Heavy metals, particularly cadmium, lead, and arsenic, constitute a significant potential threat to human health. This study was conducted to determine the levels of cadmium, lead, and arsenic in nail samples from farmers at Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA), Kedah, Malaysia, and evaluate factors that can contribute to their accumulations. A total of 116 farmers participated in this study. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze concentration of heavy metals in the nail samples and questionnaires were given to participants to get demographic, health status, and their agricultural activities data. In this paper, the level of heavy metals was within the normal range and varies according to demographic factors. We found that there were significant correlations between working period with level of lead and arsenic (r=0.315 and r=0.242, resp., P<0.01) and age with lead level (r=0.175, P<0.05). Our findings suggested that agricultural activities could contribute to the accumulation of heavy metals in farmers. Hence, the control of environmental levels of and human exposure to these metals to prevent adverse health effects is still an important public health issue.
The uptake and elimination of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) by the amphipod Hyalella azteca during exposure to the metals singly and in various combinations was examined in controlled laboratory experiments. In single metal exposures the accumulation of all metals was rapid and increased with exposure time. Copper elimination was slower compared to that for zinc and for cadmium no elimination was detected after 5 days in clean water. In the two-metal mixtures it appears that the presence of one metal influenced the bioconcentration of the other, since the bioconcentration factor (BCF) for copper was higher in the presence of cadmium than in the presence of zinc and in the case of cadmium, the decrease of K(1) values from cadmium single exposure to the binary and tertiary mixtures suggests possible inhibition of cadmium uptake by the other metals. In the case of the three-metal mixture the situation is less clear, with both increased and decreased BCFs recorded, in comparison to single-metal and two-metal mixtures, suggesting both stimulation and inhibition of metal accumulation.
This study focused on the isolation and characterization of high cadmium-resistant bacterial strains, possible exploitation of its cadmium-accumulation and cadmium-induced proteins. Cadmium-resistant bacterial strains designated as RZ1 and RZ2 were isolated from industrial wastewater of Penang, Malaysia. These isolates were identified as Enterobacter mori and Enterobacter sp. WS12 on the basis of phenotypic, biochemical and 16S rDNA sequence based molecular phylogenetic characteristics. Both isolates were Gram negative, cocci, and growing well in Lauria-Bertani broth medium at 35 °C temperature and pH 7.0. Results also indicated that Enterobacter mori and Enterobacter sp. WS12are capable to remove 87.75 and 85.11% of the cadmium from 100 µg ml(-1) concentration, respectively. This study indicates that these strains can be useful as an inexpensive and efficient bioremediation technology to remove and recover the cadmium from wastewater.
This study applied the use of sequential extraction technique and simple bioaccessibility extraction test to quantify the bioavailable fractions and the human bioaccessible concentration of metals collected from nine stations in surface sediment of the Langat River. The concentrations of total and bioaccessible metals from different stations were in the range of 0.49-1.04, 0.10-0.32 μg g-1 for T-Cd, Bio-Cd, respectively, and 12.9-128.03, 2.06-8.53 μg kg-1 for T-Hg, Bio-Hg, respectively. The results revealed highest R-Bio-Cd in Banting station (55.3 %), while the highest R-Bio-Hg was in Kajang station (49.61 %). The chemical speciation of Cd in most sampling stations was in the order of oxidisable-organic > residual > exchangeable > acid-reducible, while speciation of Hg was in the order of exchangeable > residual > oxidisable-organic > acid-reducible. The correlation matric of mean content showed that the TOM, particle size and Mg++ in polluted surface sediments was highly correlated with total mercury. The PCA showed that the main factors influencing the bioaccessibility of Hg in surface sediments were the sediment TOM, F1 (EFLE) and F3 (oxidation-organic), while the factor influencing the bioaccessibility of Cd was the F3 (oxidation-organic) and T-Cd.
This study analyzed the levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS), in the muscle tissues, exoskeletons, and gills from freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) (n = 20) harvested from natural habitat in Kerang River, Malaysia on 25th November 2015. Significant increase of the metals level in muscle tissue and gill (r > 0.70, p
Biosorption of cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solution onto immobilized cells of Pycnoporus sanguineus (P. sanguineus) was investigated in a batch system. Equilibrium and kinetic studies were conducted by considering the effect of pH, initial cadmium (II) concentration, biomass loading and temperature. Results showed that the uptake of cadmium (II) ions increased with the increase of initial cadmium (II) concentration, pH and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models were used to analyze the equilibrium data at different temperatures. Langmuir isotherm model described the experimental data well followed by Redlich-Peterson and Freundlich isotherm models. Biosorption kinetics data were fitted using pseudo-first, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion. It was found that the kinetics data fitted well the pseudo-second-order followed by intraparticle diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibbs free energy (Delta G0), standard enthalpy (Delta H0) and standard entropy (Delta S0) were evaluated. The result showed that biosorption of cadmium (II) ions onto immobilized cells of P. sanguineus was spontaneous and endothermic nature.
Heavy metal pollution has become a global concern due to accumulation in tissue and transferable effects to humans via the food chain. This study focused on monitoring the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in surface soil and body content: bone, heart, brain, liver, lung, muscle, kidney, feathers, feces, and gizzard contents of house crow Corvus splendens in the Klang region, Malaysia. The results revealed the occurrence of Pb and Cd in all biological samples from house crows, food contents, and surface soil samples. Heart and kidney accrued high amounts of Cd, while high amounts of Pb were found to accumulate in bones and feathers. Major discrepancies were also discovered in the concentrations of metals between juvenile and adults, as well as female and male bird samples. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in house crow internal tissues correlated significantly with that of bird feathers, but none could be established with that of surface soil. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between Pb concentration in the internal tissues to that of the feces, but the same was not the case when compared with the surface soil concentration. Metal accrual in the house crows feathers and feces may be through a long-term transmission via the food chain, which are eliminated from feathers via molting. This may suggest the utility of molted breast feathers of house crow in the bio-monitoring of Cd and Pb contamination, whereas feces of house crow appear only to be suitable for the bio-monitoring of Pb contamination.
The relationship between a putative metallothionein gene (MT) and exposure to cadmium (Cd) in blood cockles (Anadara granosa) is reported. In a 96-h dose-response experiment, mortality of cockles was found to proportionately increase in the range of 0.2-5.0 mg/l Cd with a calculated LC(50) of 2.94 mg/l. Exposure to 0.25 mg/l Cd for 16 days caused significant increases (P<0.05) in Cd concentrations in whole tissues, gills and hepatopancreas, and the accumulation of Cd in these tissues increased with the duration of exposure. Two cDNA libraries constructed using the hepatopancreas from control and Cd-treated cockles gave titres of 5.62 x 10(5) and 1.94 x 10(5) pfu/microg vector, respectively. A putative MT gene, AnaMT, of 510 nucleotides in length, was isolated from the treated cDNA library using a heterologous probe MT20 from the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Northern analyses using AnaMT as a probe indicated low expression of the MT mRNA in control animals. In cockles treated with 0.25 mg/l Cd for 4 days, MT mRNA level increased to approximately 168%, but declined to 108% at day 8. After 12 and 16 days of Cd treatment, expression of the MT gene was 138% and 187%, respectively, compared to the controls. These observations suggest that induction of the MT gene by a sublethal dose of Cd is rapid, occurring within 4 days of treatment.