts of the world. The high risk patients are those contaminated with ESBL producer strains as it renders treatment to be ineffective in these patients. Thus, there an immediate needs to identify EBSL and formulate strategic policy initiatives to reduce their prevalence.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics*
  16. Kim DH, Choi JY, Kim HW, Kim SH, Chung DR, Peck KR, et al.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2013 Nov;57(11):5239-46.
    PMID: 23939892 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00633-13
    In this surveillance study, we identified the genotypes, carbapenem resistance determinants, and structural variations of AbaR-type resistance islands among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates from nine Asian locales. Clonal complex 92 (CC92), corresponding to global clone 2 (GC2), was the most prevalent in most Asian locales (83/108 isolates; 76.9%). CC108, or GC1, was a predominant clone in India. OXA-23 oxacillinase was detected in CRAB isolates from most Asian locales except Taiwan. blaOXA-24 was found in CRAB isolates from Taiwan. AbaR4-type resistance islands, which were divided into six subtypes, were identified in most CRAB isolates investigated. Five isolates from India, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong contained AbaR3-type resistance islands. Of these, three isolates harbored both AbaR3- and AbaR4-type resistance islands simultaneously. In this study, GC2 was revealed as a prevalent clone in most Asian locales, with the AbaR4-type resistance island predominant, with diverse variants. The significance of this study lies in identifying the spread of global clones of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Lactamases/genetics
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