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  1. Tang PL, Lee CK, Low KS, Zainal Z
    Environ Technol, 2003 Oct;24(10):1243-51.
    PMID: 14669804
    The sorption characteristics of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) by ethylenediamine modified rice hull from single and binary metal ion solutions were evaluated under various experimental conditions. Optimal Cr(VI) and Cu(II) removal from single metal ion solutions occurred at pH 2.0 and 5.5, respectively. Simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) occurred at pH greater than 3.0. The sorption kinetics of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from single and binary metal ion solutions were studied with reference to metal concentration, agitation rate and particle size. Sorption of Cr(VI) was more rapid than Cu(II). The kinetics of metal ion sorption fitted a pseudo-second order expression. The variation in the initial uptake rates was very small at an agitation rate beyond 150 rpm and sorption was generally independent of particle size. Equilibrium sorption data could be fitted into the Langmuir isotherm equation. Maximum sorption capacities of ethylenediamine modified rice hull for Cr(VI) at pH 2 and Cu(II) at pH 4 in single metal solutions were 0.45 and 0.06 mmol g(-1), respectively. This corresponds to an enhancement factor of 2.6 and 3 fold for Cr(VI) and Cu(II), respectively, compared to natural rice hull. A synergistic effect was observed for sorption of these ions in binary metal solutions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/isolation & purification*; Carcinogens, Environmental/chemistry*
  2. Low KS, Lee CK, Lee CY
    Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 2001 Jan;90(1):75-87.
    PMID: 11257809
    The potential of quaternized wood (QW) chips in removing hexavalent chromium from synthetic solution and chrome waste under both batch and continuous-flow conditions was investigated. Sorption was found to be dependent on pH, metal concentration, and temperature. QW chips provide higher sorption capacity and wider pH range compared with untreated wood chips. The equilibrium data could be fitted into the Langmuir isotherm model, and maximum sorption capacities were calculated to be 27.03 and 25.77 mg/g in synthetic chromate solution and chrome waste, respectively. The presence of sulfate in high concentration appeared to suppress the uptake of chromium by QW chips. Column studies showed that bed depth influenced the breakthrough time greatly whereas flow rate of influent had little effect on its sorption on the column.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/metabolism
  3. Low KS, Lee CK, Lee TS
    Environ Technol, 2003 Feb;24(2):197-204.
    PMID: 12675017
    Spent bleaching earth, an industrial waste produced after the bleaching of crude palm oil, was investigated for its potential in removing Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The earth was treated with different amounts of sulfuric acid and under different activation temperatures. Results show that the optimum treatment process involved 10% sulfuric acid at 350 degrees C. The effects of contact time, pH, initial concentration, sorbent dosage, temperature, sorption isotherms and the presence of other anions on its sorption capacity were studied. Isotherm data could be fitted into a modified Langmuir isotherm model implying monolayer coverage of Cr(VI) on acid activated spent bleaching earth. The maximum sorption capacity derived from the Langmuir isotherm was 21.2 mg g(-1). This value was compared with those of some other low cost sorbents. Studies of anion effect on the uptake of Cr(VI) on acid activated spent bleaching earth provided the following order of suppression: EDTA >PO4(3-)>SO4(2-)>NO3(-)>Cl(-).
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/chemistry*
  4. Ochieng J, Nangami GN, Ogunkua O, Miousse IR, Koturbash I, Odero-Marah V, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2015 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S128-59.
    PMID: 26106135 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgv034
    The purpose of this review is to stimulate new ideas regarding low-dose environmental mixtures and carcinogens and their potential to promote invasion and metastasis. Whereas a number of chapters in this review are devoted to the role of low-dose environmental mixtures and carcinogens in the promotion of invasion and metastasis in specific tumors such as breast and prostate, the overarching theme is the role of low-dose carcinogens in the progression of cancer stem cells. It is becoming clearer that cancer stem cells in a tumor are the ones that assume invasive properties and colonize distant organs. Therefore, low-dose contaminants that trigger epithelial-mesenchymal transition, for example, in these cells are of particular interest in this review. This we hope will lead to the collaboration between scientists who have dedicated their professional life to the study of carcinogens and those whose interests are exclusively in the arena of tissue invasion and metastasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/adverse effects*
  5. Goodson WH, Lowe L, Carpenter DO, Gilbertson M, Manaf Ali A, Lopez de Cerain Salsamendi A, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2015 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S254-96.
    PMID: 26106142 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgv039
    Lifestyle factors are responsible for a considerable portion of cancer incidence worldwide, but credible estimates from the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggest that the fraction of cancers attributable to toxic environmental exposures is between 7% and 19%. To explore the hypothesis that low-dose exposures to mixtures of chemicals in the environment may be combining to contribute to environmental carcinogenesis, we reviewed 11 hallmark phenotypes of cancer, multiple priority target sites for disruption in each area and prototypical chemical disruptors for all targets, this included dose-response characterizations, evidence of low-dose effects and cross-hallmark effects for all targets and chemicals. In total, 85 examples of chemicals were reviewed for actions on key pathways/mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Only 15% (13/85) were found to have evidence of a dose-response threshold, whereas 59% (50/85) exerted low-dose effects. No dose-response information was found for the remaining 26% (22/85). Our analysis suggests that the cumulative effects of individual (non-carcinogenic) chemicals acting on different pathways, and a variety of related systems, organs, tissues and cells could plausibly conspire to produce carcinogenic synergies. Additional basic research on carcinogenesis and research focused on low-dose effects of chemical mixtures needs to be rigorously pursued before the merits of this hypothesis can be further advanced. However, the structure of the World Health Organization International Programme on Chemical Safety 'Mode of Action' framework should be revisited as it has inherent weaknesses that are not fully aligned with our current understanding of cancer biology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/adverse effects*
  6. Langie SA, Koppen G, Desaulniers D, Al-Mulla F, Al-Temaimi R, Amedei A, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2015 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S61-88.
    PMID: 26106144 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgv031
    Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus, genome instability can be defined as an enhanced tendency for the genome to acquire mutations; ranging from changes to the nucleotide sequence to chromosomal gain, rearrangements or loss. This review raises the hypothesis that in addition to known human carcinogens, exposure to low dose of other chemicals present in our modern society could contribute to carcinogenesis by indirectly affecting genome stability. The selected chemicals with their mechanisms of action proposed to indirectly contribute to genome instability are: heavy metals (DNA repair, epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, telomere length), acrylamide (DNA repair, chromosome segregation), bisphenol A (epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation), benomyl (chromosome segregation), quinones (epigenetic modification) and nano-sized particles (epigenetic pathways, mitochondrial function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make scientists aware of the increasing need to unravel the underlying mechanisms via which chemicals at low doses can induce genome instability and thus promote carcinogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/adverse effects*
  7. Narayanan KB, Ali M, Barclay BJ, Cheng QS, D'Abronzo L, Dornetshuber-Fleiss R, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2015 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S89-110.
    PMID: 26106145 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgv032
    Cell death is a process of dying within biological cells that are ceasing to function. This process is essential in regulating organism development, tissue homeostasis, and to eliminate cells in the body that are irreparably damaged. In general, dysfunction in normal cellular death is tightly linked to cancer progression. Specifically, the up-regulation of pro-survival factors, including oncogenic factors and antiapoptotic signaling pathways, and the down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factors, including tumor suppressive factors, confers resistance to cell death in tumor cells, which supports the emergence of a fully immortalized cellular phenotype. This review considers the potential relevance of ubiquitous environmental chemical exposures that have been shown to disrupt key pathways and mechanisms associated with this sort of dysfunction. Specifically, bisphenol A, chlorothalonil, dibutyl phthalate, dichlorvos, lindane, linuron, methoxychlor and oxyfluorfen are discussed as prototypical chemical disruptors; as their effects relate to resistance to cell death, as constituents within environmental mixtures and as potential contributors to environmental carcinogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/adverse effects*
  8. Engström W, Darbre P, Eriksson S, Gulliver L, Hultman T, Karamouzis MV, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2015 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S38-60.
    PMID: 26106143 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgv030
    The aim of this work is to review current knowledge relating the established cancer hallmark, sustained cell proliferation to the existence of chemicals present as low dose mixtures in the environment. Normal cell proliferation is under tight control, i.e. cells respond to a signal to proliferate, and although most cells continue to proliferate into adult life, the multiplication ceases once the stimulatory signal disappears or if the cells are exposed to growth inhibitory signals. Under such circumstances, normal cells remain quiescent until they are stimulated to resume further proliferation. In contrast, tumour cells are unable to halt proliferation, either when subjected to growth inhibitory signals or in the absence of growth stimulatory signals. Environmental chemicals with carcinogenic potential may cause sustained cell proliferation by interfering with some cell proliferation control mechanisms committing cells to an indefinite proliferative span.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/adverse effects*
  9. Hu Z, Brooks SA, Dormoy V, Hsu CW, Hsu HY, Lin LT, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2015 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S184-202.
    PMID: 26106137 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgv036
    One of the important 'hallmarks' of cancer is angiogenesis, which is the process of formation of new blood vessels that are necessary for tumor expansion, invasion and metastasis. Under normal physiological conditions, angiogenesis is well balanced and controlled by endogenous proangiogenic factors and antiangiogenic factors. However, factors produced by cancer cells, cancer stem cells and other cell types in the tumor stroma can disrupt the balance so that the tumor microenvironment favors tumor angiogenesis. These factors include vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial tissue factor and other membrane bound receptors that mediate multiple intracellular signaling pathways that contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Though environmental exposures to certain chemicals have been found to initiate and promote tumor development, the role of these exposures (particularly to low doses of multiple substances), is largely unknown in relation to tumor angiogenesis. This review summarizes the evidence of the role of environmental chemical bioactivity and exposure in tumor angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. We identify a number of ubiquitous (prototypical) chemicals with disruptive potential that may warrant further investigation given their selectivity for high-throughput screening assay targets associated with proangiogenic pathways. We also consider the cross-hallmark relationships of a number of important angiogenic pathway targets with other cancer hallmarks and we make recommendations for future research. Understanding of the role of low-dose exposure of chemicals with disruptive potential could help us refine our approach to cancer risk assessment, and may ultimately aid in preventing cancer by reducing or eliminating exposures to synergistic mixtures of chemicals with carcinogenic potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/adverse effects*
  10. Robey RB, Weisz J, Kuemmerle NB, Salzberg AC, Berg A, Brown DG, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2015 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S203-31.
    PMID: 26106140 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgv037
    Environmental contributions to cancer development are widely accepted, but only a fraction of all pertinent exposures have probably been identified. Traditional toxicological approaches to the problem have largely focused on the effects of individual agents at singular endpoints. As such, they have incompletely addressed both the pro-carcinogenic contributions of environmentally relevant low-dose chemical mixtures and the fact that exposures can influence multiple cancer-associated endpoints over varying timescales. Of these endpoints, dysregulated metabolism is one of the most common and recognizable features of cancer, but its specific roles in exposure-associated cancer development remain poorly understood. Most studies have focused on discrete aspects of cancer metabolism and have incompletely considered both its dynamic integrated nature and the complex controlling influences of substrate availability, external trophic signals and environmental conditions. Emerging high throughput approaches to environmental risk assessment also do not directly address the metabolic causes or consequences of changes in gene expression. As such, there is a compelling need to establish common or complementary frameworks for further exploration that experimentally and conceptually consider the gestalt of cancer metabolism and its causal relationships to both carcinogenesis and the development of other cancer hallmarks. A literature review to identify environmentally relevant exposures unambiguously linked to both cancer development and dysregulated metabolism suggests major gaps in our understanding of exposure-associated carcinogenesis and metabolic reprogramming. Although limited evidence exists to support primary causal roles for metabolism in carcinogenesis, the universality of altered cancer metabolism underscores its fundamental biological importance, and multiple pleiomorphic, even dichotomous, roles for metabolism in promoting, antagonizing or otherwise enabling the development and selection of cancer are suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/adverse effects*
  11. Yibadatihan S, Jinap S, Mahyudin NA
    PMID: 25396715 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2014.978396
    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a useful source of protein and energy for livestock. Recently, it has been used as an ingredient in poultry feed. Mycotoxin contamination of PKC due to inappropriate handling during production and storage has increased public concern about economic losses and health risks for poultry and humans. This concern has accentuated the need for the evaluation of mycotoxins in PKC. Furthermore, a method for quantifying mycotoxins in PKC has so far not been established. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to develop a method for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in PKC and (2) to validate and verify the method. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) in both positive- and negative-ion modes was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB₁, AFB₂, AFG₁ and AFG₂), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB₁ and FB₂), T-2 and HT-2 toxin in PKC. An optimum method using a 0.2 ml min⁻¹ flow rate, 0.2% formic acid in aqueous phase, 10% organic phase at the beginning and 90% organic phase at the end of the gradient was achieved. The extraction of mycotoxins was performed using a solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (79:20:1, v/v) without further clean-up. The mean recoveries of mycotoxins in spiked PKC samples ranged from 81% to 112%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for mycotoxin standards and PKC samples ranged from 0.02 to 17.5 μg kg⁻¹ and from 0.06 to 58.0 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. Finally, the newly developed method was successfully applied to PKC samples. The results illustrated the fact that the method is efficient and accurate for the simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in PKC, which can be ideal for routine analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/analysis*; Carcinogens, Environmental/chemistry
  12. Thompson PA, Khatami M, Baglole CJ, Sun J, Harris SA, Moon EY, et al.
    Carcinogenesis, 2015 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S232-53.
    PMID: 26106141 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgv038
    An emerging area in environmental toxicology is the role that chemicals and chemical mixtures have on the cells of the human immune system. This is an important area of research that has been most widely pursued in relation to autoimmune diseases and allergy/asthma as opposed to cancer causation. This is despite the well-recognized role that innate and adaptive immunity play as essential factors in tumorigenesis. Here, we review the role that the innate immune cells of inflammatory responses play in tumorigenesis. Focus is placed on the molecules and pathways that have been mechanistically linked with tumor-associated inflammation. Within the context of chemically induced disturbances in immune function as co-factors in carcinogenesis, the evidence linking environmental toxicant exposures with perturbation in the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses is reviewed. Reported effects of bisphenol A, atrazine, phthalates and other common toxicants on molecular and cellular targets involved in tumor-associated inflammation (e.g. cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin E2, nuclear factor kappa B, nitric oxide synthesis, cytokines and chemokines) are presented as example chemically mediated target molecule perturbations relevant to cancer. Commentary on areas of additional research including the need for innovation and integration of systems biology approaches to the study of environmental exposures and cancer causation are presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/adverse effects*
  13. Jalili M, Jinap S, Son R
    PMID: 21416415 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2010.551300
    The effect of 18 different chemicals, which included acidic compounds (sulfuric acid, chloridric acid, phosphoric acid, benzoic acid, citric acid, acetic acid), alkaline compounds (ammonia, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide), salts (acetate ammonium, sodium bisulfite, sodium hydrosulfite, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate) and oxidising agents (hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite), on the reduction of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was investigated in black and white pepper. OTA and aflatoxins were determined using HPLC after immunoaffinity column clean-up. Almost all of the applied chemicals showed a significant degree of reduction on mycotoxins (p < 0.05). The lowest and highest reduction of aflatoxin B(1), which is the most dangerous aflatoxin, was 20.5% ± 2.7% using benzoic acid and 54.5% ± 2.7% using sodium hydroxide. There was no significant difference between black and white peppers (p < 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/analysis
  14. Pedersen M, Stafoggia M, Weinmayr G, Andersen ZJ, Galassi C, Sommar J, et al.
    Eur Urol Focus, 2018 01;4(1):113-120.
    PMID: 28753823 DOI: 10.1016/j.euf.2016.11.008
    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution contains low concentrations of carcinogens implicated in the etiology of urinary bladder cancer (BC). Little is known about whether exposure to air pollution influences BC in the general population.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and BC incidence.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We obtained data from 15 population-based cohorts enrolled between 1985 and 2005 in eight European countries (N=303431; mean follow-up 14.1 yr). We estimated exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameter <10μm (PM10), <2.5μm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10μm (PM2.5-10), PM2.5absorbance (soot), elemental constituents of PM, organic carbon, and traffic density at baseline home addresses using standardized land-use regression models from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects project.

    OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We used Cox proportional-hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and meta-analyses to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRs) for BC incidence.

    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: During follow-up, 943 incident BC cases were diagnosed. In the meta-analysis, none of the exposures were associated with BC risk. The summary HRs associated with a 10-μg/m3 increase in NO2 and 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.08) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.63-1.18), respectively. Limitations include the lack of information about lifetime exposure.

    CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of an association between exposure to outdoor air pollution levels at place of residence and risk of BC.

    PATIENT SUMMARY: We assessed the link between outdoor air pollution at place of residence and bladder cancer using the largest study population to date and extensive assessment of exposure and comprehensive data on personal risk factors such as smoking. We found no association between the levels of outdoor air pollution at place of residence and bladder cancer risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinogens, Environmental/adverse effects*
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