Brain ischaemia and infarction are the leading factors in morbidity and mortality of traumatic brain injury. This study aimed to determine the perfusion status of pericontusional hypodense areas in traumatic cerebral contusion
Brain oedema is thought to form and to clear through the use of water-protein channels, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which are found in the astrocyte endfeet. The model developed here is used to study the function of AQP4 in the formation and elimination of oedema fluid in ischaemia-reperfusion injury. The cerebral space is assumed to be made of four fluid compartments: astrocyte, neuron, ECS and blood microvessels, and a solid matrix for the tissue, and this is modelled using multiple-network poroelastic theory. AQP4 allows the movement of water between astrocyte and the ECS and the microvessels. It is found that the presence of AQP4 may help in reducing vasogenic oedema shown by a decrease in brain tissue extracellular pressure. However, the astrocyte pressure will increase to compensate for this decrease, which may lead to cytotoxic oedema. In addition, the swelling will also depend on the ionic concentrations in the astrocyte and extracellular space, which may change after ischaemic stroke. Understanding the role of AQP4 in oedema may thus help the development of a treatment plan in reducing brain swelling after ischaemia-reperfusion.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the commonest primary cerebral malignancy consisting of 12- 20% of intracranial brain tumours.1 We report here a patient with GBM with very unusual marked and widespread leptomeningeal GBM.
Computed Tomography (CT) images are widely used for the identification of abnormal brain tissues following infarct and hemorrhage of a stroke. The treatment of this medical condition mainly depends on doctors' experience. While manual lesion delineation by medical doctors is currently considered as the standard approach, it is time-consuming and dependent on each doctor's expertise and experience. In this study, a case-control comparison brain lesion segmentation (CCBLS) method is proposed to segment the region pertaining to brain injury by comparing the voxel intensity of CT images between control subjects and stroke patients. The method is able to segment the brain lesion from the stacked CT images automatically without prior knowledge of the location or the presence of the lesion. The aim is to reduce medical doctors' burden and assist them in making an accurate diagnosis. A case study with 300 sets of CT images from control subjects and stroke patients is conducted. Comparing with other existing methods, the outcome ascertains the effectiveness of the proposed method in detecting brain infarct of stroke patients.
Zinc is the authoritative metal which is present in our body, and reactive zinc metal is crucial for neuronal signaling and is largely distributed within presynaptic vesicles. Zinc also plays an important role in synaptic function. At cellular level, zinc is a modulator of synaptic activity and neuronal plasticity in both development and adulthood. Different importers and transporters are involved in zinc homeostasis. ZnT-3 is a main transporter involved in zinc homeostasis in the brain. It has been found that alterations in brain zinc status have been implicated in a wide range of neurological disorders including impaired brain development and many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, and mood disorders including depression, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion disease. Furthermore, zinc has also been implicated in neuronal damage associated with traumatic brain injury, stroke, and seizure. Understanding the mechanisms that control brain zinc homeostasis is thus critical to the development of preventive and treatment strategies for these and other neurological disorders.
The fundamental step in brain research deals with recording electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and then investigating the recorded signals quantitatively. Topographic EEG (visual spatial representation of EEG signal) is commonly referred to as brain topomaps or brain EEG maps. In this chapter, full search full search block motion estimation algorithm has been employed to track the brain activity in brain topomaps to understand the mechanism of brain wiring. The behavior of EEG topomaps is examined throughout a particular brain activation with respect to time. Motion vectors are used to track the brain activation over the scalp during the activation period. Using motion estimation it is possible to track the path from the starting point of activation to the final point of activation. Thus it is possible to track the path of a signal across various lobes.
Induced hypothermia for treatment of traumatic brain injury is controversial. Since many pathways involved in the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury are temperature dependent, regional brain hypothermia is thought capable to mitigate those processes. The objectives of this study are to assess the therapeutic effects and complications of regional brain cooling in severe head injury with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) 6-7.
Metastasis of an atrial myxoma to the brain is extremely rare. Thus far there are only 17 cases reported, including our present case. Most of the brain metastases manifest only in 3 to 6 decades, after an average time frame of one to two years after surgical removal of parental tumour. We present a case of brain metastases of atrial myxoma in a teenager of the youngest age among all reported cases, unusually as early as 15 years old. The progress of the metastatic process had been insidious for three years after heart surgery, The imaging demonstrated a rather sizeable tumour by the time when the patient is symptomatic. The location of the metastatic tumour is anyhow superficial to the cortical surface, enabling complete surgical excision of the tumour easily achievable with favourable outcome.
Managing acute intracerebral haemorrhage is a challenging task for physicians. Evidence shows that outcome can be improved with admission to an acute stroke unit and active care, including urgent reversal of anticoagulant effects and, potentially, intensive blood pressure reduction. Nevertheless, many management issues remain controversial, including the use of haemostatic therapy, selection of patients for neurosurgery and neurocritical care, the extent of investigations for underlying causes and the benefit versus risk of restarting antithrombotic therapy after an episode of intracerebral haemorrhage.