Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 927 in total

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  1. Khoo EM
    Family Physician, 1996;8:3-7.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  2. Poovaneswaran S, Lee ZEJ, Lim WY, S Raja Gopal N, Mohd Dali F, Mohamad I
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Apr;68(2):168-70.
    PMID: 23629568 MyJurnal
    Male breast cancer accounts for only 1% of cancers in men and 1% of breast cancers. Cutaneous metastases occur less than 10% of all patients with visceral malignancies and are considered a rare and late event in progression of metastatic disease. A 45-year-old man presented with a lump in the left breast which was confirmed to be infiltrating ductal carcinoma. He underwent a left mastectomy and axillary clearance followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the left chest wall. However, he was non-compliant to adjuvant tamoxifen due to hot flushes. One year later, he presented with biopsy proven cutaneous metastases. Initially he had complete excision of the lesions, however, two months later more skin lesions appeared predominantly over the chest wall and back. Hormonal therapy failed to control the metastases as such he was treated with systemic chemotherapy. He is currently on third line chemotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms*; Breast Neoplasms, Male*
  3. Thevi Rajendran P, Krishnapillai V, Tamanang S, Kumari Chelliah K
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jan;19(1):52-9.
    PMID: 22977375 MyJurnal
    Digital mammography is slowly replacing screen film mammography. In digital mammography, 2 methods are available in acquiring images: digital storage phosphor plate and full-field digital mammography. The aim of this study was to compare the image quality acquired from the 2 methods of digital mammography in the detection of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms
  4. Forrest AP
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1996 Mar;51(1):163-73; quiz 174.
    PMID: 10968004
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology; Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control; Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
  5. Yip CH, Taib NA, Mohamed I
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2006;7(3):369-74.
    PMID: 17059323
    Data from the National Cancer Registry of Malaysia for 2004 provide an age-standardised incidence rate (ASR) of 46.2 per 100,000 women. This means that approximately 1 in 20 women in the country develop breast cancer in their lifetime. However, the rate differs between the three main races, the Malays, Chinese and Indians. The age standardized incidence in Chinese is the highest, with 59.7 per 100,000, followed by the Indians at 55.8 per 100,000. The Malays have the lowest incidence of 33.9 per 100,000. This translates into 1 in 16 Chinese, 1 in 16 Indian and 1 in 28 Malay women developing breast cancer at some stage in their lives. The commonest age at presentation is between 40-49 years, with just over 50% of the cases under the age of 50 years, 16.8% below 40, and 2% under 30. Some 55.7% of all cases were found to be ER positive. The commonest presenting symptom was a lump in the breast in over 90% of cases, generally felt by the woman herself. The mean size of the lump was 4.2 cm, and on average, the women waited 3 months before seeking medical attention. Over the 12-year period from 1993 to 2004, about 60-70% of women presented with early stage (Stages 1-2) while 30-40% presented with late breast cancer (Stages 3-4). Especially Malays present at later stages and with larger tumours. Consequently their survival is worse than with Chinese and Indian women. The challenge in Malaysia is to be able to provide a comprehensive service in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, and this requires training of a team of health professionals dedicated to breast health, such as breast surgeons, radiologists specializing in breast imaging, breast pathologists, plastic surgeons specializing in breast reconstruction, medical and radiation oncologists, psycho-oncologists, counselors, and breast nurses. Advocacy can play a role here in galvanizing the political will to meet this challenge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology*
  6. Bhoo-Pathy N, Pignol JP, Verkooijen HM
    Lancet, 2014 Nov 22;384(9957):1846.
    PMID: 25457914 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62239-X
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/mortality*; Breast Neoplasms/radiotherapy*
  7. Yip CH
    Methods Mol. Biol., 2009;471:51-64.
    PMID: 19109774 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-59745-416-2_3
    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in most countries in Asia. The incidence rates remain low, although increasing at a more rapid rate than in western countries, due to changes in the lifestyle and diet. There are many differences between breast cancer in Asia compared with western countries. The mean age at onset is younger than in the west, and unlike the west, the age-specific incidence decreases after the age of 50 years. Because there is no population-based breast cancer screening program in the majority of Asian countries, the majority of patients present with advanced disease. There is a higher proportion of hormone receptor-negative patients, and some evidence that the cancers in Asia are of a higher grade. Most of the Asian countries are low- and middle-income countries, where access to effective care is limited. Because of the late detection and inadequate access to care, survival of women with breast cancer in Asia is lower than in western countries. Improving breast health in most of the Asian countries remains a challenge that may be overcome with collaboration from multiple sectors, both public and private.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology; Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control*
  8. Jayaram G, Looi LM, Yip CH
    Malays J Pathol, 1997 Jun;19(1):69-73.
    PMID: 10879245
    A 39-year-old female presented with a mobile 1.5 cm nodule in the right breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology smears stained with May Grunwald Giemsa were highly cellular with a monotonous population of dissociated and clustered tumour cells that showed a bland cytological appearance with cytoplasmic vacuolation and occasional signet ring forms. Intracellular and extracellular mucus was present. Histological study of the excised breast mass showed a secretory carcinoma. This is a rare breast neoplasm in which cytological features are characteristic enough to permit a specific diagnosis on needle aspirates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/pathology*; Breast Neoplasms/secretion; Breast Neoplasms/therapy
  9. Bhoo-Pathy NT, Inaida S, Tanaka S, Taib NA, Yip CH, Saad M, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2017 06;48:56-61.
    PMID: 28371729 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2017.03.007
    BACKGROUND: The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with T1N0M0 breast cancers is unclear. While gene expression-based prognostic assays may aid management of women with early estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors, therapeutic decision-making in women with early stage ER negative tumors remains fraught with difficulties. We investigated the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and overall survival in women with T1N0M0, hormone receptor negative breast cancers.

    METHOD: All newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with node-negative and hormone receptor negative tumors measuring≤2cm at the University Malaya Medical Centre (Malaysia) from 1993 to 2013 were included. Mortality of patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy were compared and adjusted for possible confounders using propensity score.

    RESULTS: Of 6732 breast cancer patients, 341 (5.1%) had small (≤2cm), node-negative and hormone receptor negative tumors at diagnosis. Among them, only 214 (62.8%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Five-year overall survival was 88.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.0%-94.2%) for patients receiving chemotherapy and 89.6% (95% CI: 85.1%-94.1%) for patients without chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was not associated with survival following adjustment for age, ethnicity, tumor size, tumor grade, HER2 status, lympho-vascular invasion, type of surgery and radiotherapy administration. However, chemotherapy was associated with a significant survival advantage (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.14-0.91) in a subgroup of women with high-grade tumors.

    CONCLUSION: Adjuvant chemotherapy does not appear to be associated with a survival benefit in women with T1N0M0, hormone receptor negative breast cancer except in those with high-grade tumors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Breast Neoplasms/mortality; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  10. Hasanpourghadi M, Pandurangan AK, Mustafa MR
    Pharmacol. Res., 2018 02;128:376-388.
    PMID: 28923544 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.09.009
    Carcinogenesis, a multi-step phenomenon, characterized by alterations at genetic level and affecting the main intracellular pathways controlling cell growth and development. There are growing number of evidences linking oncogenes to the induction of malignancies, especially breast cancer. Modulations of oncogenes lead to gain-of-function signals in the cells and contribute to the tumorigenic phenotype. These signals yield a large number of proteins that cause cell growth and inhibit apoptosis. Transcription factors such as STAT, p53, NF-κB, c-JUN and FOXM1, are proteins that are conserved among species, accumulate in the nucleus, bind to DNA and regulate the specific genes targets. Oncogenic transcription factors resulting from the mutation or overexpression following aberrant gene expression relay the signals in the nucleus and disrupt the transcription pattern. Activation of oncogenic transcription factors is associated with control of cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and cell differentiation. Among different cancer types, breast cancer is one of top ten cancers worldwide. There are different subtypes of breast cancer cell-lines such as non-aggressive MCF-7 and aggressive and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells, which are identified with distinct molecular profile and different levels of oncogenic transcription factor. For instance, MDA-MB-231 carries mutated and overexpressed p53 with its abnormal, uncontrolled downstream signalling pathway that account for resistance to several anticancer drugs compared to MCF-7 cells with wild-type p53. Appropriate enough, inhibition of oncogenic transcription factors has become a potential target in discovery and development of anti-tumour drugs against breast cancer. Plants produce diverse amount of organic metabolites. Universally, these metabolites with biological activities are known as "natural products". The chemical structure and function of natural products have been studied since 1850s. Investigating these properties leaded to recognition of their molecular effects as anticancer drugs. Numerous natural products extracted from plants, fruits, mushrooms and mycelia, show potential inhibitory effects against several oncogenic transcription factors in breast cancer. Natural compounds that target oncogenic transcription factors have increased the number of candidate therapeutic agents. This review summarizes the current findings of natural products in targeting specific oncogenic transcription factors in breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy; Breast Neoplasms/genetics; Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*
  11. Brouckaert O, Rudolph A, Laenen A, Keeman R, Bolla MK, Wang Q, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res., 2017 Nov 07;19(1):119.
    PMID: 29116004 DOI: 10.1186/s13058-017-0909-3
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that reproductive factors are differentially associated with breast cancer (BC) risk by subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and BC subtypes, and whether these vary by age at diagnosis.

    METHODS: We used pooled data on tumor markers (estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)) and reproductive risk factors (parity, age at first full-time pregnancy (FFTP) and age at menarche) from 28,095 patients with invasive BC from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). In a case-only analysis, we used logistic regression to assess associations between reproductive factors and BC subtype compared to luminal A tumors as a reference. The interaction between age and parity in BC subtype risk was also tested, across all ages and, because age was modeled non-linearly, specifically at ages 35, 55 and 75 years.

    RESULTS: Parous women were more likely to be diagnosed with triple negative BC (TNBC) than with luminal A BC, irrespective of age (OR for parity = 1.38, 95% CI 1.16-1.65, p = 0.0004; p for interaction with age = 0.076). Parous women were also more likely to be diagnosed with luminal and non-luminal HER2-like BCs and this effect was slightly more pronounced at an early age (p for interaction with age = 0.037 and 0.030, respectively). For instance, women diagnosed at age 35 were 1.48 (CI 1.01-2.16) more likely to have luminal HER2-like BC than luminal A BC, while this association was not significant at age 75 (OR = 0.72, CI 0.45-1.14). While age at menarche was not significantly associated with BC subtype, increasing age at FFTP was non-linearly associated with TNBC relative to luminal A BC. An age at FFTP of 25 versus 20 years lowered the risk for TNBC (OR = 0.78, CI 0.70-0.88, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis; Breast Neoplasms/etiology*; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology*; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/etiology; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology
  12. Silvestri V, Barrowdale D, Mulligan AM, Neuhausen SL, Fox S, Karlan BY, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res., 2016 Feb 09;18(1):15.
    PMID: 26857456 DOI: 10.1186/s13058-016-0671-y
    BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and, more commonly, BRCA2 mutations are associated with increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). However, only a paucity of data exists on the pathology of breast cancers (BCs) in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Using the largest available dataset, we determined whether MBCs arising in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers display specific pathologic features and whether these features differ from those of BRCA1/2 female BCs (FBCs).

    METHODS: We characterised the pathologic features of 419 BRCA1/2 MBCs and, using logistic regression analysis, contrasted those with data from 9675 BRCA1/2 FBCs and with population-based data from 6351 MBCs in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.

    RESULTS: Among BRCA2 MBCs, grade significantly decreased with increasing age at diagnosis (P = 0.005). Compared with BRCA2 FBCs, BRCA2 MBCs were of significantly higher stage (P for trend = 2 × 10(-5)) and higher grade (P for trend = 0.005) and were more likely to be oestrogen receptor-positive [odds ratio (OR) 10.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 5.15-21.80] and progesterone receptor-positive (OR 5.04; 95 % CI 3.17-8.04). With the exception of grade, similar patterns of associations emerged when we compared BRCA1 MBCs and FBCs. BRCA2 MBCs also presented with higher grade than MBCs from the SEER database (P for trend = 4 × 10(-12)).

    CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the largest series analysed to date, our results show that BRCA1/2 MBCs display distinct pathologic characteristics compared with BRCA1/2 FBCs, and we identified a specific BRCA2-associated MBC phenotype characterised by a variable suggesting greater biological aggressiveness (i.e., high histologic grade). These findings could lead to the development of gender-specific risk prediction models and guide clinical strategies appropriate for MBC management.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/genetics*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology; Breast Neoplasms, Male/genetics*; Breast Neoplasms, Male/pathology
  13. Kalyani A, Rohaizak M, Cheong SK, Nor Aini U, Balasundaram V, Norlia A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2010 Sep;65(3):227-8.
    PMID: 21939175
    We describe a patient with multiple myeloma, who initially responded to chemotherapy and went into remission. She presented 10 months later with a right breast lump which was confirmed by core biopsy to be a plasmacytoma. Further treatment with radiotherapy, thalidomide and later second line chemotherapy appeared unsuccessful and she showed rapid disease progression with rising paraproteins and new extramedullary plasmacytoma lesions in the forehead, supraclavicular region, nasopharynx, liver, spleen, pancreas and paraaortic lymph nodes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy; Breast Neoplasms/pathology*; Breast Neoplasms/radiotherapy; Breast Neoplasms/secondary
  14. Yip CH, Rhodes A
    Future Oncol, 2014 Nov;10(14):2293-301.
    PMID: 25471040 DOI: 10.2217/fon.14.110
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The majority of breast cancers show overexpression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs). The development of drugs to target these hormone receptors, such as tamoxifen, has brought about significant improvement in survival for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Since information about ER and PR is vital for patient management, quality assurance is important to ensure accurate testing. In recent guidelines, the recommended definition of ER and PR positivity is 1% or more of cells that stain positive. Semiquantitative assessment of ER and PR is important for prognosis and, hence, management. Even with the development of genomic tests, hormone receptor status remains the most significant predictive and prognostic biomarker.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis; Breast Neoplasms/genetics; Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*; Breast Neoplasms/therapy
  15. Miao H, Hartman M, Verkooijen HM, Taib NA, Wong HS, Subramaniam S, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2016 10 21;16(1):820.
    PMID: 27769212
    BACKGROUND: CancerMath is a set of web-based prognostic tools which predict nodal status and survival up to 15 years after diagnosis of breast cancer. This study validated its performance in a Southeast Asian setting.

    METHODS: Using Singapore Malaysia Hospital-Based Breast Cancer Registry, clinical information was retrieved from 7064 stage I to III breast cancer patients who were diagnosed between 1990 and 2011 and underwent surgery. Predicted and observed probabilities of positive nodes and survival were compared for each subgroup. Calibration was assessed by plotting observed value against predicted value for each decile of the predicted value. Discrimination was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with 95 % confidence interval (CI).

    RESULTS: The median predicted probability of positive lymph nodes is 40.6 % which was lower than the observed 43.6 % (95 % CI, 42.5 %-44.8 %). The calibration plot showed underestimation for most of the groups. The AUC was 0.71 (95 % CI, 0.70-0.72). Cancermath predicted and observed overall survival probabilities were 87.3 % vs 83.4 % at 5 years after diagnosis and 75.3 % vs 70.4 % at 10 years after diagnosis. The difference was smaller for patients from Singapore, patients diagnosed more recently and patients with favorable tumor characteristics. Calibration plot also illustrated overprediction of survival for patients with poor prognosis. The AUC for 5-year and 10-year overall survival was 0.77 (95 % CI: 0.75-0.79) and 0.74 (95 % CI: 0.71-0.76).

    CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination and calibration of CancerMath were modest. The results suggest that clinical application of CancerMath should be limited to patients with better prognostic profile.

    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis; Breast Neoplasms/mortality; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology*; Breast Neoplasms/therapy
  16. Venil CK, Sathishkumar P, Malathi M, Usha R, Jayakumar R, Yusoff ARM, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Feb;59:228-234.
    PMID: 26652368 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.10.019
    In this work, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from a pigment produced by a recently-discovered bacterium, Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497, was achieved, followed by an investigation of its anticancer properties. The bacterial pigment was identified as flexirubin following NMR ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), UV-Vis, and LC-MS analysis. An aqueous silver nitrate solution was treated with isolated flexirubin to produce silver nanoparticles. The synthesised silver nanoparticles were subsequently characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy methodologies. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of synthesised silver nanoparticles in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated. The tests showed significant cytotoxicity activity of the silver nanoparticles in the cultured cells, with an IC50 value of 36μgmL(-1). This study demonstrates that silver nanoparticles, synthesised from flexirubin from C. artocarpi CECT 8497, may have potential as a novel chemotherapeutic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Breast Neoplasms/metabolism
  17. Bhoo-Pathy N, Yip CH, Hartman M, Uiterwaal CS, Devi BC, Peeters PH, et al.
    Eur. J. Cancer, 2013 Feb;49(3):703-9.
    PMID: 23040889 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca.2012.09.014
    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer continues to rise rapidly in Asian countries. However, most of our current knowledge on breast cancer has been generated in Western populations. As the socio-economic profile, life style and culture of Asian and Western women are substantially different, and genetic backgrounds vary to some extent, we need to answer the question on whether to 'adopt' or 'adapt' Western knowledge before applying it in the Asian setting. It is generally accepted that breast cancer risk factors, which have mainly been studied in Western populations are similar worldwide. However, the presence of gene-environment or gene-gene interactions may alter their importance as causal factors across populations. Diagnostic and prognostic study findings, including breast cancer prediction rules, are increasingly shown to be 'setting specific' and must therefore be validated in Asian women before implementing them in clinical care in Asia. Interventional research findings from Caucasian patients may not be applicable in patients in Asia due to differences in tumour biology/profiles, metabolism of drugs and also health beliefs which can influence treatment acceptance and adherence. While breast cancer research in Asia is warranted in all domains of medical research, it is felt that for Asian breast cancer patients, needs are highest for diagnostic and prognostic studies. International clinical trials meanwhile need to include breast cancer patients from various Asian settings to provide an insight into the effectiveness of new treatment modalities in this part of the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis; Breast Neoplasms/etiology*
  18. Norsa'adah B, Rampal KG, Rahmah MA, Naing NN, Biswal BM
    BMC Cancer, 2011;11:141.
    PMID: 21496310 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-141
    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in Malaysia. Delayed diagnosis is preventable and has major effects on patients' prognosis and survival. The objectives of our study were to identify the magnitude of delayed diagnosis and its associated factors in women with breast cancer in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology
  19. Yaw YH, Kandiah M, Shariff ZM, Mun CY, Hashim Z, Yusof RM, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(6):1535-40.
    PMID: 21338193
    This study describes weight changes experienced by Malaysian women with breast cancer. Women with breast cancer (n=368) were recruited from eight hospitals and four breast cancer support groups in Peninsular Malaysia. Current weight was measured and weight at the time of diagnosis and a year preceding diagnosis were based on self-reports. Change in weight was determined from the year preceding breast cancer diagnosis to study entry (time 1), at the time of diagnosis to study entry (time 2) and from a year preceding breast cancer diagnosis to the time of diagnosis (time 3). Current body mass index, at a year preceding diagnosis and at the time of diagnosis were determined. Waist circumference was also measured. The sample comprised 57% Malay, 34% Chinese and 9.8% Indian women. The mean age of the women was 54 ∓ 9.04 years and over 80% were post-menopausal. Majority of the women were in stage I and stage II breast cancer at the time of diagnosis. The most common treatments received by these women were chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy and mastectomy. Overweight and obesity were prevalent in over 40% of the survivors at all three periods. Significant weight changes were observed during time 1 (-0.74 ∓ 4.78kg, p< 0.001), time 2 (2.73 ∓ 8.06kg, p< 0.001) and time 3 (3.47 ∓ 7.53kg, p< 0.001). At time 1, almost 50% showed no changes in their weight. At time 2, nearly two-thirds had gained weight and at time 3, 69% had gained weight, abdominal obesity was observed in nearly two-thirds of the women at study entry. A significant difference in weight change among age groups was observed in time 2 and time 3. All ethnic groups had significant weight change in time 1 and time 2. Significant weight gain was observed in relation to body mass index prior to diagnosis, at diagnosis and at study entry. However, no significant difference in weight change by educational level, family history of cancer and cancer stages were observed in all 3 periods. In conclusion, significant weight gain was evident in this sample of women after diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment. Women with breast cancer should be encouraged to maintain normal body mass index and waist circumference through appropriate diet and regular physical activity which may help to reduce their risk of recurrence, secondary cancer and metastasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/physiopathology*; Breast Neoplasms/therapy*
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