Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 125 in total

  1. HanafI S, Abdullah WZ, Adnan RA, Bahar R, Johan MF, Azman NF, et al.
    HbE/β-thalassemia is the most common severe form of thalassemia particularly in SEA region including Malaysia and globally, it comprised of a significant severe form of β-thalassemia disorder. It has various clinical manifestations ranging from very mild anemia to severe manifestation similar to beta thalassemia major. Many different syndromes are observed in HbE/β-thalassemia. Several genetic modifiers have been reported to play important role in contributing to phenotypic variability. The true reasons underlying this phenotypic variability remain unknown. The most reliable predictive factor of the disease phenotype is the nature of the beta globin gene mutation itself. However, the degree of severity is also believed to be affected by other genetic modifiers. For instance, high HbF level ameliorates the clinical severity of β thalassemia patients. Therefore, identification of these genetic modifiers is very important. The association of severe clinical manifestation and the specific β-globin gene mutation has been known. But the wide scope and other potential predictors have been only recently appreciated. This review therefore aimed to reveal the potential genetic modifiers of HbE/βthalassemia patients based on the previous reported studies. A better understanding on the mechanisms underlying the variety of phenotypes of this disease may lead to the direction for a better future management plans. This also promotes “personalized medicine” in patient care.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia*
  2. Setianingsih I
    J Hum Genet, 2014 Apr;59(4):173.
    PMID: 24500683 DOI: 10.1038/jhg.2013.142
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*; beta-Thalassemia/therapy*
  3. George E, Ann TJ
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Dec;65(4):256-60.
    PMID: 21901940 MyJurnal
    The haemoglobinopathies and thalassemias represent the most common inherited monogenic disorders in the world. Beta-thalassaemia major is an ongoing public health problem in Malaysia. Prior to 2004, the country had no national policy for screening and registry for thalassemia. In the absence of a national audit, the true figure of the extent of thalassemia in the Malaysian population was largely presumptive from micro-mapping studies from various research workers in the country. The estimated carrier rate for beta-thalassemia in Malaysia is 3.5-4%. There were 4768 transfusion dependent thalassemia major patients as of May 2010 (Data from National Thalassemia Registry).
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics; beta-Thalassemia/therapy*
  4. George E
    Med J Malaysia, 2001 Dec;56(4):397-400.
    PMID: 12014756
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*; beta-Thalassemia/epidemiology*; beta-Thalassemia/therapy
  5. VELLA F
    Med J Malaya, 1959 Dec;14:116-21.
    PMID: 13841623
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/etiology*
  6. Shazia Q, Mohammad ZH, Rahman T, Shekhar HU
    Anemia, 2012;2012:270923.
    PMID: 22645668 DOI: 10.1155/2012/270923
    Beta thalassemia major is an inherited disease resulting from reduction or total lack of beta globin chains. Patients with this disease need repeated blood transfusion for survival. This may cause oxidative stress and tissue injury due to iron overload, altered antioxidant enzymes, and other essential trace element levels. The aim of this review is to scrutinize the relationship between oxidative stress and serum trace elements, degree of damage caused by oxidative stress, and the role of antioxidant enzymes in beta thalassemia major patients. The findings indicate that oxidative stress in patients with beta thalassemia major is mainly caused by tissue injury due to over production of free radical by secondary iron overload, alteration in serum trace elements and antioxidant enzymes level. The role of trace elements like selenium, copper, iron, and zinc in beta thalassemia major patients reveals a significant change of these trace elements. Studies published on the status of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase in beta thalassemia patients also showed variable results. The administration of selective antioxidants along with essential trace elements and minerals to reduce the extent of oxidative damage and related complications in beta thalassemia major still need further evaluation.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia*
  7. Teh LK, George E, Lai MI, Tan JA, Wong L, Ismail P
    J Hum Genet, 2014 Mar;59(3):119-23.
    PMID: 24369358 DOI: 10.1038/jhg.2013.131
    Beta-thalassemia is one of the most prevalent inherited diseases and a public health problem in Malaysia. Malaysia is geographically divided into West and East Malaysia. In Sabah, a state in East Malaysia, there are over 1000 estimated cases of β-thalassemia major patients. Accurate population frequency data of the molecular basis of β-thalassemia major are needed for planning its control in the high-risk population of Sabah. Characterization of β-globin gene defects was done in 252 transfusion dependent β-thalassemia patients incorporating few PCR techniques. The study demonstrates that β-thalassemia mutations inherited are ethnically dependent. It is important to note that 86.9% of transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major patients in Sabah were of the indigenous population and homozygous for a single mutation. The Filipino β(0)-deletion was a unique mutation found in the indigenous population of Sabah. Mutations common in West Malaysia were found in 11 (4.3%) patients. Four rare mutations (Hb Monroe, CD 8/9, CD 123/124/125 and IVS I-2) were also found. This study is informative on the population genetics of β-thalassemia major in Sabah.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*; beta-Thalassemia/therapy*
  8. Harano K, Harano T
    Rinsho Byori, 2013 Mar;61(3):217-23.
    PMID: 23785790
    This study was done to detect and diagnose beta-thalassemia (beta-Thal) gene quickly. We applied sequence specific Amplification (SSA) method to the analysis. 13 kinds of beta-Thal and two kinds of hemoglobin variants were able to detect under the same PCR condition. These mutations were found frequently in ten countries of Asian region (the southern part of China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Pakistan, India), and 15 kinds in total (-28CapA-->G, CD5-CT, CD8/9+-G, CD15G-->A, CD17A-->T, IVSI-1G-->T, CD41/42-4del, CD16-C, CD26G-->A(betaE), IVSI-5G-->C, CD35C-->A, CD71/72 +A, CD6A-->T (betaS), -619del, IVSII-654C-->T). More than 80% of patients are included in these mutations. To make the reagents a kit, the procedure became simple and rapid. DNA was extracted by salting out method. The PCR product was detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. The confirmation of the variant was done by the PCR-direct sequencing method. It took approximately six hours for PCR reaction, electrophoresis and staining. This method made us to detect and diagnose beta-Thal in one day.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis*; beta-Thalassemia/genetics
  9. Ismail JB
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Jun;47(2):98-102.
    PMID: 1494340
    One thousand consecutive Brunei Darussalam patients referred with low Hb, and/or low MCV and MCH (Hb < 12.5g/dl, MCV < 76fl, MCH < 27pg) were studied in the laboratory for underlying haemoglobinopathies. 30.0% of such patients were proved to have either beta-thalassaemia trait, beta-thalassaemia major, Hb AE, Hb EE, Hb E beta-thalassaemia or Hb H disease. In some, the haemoglobin abnormality was not identified precisely. Alpha-thalassaemia was suspected in an additional 4.3% of cases but confirmation study by globin-chain synthesis was not available. Beta-thalassaemia trait which was the predominant disorder was equally distributed among the three major race groups of Brunei Darussalam. Hb E was found exclusive among the Malay population. Hb H disease appeared as more common among the Chinese or the Malays (p > 0.05). This study reveals that thalassaemia and haemoglobinopathies are prevalent in Brunei Darussalam.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics; beta-Thalassemia/epidemiology
  10. Mahmud N, Maffei M, Mogni M, Forni GL, Pinto VM, Barberio G, et al.
    Genes (Basel), 2021 11 19;12(11).
    PMID: 34828427 DOI: 10.3390/genes12111821
    BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin A (Hb A) (α2β2) in the normal adult subject constitutes 96-98% of hemoglobin, and Hb F is normally less than 1%, while for hemoglobin A2 (Hb A2) (α2δ2), the normal reference values are between 2.0 and 3.3%. It is important to evaluate the presence of possible delta gene mutations in a population at high risk for globin gene defects in order to correctly diagnose the β-thalassemia carrier.

    METHODS: The most used methods for the quantification of Hb A2 are based on automated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). In particular Hb analyses were performed by HPLC on three dedicated devices. DNA analyses were performed according to local standard protocols.

    RESULTS: Here, we described eight new δ-globin gene variants discovered and characterized in some laboratories in Northern Italy in recent years. These new variants were added to the many already known Hb A2 variants that were found with an estimated frequency of about 1-2% during the screening tests in our laboratories.

    CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge recognition of the delta variant on Hb analysis and accurate molecular characterization is crucial to provide an accurate definitive thalassemia diagnosis, particularly in young subjects who would like to ask for a prenatal diagnosis or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis; beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  11. Thong MK, Soo TL
    Singapore Med J, 2005 Jul;46(7):340-3.
    PMID: 15968446
    Beta-thalassaemia major is one of the commonest genetic disorders in South East Asia. The strategy for the community control of beta-thalassaemia major requires the characterisation of the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in any multi-ethnic population. There is only a single report of mutation analyses of the beta-globin gene in an isolated Kadazandusun community in Kota Belud, Sabah, Malaysia, which showed the presence of a common 45 kb deletion.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/ethnology*; beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  12. Rozitah R, Nizam MZ, Nur Shafawati AR, Nor Atifah MA, Dewi M, Kannan TP, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2008 Dec;49(12):1046-9.
    PMID: 19122960
    Beta-thalassaemia major is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in severe microcytic, hypochromic, haemolytic anaemia among affected patients. Beta-thalassaemia has emerged as one of the most common public health problems in Malaysia, particularly among Malaysian Chinese and Malays. This study aimed to observe the spectrum of mutations found in Kelantan Malay beta-thalassaemia major patients who attended the Paediatrics Daycare Unit, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia, the data of which was being used in establishing the prenatal diagnosis in this Human Genome Centre.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/ethnology; beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  13. Hafiza A, Malisa MY, Khirotdin RD, Azlin I, Azma Z, Thong MC, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2012 Dec;34(2):161-4.
    PMID: 23424780
    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a new system that utilizes the principle of electrokinetic separation of molecules in eight electrolyte buffer-filled silica capillaries. In this study, we established the normal ranges of haemoglobin A2 (HbA2) and haemoglobin F (HbF) levels for normal individuals using this system and also the HbA2 level in beta thalassaemia and haemoglobin E (HbE) individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/blood*; beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis; beta-Thalassemia/genetics
  14. Thong MK, Tan JA, Tan KL, Yap SF
    J Trop Pediatr, 2005 Dec;51(6):328-33.
    PMID: 15967770 DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmi052
    beta-thalassaemia major, an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy, is one of the most common single gene disorders in multi-racial Malaysia. The control of beta-thalassaemia major requires a multi-disciplinary approach that includes population screening, genetic counselling, prenatal diagnosis and the option of termination of affected pregnancies. To achieve this objective, the molecular characterisation of the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in each of the affected ethnic groups is required. We studied 88 consecutive unrelated individuals and their respective families with beta-thalassaemia (74 beta-thalassaemia major, 12 HbE-beta-thalassaemia, 2 with HbE homozygotes) and four individuals with beta-thalassaemia trait that contributed a total 180 alleles for study. Using a 2-step molecular diagnostic strategy consisting of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) to identify the 8 most common mutations followed by other DNA-based diagnostic techniques, a total of 177 (98.3 per cent) of the 180 beta-thalassaemia alleles were characterised. One out of 91 (1 per cent) of the Chinese alleles, one out of 46 (2.2 per cent) Malay alleles and one out of two Indian alleles remained unknown. A 100 per cent success rate was achieved in studying the Kadazandusun community in this study. A strategy to identify beta-globin gene mutations in Malaysians with beta-thalassaemia is proposed based on this outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis; beta-Thalassemia/ethnology; beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
  15. Tan JA, Tay SH, Kham KY, Wong HB
    Jpn. J. Hum. Genet., 1993 Sep;38(3):315-8.
    PMID: 7903173 DOI: 10.1007/BF01874141
    The distribution of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) at the BamH1 site of the beta-globin gene was investigated in the Chinese, Indian, and Malay race in Singapore. The sample comprised of 183 normal individuals and 35 beta-thalassemia carriers in which 13 were couples with at least one beta-major child. The results from this study indicate that BamH1 polymorphism will be informative in 22% of pregnancies at risk for beta-thalassemia major in Chinese, 19% in Malays and 7% in Indians. In prenatal diagnosis using BamH1 polymorphism for one beta-major affected family, the fetus was diagnosed to be normal or beta-carrier. The validity of BamH1 polymorphism in the exclusion of beta-thalassemia major was subsequently confirmed at birth by globin chain biosynthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis*; beta-Thalassemia/ethnology; beta-Thalassemia/genetics
  16. Tan JA, Chin PS, Wong YC, Tan KL, Chan LL, George E
    Pathology, 2006 Oct;38(5):437-41.
    PMID: 17008283
    In Malaysia, about 4.5% of the Malay and Chinese populations are heterozygous carriers of beta-thalassaemia. The initial identification of rare beta-globin gene mutations by genomic sequencing will allow the development of simpler and cost-effective PCR-based techniques to complement the existing amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and gap-PCR used for the identification of beta-thalassaemia mutations.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/ethnology*; beta-Thalassemia/genetics*; beta-Thalassemia/pathology
  17. Nandakumal G, Ismail F, Mohamad NF, Lott PW, Chew KS, Ab Rahman S, et al.
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 2021 04 01;43(3):101-103.
    PMID: 33560075 DOI: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000002077
    Hemolacria is a rare condition that causes a person to produce tears that are partially composed of blood. It can be a presenting feature of certain ocular and systemic conditions. Here, the authors describe an interesting case of a 12-year-old boy with an underlying beta-thalassemia trait, who presented with a 2-day history of bilateral blood-stained tears, and an episode of epistaxis. Ocular examination was normal, and syringing showed no nasolacrimal duct blockage. Systemic examination was unremarkable. Laboratory investigations confirmed type 2 von Willebrand disease. Management of hemolacria remains a clinical challenge given the rare occurrence of the disease. In this case report, the authors discuss the differential diagnosis and management approach to hemolacria.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/blood; beta-Thalassemia/complications; beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis
  18. George E, Wong HB, George R, Ariffin WA
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Feb;35(1):62-4.
    PMID: 8009283
    Patients on a moderate red cell transfusion programme have iron overload where the concentrations of the serum ferritin were inappropriate to increases in the transfusion load as a result of limitations of apoferritin synthesis and conversion of ferritin into haemosiderin. This study confirms the limitations for the use of estimations of the serum ferritin to evaluate the iron status in patients with expected high overload as would be seen in patients on many years of maintenance red cell transfusions in the absence of iron chelation therapy. Poor compliance, inadequate dosage of Desferal (deferoxamine), and the late initiation of iron chelation therapy were factors that were considered in the patients with failure of response to iron chelation.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/blood*; beta-Thalassemia/genetics; beta-Thalassemia/surgery
  19. George E, Wong HB
    Singapore Med J, 1993 Dec;34(6):500-3.
    PMID: 8153710
    Patients with the Hb beta + [IVS 1-5 (G-->C)] clinically presented as beta-thalassaemia intermedia and remained asymptomatic in the absence of blood transfusions. With or without blood transfusions the patients were short and had moderate to marked thalassaemia facies. Children who received blood transfusions showed progressive iron loading with age. The serum ferritin and serum alanine transaminase levels were significantly raised in the patients who were given blood transfusions. In the presence of blood transfusions, and absence of adequate iron chelation therapy, splenectomy became an inevitable event at some stage of the disease because of increasing transfusing requirements.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/blood; beta-Thalassemia/drug therapy; beta-Thalassemia/genetics*; beta-Thalassemia/surgery; beta-Thalassemia/therapy*
  20. Sivalingam M, Looi ML, Zakaria SZ, Hamidah NH, Alias H, Latiff ZA, et al.
    Int J Lab Hematol, 2012 Aug;34(4):377-82.
    PMID: 22335963 DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-553X.2012.01405.x
    INTRODUCTION: To study the ß-gene mutations spectrum, the genotype/phenotype correlation, the modulatory effect of co-inherited factors such as α-gene mutations and of Xmn1 polymorphism in a large cohort of Malaysian patients.
    METHODS: A total of 264 cases clinically diagnosed as Thalassemia major (TM) (111), Thalassemia intermedia (21), HbE-β Thalassemia (131), and 1 HbE homozygous were studied. The detection of α and ß gene mutations and characterization of Xmn1 polymorphism were performed by multiplex PCR, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), DNA sequencing, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-PCR.
    RESULTS: A total of 19 ß Thalassemia mutations were characterized. CD26 and CD41/42 were the most common found in the Malay and Chinese population, respectively. The sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis for β TM, thalassemia intermedia, and HbE/β thalassemia was 94.0%, 15.2%, and 89.2%, respectively. Patients with Xmn1 heterozygosity [+/-] required less frequent transfusion compared with those without the polymorphism. Co-inheritance of α-thalassemia alleviates the severity of HbE-β thalassemia in our cohort.
    CONCLUSION: Molecular analysis should be used for a better diagnosis and management of β thalassemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: beta-Thalassemia/genetics*
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