Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

  1. Vennila GD, Suresh Kumar G, Khairul Anuar A, Rajah S, Saminathan R, Sivanandan S, et al.
    Parasitol. Res., 1999 Feb;85(2):162-4.
    PMID: 9934969
    The shedding pattern of the protozoan parasite, Blastocystis hominis, is investigated in man and in experimental animal infections. The shedding pattern of the vacuolar and cystic forms of Blastocystis hominis in infected individuals have been shown in the present study to be irregular. The study shows that there is marked fluctuation in the shedding of the parasite from day to day, varying from as high as 17 to 0 per x40 microscopic field. The cystic stages when estimated in 8 Blastocystis-infected individuals ranged from as high as 7.4x10(5) cysts per gram of stool to 0. The shedding of cystic and vacuolar forms observed over a period of 20 days in experimentally-infected Wistar rats were not only shown to be irregular but the amount varied from host to host. The study has important diagnostic implications in that the stool samples must be collected more than once from patients showing clinical signs and symptoms to eliminate the cause of it to Blastocystis. The study also shows that there are asymptomatic individuals who pass a large amount of cysts as such individuals should be treated to prevent transmission to others.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/parasitology; Blastocystis Infections/physiopathology*; Blastocystis Infections/transmission
  2. Kumarasamy V, Roslani AC, Rani KU, Kumar Govind S
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:162.
    PMID: 24708637 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-162
    There have been previous studies associating microorganisms to cancer and with our recent findings of Blastocytsis antigen having a higher in vitro proliferation of cancer cells strengthens the suspicion. Collecting faecal samples alone to associate this parasite with cancer may not be accurate due to the phenomenon of irregular shedding and the possible treatment administrated to the cancer patients. Hence, this become the basis to search for an alternate method of sample collection. Colonic washout is an almost complete washed up material from colon and rectum which includes various microorganisms such as Blastocystis and other lodged material within the villi. The detection of parasite in colonic washouts will give a better reflection on the association between Blastocystis and CRC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/diagnosis; Blastocystis Infections/parasitology*
  3. Rajamanikam A, Hooi HS, Kudva M, Samudi C, Kumar S
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(2):e0212542.
    PMID: 30794628 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212542
    Blastocsytis sp. is a protozoan parasite that has been linked to common gastrointestinal illnesses. Metronidazole, the first line therapy, was reported to show frequent inefficacy. Previously, Blastocystis sp. isolated from different population showed varying metronidazole resistance. However, the effect of metronidazole treatment on pathogenic potentials of Blastocystis sp. isolated from different populations, which is known to have different gut environment, is unclear. This study investigates the in vitro effect of metronidazole on the pathogenic potentials of Blastocystis sp. isolated from urban and orang asli individuals. Blastocystis sp. ST 3 isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals were treated with a range of metronidazole concentration. The parasites' growth characteristics, apoptotic rate, specific protease activity and the ability to proliferate cancer cells were analyzed upon treatment with 0.001 mg/l metronidazole. The study demonstrates that Blastocystis sp. isolates showed increase in the parasite numbers especially the amoebic forms (only in urban isolates) after treating with metronidazole at the concentration of 0.001 mg/ml. High number of cells in post-treated isolates coincided with increase of apoptosis. There was a significant increase in cysteine protease of Blastocystis sp. isolates upon treatment despite the initial predominance of serine protease in asymptomatic isolates. Metronidazole resistant Blastocystis sp. also showed significant increase in cancer cell proliferation. Resistance to metronidazole did not show significant different influence on the pathogenicity between Blastocystis sp. isolated from urban and orang asli individual. However, an increase in parasite numbers, higher amoebic forms, cysteine protease and ability to proliferate cancer cells implicates a pathogenic role. The study provides evidence for the first time, the effect of metronidazole towards enhancing pathogenic potentials in Blastocystis sp. when isolated from different gut environment. This necessitates the need for reassessment of metronidazole treatment modalities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/drug therapy*; Blastocystis Infections/pathology
  4. Rajah Salim H, Suresh Kumar G, Vellayan S, Mak JW, Khairul Anuar A, Init I, et al.
    Parasitol. Res., 1999 Dec;85(12):1032-3.
    PMID: 10599928
    The present study investigated whether people working closely with animals were at higher risk of getting infected with Blastocystis hominis. The prevalence of the parasite was determined in two population groups, i.e., animal handlers and normal healthy individuals who did not work with animals. In all, 105 stool samples were collected from animal handlers from 2 local research institutions, a local zoo, and a local abattoir and 163 stool samples were collected from normal healthy individuals residing in high-rise flats in the city. The in vitro culture method used in the study detected that 41% of 105 animal handlers and 17% of 163 flat-dwellers in the city were positive for Blastocystis. This statistically significant finding (P = 0.0000313) shows that people who work closely with animals do stand at risk of acquiring Blastocystis infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/epidemiology*; Blastocystis Infections/parasitology; Blastocystis Infections/transmission*
  5. Chandramathi S, Suresh KG, Mahmood AA, Kuppusamy UR
    Parasitol. Res., 2010 May;106(6):1459-63.
    PMID: 20358228 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-010-1825-y
    The fact whether Blastocystis hominis can invade has always been in question. Apart from a few sporadic studies such as that done on gnotobiotic guinea pigs which showed surface invasion and mucosal inflammation of the host's intestine caused by B. hominis infection, no real documentation of invasion has been proven. Studies have shown that hyaluronidase is secreted during the penetration into the host's skin and gut by nematode parasites. Hyaluronidase activity in protozoa namely Entamoeba histolytica has also been described previously. This study attempts to determine hyaluronidase in urine samples of B. hominis-infected rats. The presence of hyaluronidase in urine provides an indirect evidence of invasion by B. hominis into colonic epithelium causing the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins namely hyaluronic acid (HA). HA is depolymerized by hyaluronidase which may be used by organisms to invade one another. In this study, the levels of urinary hyaluronidase of Sprague-Dawley rats infected with B. hominis were monitored for 30 days. Hyaluronidase levels in the infected rats were significantly higher on days 28 and 30 compared to the day before inoculation (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). During this stage, parasitic burden in infected stools was also at a high level. Proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, were also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the serum of infected rats. The study demonstrates that since no other pathogen was present and that amoeboid forms of the parasites have been shown to exist previously, the elevated levels of hyaluronidase in this preliminary finding suggests that the organism is capable of having invasion or penetration activity in the hosts' intestine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/diagnosis; Blastocystis Infections/pathology; Blastocystis Infections/veterinary*
  6. Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Sivanandam S, Kuppusamy UR
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(5):e94567.
    PMID: 24788756 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094567
    Stress alters the oxidant-antioxidant state and immune cell responses which disrupts its function to combat infection. Blastocystis hominis, a common intestinal protozoan has been reported to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients namely cancer. B. hominis infectivity in other altered immune system conditions especially stress is unknown. We aimed to demonstrate the stress effects towards the susceptibility and pathogenicity of B. hominis infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/blood; Blastocystis Infections/immunology; Blastocystis Infections/physiopathology; Blastocystis Infections/psychology
  7. Ragavan ND, Govind SK, Chye TT, Mahadeva S
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:404.
    PMID: 25174569 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-404
    Blastocystis, is one of the most common human intestinal protozoan, which has many conflicting reports on its pathogenic role. Gut conditions which obviously varies in asymptomatic individuals, symptomatic and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients in terms of gut flora, pH, osmotic pressure and water potentials could play an important role in its pathogenicity. The present study is the first study to investigate phenotypic characteristics of Blastocystis sp. ST3 isolated from asymptomatic, symptomatic and IBS isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/parasitology*
  8. Tan TC, Suresh KG
    Parasitol. Res., 2006 Nov;99(6):737-42.
    PMID: 16816959
    The amoeboid form of Blastocystis hominis has been reported infrequently, and its morphological descriptions have yielded conflicting and confusing reports. In the present study, we used the amoeboid forms seen predominantly in symptomatic patients infected with Blastocystis to provide detailed descriptions on the fine surface structure and intracellular morphology. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the irregular shape of the amoeboid form, with an intercalated fibrillar structure and a highly convoluted surface with deep indentations and projected pseudopodia. Transmission electron microscopy showed the existence of two types of amoeboid forms of B. hominis in in vitro culture, one with a large central vacuole containing tiny electron-dense particles while the other contains multiple small vacuoles in the cytoplasm. A surface coat with varying thickness surrounded the amoeboid form, which also showed prominent, extended pseudopodia of varying shape. Irregularly shaped mitochondrion-like organelles with prominent cristae, lipid inclusions, and multiple vacuoles were frequently seen in close proximity with the pseudopodia. The characteristic nucleus with a crescentic band of electron-dense chromatin material was also seen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/parasitology*
  9. Nithyamathi K, Chandramathi S, Kumar S
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(2):e0136709.
    PMID: 26914483 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136709
    BACKGROUND: One of the largest cross-sectional study in recent years was carried out to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban and rural school children from five states namely Selangor, Perak, Pahang, Kedah and Johor in Peninsula Malaysia. This information would be vital for school authorities to influence strategies for providing better health especially in terms of reducing intestinal parasitism.

    METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 3776 stool cups was distributed to 26 schools throughout the country. 1760 (46.61%) responded. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in both rural and urban areas was 13.3%, with Blastocystis sp (10.6%) being the most predominant, followed by Trichuris trichiura (3.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.5%) and hook worm infection (0.9%). Only rural school children had helminthic infection. In general Perak had the highest infection (37.2%, total, n = 317), followed by Selangor (10.4%, total, n = 729), Pahang (8.6%, total, n = 221), Kedah (6.2%, total, n = 195) and Johor (3.4%, total, n = 298). School children from rural schools had higher infection (13.7%, total, n = 922) than urban school children (7.2%, total, n = 838). Subtype (ST) 3 (54.3%) is the most predominant ST with persons infected with only ST1 and ST3 showing symptoms. Blastocystis sp infection significantly associated with low household income, low parent's education and presence of symptoms (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: It is critical that we institute deworming and treatment to eradicate the parasite especially in rural school children.

    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/epidemiology*; Blastocystis Infections/parasitology; Blastocystis Infections/prevention & control
  10. Tan TC, Tan PC, Sharma R, Sugnaseelan S, Suresh KG
    Parasitol. Res., 2013 Jan;112(1):85-9.
    PMID: 22961236 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-012-3107-3
    Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite found in humans and animals. The possibility of zoonotic transmission to humans from livestock especially goats led us to investigate the genetic diversity of caprine Blastocystis sp. obtained from five different farms in Peninsular Malaysia. Moreover, there is a lack of information on the prevalence as well as genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in goat worldwide. Results showed that 73/236 (30.9 %) of the goats were found to be positive for Blastocystis infection. The most predominant Blastocystis sp. subtype was ST1 (60.3 %) followed by ST7 (41.1 %), ST6 (41.1 %), and ST3 (11.0 %) when amplified by PCR using sequenced-tagged site (STS) primers. Four farms had goats infected only with ST1 whereas the fifth showed mixed infections with multiple STs. The proximity of the fifth farm to human dwellings, nearby domesticated animals and grass land as opposed to a sterile captive environment in the first four farms may account for the multiple STs seen in the fifth farm. Since ST1, ST3, ST6 and ST 7 were previously reported in human infection worldwide in particular Malaysia, the potential of the zoonotic transmission of blastocystosis should not be disregarded. The implications of different farm management systems on the distribution of Blastocystis sp. STs are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/epidemiology; Blastocystis Infections/parasitology; Blastocystis Infections/veterinary*
  11. Abdulsalam AM, Ithoi I, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Ahmed A, Surin J, Mak JW
    Parasitology, 2012 Jul;139(8):1014-20.
    PMID: 22444778 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182012000340
    Blastocystis infection has a worldwide distribution especially among the disadvantaged population and immunocompromised subjects. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the association of Blastocystis infection with the socio-economic characteristics among 300 primary schoolchildren, living in rural communities in Lipis and Raub districts of Pahang state, Malaysia. Stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of Blastocystis using direct smear microscopy after in vitro cultivation in Jones' medium. The overall prevalence of Blastocystis infection was found to be as high as 25.7%. The prevalence was significantly higher among children with gastrointestinal symptoms as compared to asymptomatic children (x2 =4.246; P=0.039). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that absence of a piped water supply (OR=3.13; 95% CI=1.78, 5.46; P<0.001) and low levels of mothers' education (OR=3.41; 95% CI=1.62, 7.18; P<0.01) were the significant predictors of Blastocystis infection. In conclusion, Blastocystis is prevalent among rural children and the important factors that determine the infection were the sources of drinking water and mothers' educational level. Interventions with provision of clean water supply and health education especially to mothers are required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/diagnosis; Blastocystis Infections/epidemiology*; Blastocystis Infections/physiopathology
  12. Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Shuba S, Mahmood A, Kuppusamy UR
    Parasitology, 2010 Apr;137(4):605-11.
    PMID: 19961647 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182009991351
    Numerous studies have revealed the presence of oxidative stress in parasitic infections. However, such studies were lacking in the Malaysian population. Previously, we have provided evidence that oxidative stress is elevated in Malaysians infected with intestinal parasites. Stool examinations revealed that about 47.5% of them were infected with the polymorphic protozoa, Blastocystis hominis. However, they were found to have mixed infection with other intestinal parasites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/blood; Blastocystis Infections/metabolism*; Blastocystis Infections/urine
  13. Noradilah SA, Moktar N, Anuar TS, Lee IL, Salleh FM, Manap SNAA, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2017 Jul 31;10(1):360.
    PMID: 28760145 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-017-2294-2
    BACKGROUND: Alternating wet and dry seasons may play an important role in the acquisition and distribution of Blastocystis subtype infection in the tropics. This cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to provide the prevalence of Blastocystis and to determine the potential risk factors associated with each subtype during the wet and dry seasons in the Aboriginal community, Pahang, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 473 faecal samples were collected: 256 (54.1%) and 217 (45.9%) samples were obtained during the wet (October-November 2014) and the dry season (June 2015), respectively. All fresh faecal samples were subjected to molecular analysis for subtype and allele identification.

    RESULTS: Of the 473 samples, 42.6% and 37.8% were positive for Blastocystis ST1, ST2, ST3 and ST4 during wet and dry seasons, respectively. Prevalence of Blastocystis ST1 was significantly higher during the wet season compared to the dry season (Z = 2.146, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/ethnology*; Blastocystis Infections/parasitology; Blastocystis Infections/transmission
  14. Chandrasekaran H, Govind SK, Panchadcharam C, Bathmanaban P, Raman K, Thergarajan G
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:469.
    PMID: 25358755 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-014-0469-7
    Blastocystis sp., a widely prevalent intestinal protozoan parasite is found in a wide range of animals, including humans. The possibility of zoonotic transmission to human from birds especially ostriches led us to investigate on the cross infectivity of Blastocystis sp. isolated from the ostrich feces as well as the phenotypic and subtype characteristics. There is a need to investigate this especially with the rising number of ostrich farms due to the growing global ostrich industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/parasitology; Blastocystis Infections/veterinary*
  15. Chuong LS, Suresh K, Mak JW, Init I, Kathijah O
    PMID: 9253897
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/epidemiology*; Blastocystis Infections/transmission
  16. Chandramathi S, Suresh K, Kuppusamy UR
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2010 Jul;104(5):449-52.
    PMID: 20819313 DOI: 10.1179/136485910X12743554760423
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/enzymology*; Blastocystis Infections/epidemiology
  17. Suresh K, Smith HV, Tan TC
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005 Sep;71(9):5619-20.
    PMID: 16151162
    Blastocystis cysts were detected in 38% (47/123) (37 Scottish, 17 Malaysian) of sewage treatment works. Fifty percent of influents (29% Scottish, 76% Malaysian) and 28% of effluents (9% Scottish, 60% Malaysian) contained viable cysts. Viable cysts, discharged in effluent, provide further evidence for the potential for waterborne transmission of Blastocystis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/parasitology; Blastocystis Infections/transmission
  18. Thergarajan G, Kumar S, Bhassu S, Omar SFBS, Rampal S
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(3):e0211034.
    PMID: 30893309 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211034
    Increasing incidences of dengue have become a global health threat with major clinical manifestation including high fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. These symptoms were also expressed among Blastocystis sp. infected individuals, a parasite commonly seen in human stools. This parasite has been previously reported to replicate faster upon exposure to high temperature. The present study is a hospitalized-based cross-sectional study involved the collection of faecal sample from dengue patients. Stool examination was done by in vitro cultivation to isolate Blastocystis sp. Growth pattern of all the positive isolates were analyzed to identify the multiplication rate of Blastocystis sp. isolated from dengue patients. Distribution of Blastocystis sp. among dengue patients was 23.6%. Dengue patients who were positive for Blastocystis sp. infection denoted a significantly higher fever rate reaching 38.73°C (p<0.05) compared to the non-Blastocystis sp. infected patients (38.44°C). It was also found that Blastocystis sp. infected patients complained of frequenting the toilet more than five times a day (p<0.05) compared to those who were non-Blastocystis sp. infected. At the same time, the duration of hospitalization was significantly longer (p<0.05) for Blastocystis sp. infected dengue patients compared to the non-Blastocystis sp. infected patients. Besides, Blastocystis sp. isolated from dengue patients (in vivo thermal stress) showed a higher growth rate compared to the non-dengue isolated which was exposed to high temperature (in vitro thermal stress). Our findings suggest that presence of Blastocystis sp. during dengue infection could trigger the increase of temperature which could be due to highly elevated pro inflammatory cytokines by both parasitic and virus infection. This could justify why the temperature in Blastocystis sp. infected dengue patients is higher compared to the non-Blastocystis sp. infected patients. Higher temperature could have triggered a greater parasite multiplication rate that contributed to the aggravation of the gastrointestinal symptoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/metabolism*; Blastocystis Infections/parasitology
  19. Ragavan AD, Govind SK
    Parasitol. Res., 2015 Mar;114(3):1163-6.
    PMID: 25614298 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-014-4296-8
    Dientamoeba fragilis, a trichomonad parasite is usually found in the gastrointestinal tract of human, and it is known to be the cause for gastrointestinal disease. The parasite is globally distributed and mostly found in rural and urban areas. The parasite is found in humans and nonhuman primates such as the macaques, baboons, and gorillas. Often, the parasite is confused with another largely found organism in stools called Blastocystis sp. especially when seen directly under light microscopy on culture samples containing both parasites. Both sometimes are seen with two nuclei with sizes tending to be similar which complicates identification. Stools were collected fresh from nine previously diagnosed persons infected with D. fragilis who also were found to be positive for Blastocystis sp. Samples were then cultured in Loeffler's medium and were stained with Giemsa, iron hematoxylin, and modified Fields' (MF) stain, respectively. D. fragilis was differentiated from Blastocystis sp. when stained with MF stain by the presence of a thinner outer membrane with clearly demarcated nuclei in the center of the cell whilst Blastocystis sp. had a darker and thicker stained outer membrane with the presence of two nuclei. The staining contrast was more evident with modified Fields' stain when compared with the other two. The simplicity in preparing the stain as well as the speed of the staining procedure make MF stain an ideal alternate. The modified Fields' stain is faster and easier to prepare when compared to the other two stains. MF stain provides a better contrast differentiating the two organisms and therefore provides a more reliable diagnostic method to precisely identify one from the other especially when cultures show mixed infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/diagnosis*; Blastocystis Infections/parasitology
  20. Dhurga DB, Suresh KG, Tan TC, Chandramathi S
    Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2012 Dec;106(12):725-30.
    PMID: 23141370 DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2012.08.005
    Previous studies have shown that apoptosis-like features are observed in Blastocystis spp., an intestinal protozoan parasite, when exposed to the cytotoxic drug metronidazole (MTZ). This study reports that among the four subtypes of Blastocystis spp. investigated for rate of apoptosis when treated with MTZ, subtype 3 showed the highest significant increase after 72h of in vitro culture when treated with MTZ at 0.1mg/ml (79%; p<0.01) and 0.0001mg/ml (89%; p<0.001). The close correlation between viable cells and apoptotic cells for both dosages implies that the pathogenic potential of these isolates has been enhanced when treated with MTZ. This suggests that there is a mechanism in Blastocystis spp. that actually regulates the apoptotic process to produce higher number of viable cells when treated. Apoptosis may not just be programmed cell death but instead a mechanism to increase the number of viable cells to ensure survival during stressed conditions. The findings of the present study have an important contribution to influence chemotherapeutic approaches when developing drugs against the emerging Blastocystis spp. infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Blastocystis Infections/drug therapy; Blastocystis Infections/parasitology*
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