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  1. Torey A, Sasidharan S, Yeng C, Latha LY
    Molecules, 2010 May 10;15(5):3411-20.
    PMID: 20657490 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15053411
    Quality control standardizations of the various medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is becoming more important today in view of the commercialization of formulations based on these plants. An attempt at standardization of Cassia spectabilis leaf has been carried out with respect to authenticity, assay and chemical constituent analysis. The authentication involved many parameters, including gross morphology, microscopy of the leaves and functional group analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The assay part of standardization involved determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract which could help assess the chemical effects and establish curative values. The MIC of the C. spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the Broth Dilution Method. The extracts showed a MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL, independent of the extraction time. The chemical constituent aspect of standardization involves quantification of the main chemical components in C. spectabilis. The GCMS method used for quantification of 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione in the extract was rapid, accurate, precise, linear (R(2) = 0.8685), rugged and robust. Hence this method was suitable for quantification of this component in C. spectabilis. The standardization of C. spectabilis is needed to facilitate marketing of medicinal plants, with a view to promoting the export of valuable Malaysian Traditional Medicinal plants such as C. spectabilis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry*
  2. Sangetha S, Zuraini Z, Suryani S, Sasidharan S
    Micron, 2009 Jun;40(4):439-43.
    PMID: 19261482 DOI: 10.1016/j.micron.2009.01.003
    The inhibitory effect of Cassia spectabilis methanol leaf extract was evaluated against biofilm forming Candida albicans, which was sensitive to 6.25 mg/ml concentration of the extract. Transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations were used to study the anticandidal activity and prevention of biofilm formation by the C. spectabilis extract. SEM analysis further revealed reduction in C. albicans biofilm in response to the extract. The main abnormalities noted via TEM study was the alterations in morphology and complete collapse of the yeast cells after 36 h of exposure to the extract. The significant antifungal activity shown by this methanol extract of C. spectabilis suggests its potential against infections caused by C. albicans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry*
  3. Hazni H, Ahmad N, Hitotsuyanagi Y, Takeya K, Choo CY
    Planta Med., 2008 Dec;74(15):1802-5.
    PMID: 18991205 DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1088340
    The methanolic extract of the leaves of CASSIA ALATA was sequentially partitioned in increasing polarity to afford the hexane, chloroform, butanol and residual extract. Crude extracts were evaluated against MRSA using the agar well diffusion assay. The butanol and chloroform extracts both exhibited inhibition against MRSA with inhibition indexes of 1.03 +/- 0.16 and 0.78 +/- 0.07 at the concentration of 50 mg/mL. The butanol extracts were further purified using silica gel and reverse phase chromatography to afford kaempferol ( 1), kaempferol 3- O-beta-glucopyranoside ( 2), kaempferol 3- O-gentiobioside ( 3) and aloe emodin ( 4). The four constituents showed varying degrees of inhibition against MRSA. Both 1 and 4 exhibited MIC (50) values of 13.0 +/- 1.5 microg/mL and 12.0 +/- 1.5 microg/mL, respectively. The kaempferol glycosides 2 and 3 were less active with MIC (50) values of 83.0 +/- 0.9 microg/mL and 560.0 +/- 1.2 microg/mL, respectively. A free hydroxyl group at C-3 of the flavonol structure is a structural requirement for the inhibition of MRSA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry*
  4. Sangetha S, Zuraini Z, Sasidharan S, Suryani S
    Med Mycol J, 2008;49(4):299-304.
    PMID: 19001757
    The fungicidal activity of Cassia spectabilis leaf extracts was investigated using the disk diffusion technique and the broth dilution method. The extract showed a favorable antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans with a minimum inhibition concentration(MIC) value of 6.25 mg / ml. Apart from the fungicidal effects, imaging using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the C. albicans. The main abnormalities noted in the SEM studies were the alterations in morphology and complete collapse of the yeast cells after 36 h of exposure to the extract. The in vitro time-kill study performed using the leaf extract at 1/2, 1 or 2 times of the MIC significantly inhibited the yeast growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of yeast culture, thus confirming the fungicidal effect of the extract on C. albicans. In addition, in vivo antifungal activity studies on candidiasis in mice showed a 5-fold decrease in Candida in kidneys and blood samples in the groups of animals treated with the extract (2.5 g / kg body weight). In an acute toxicity study using mice, the acute minimum fatal dose of the extract was greater than 2000 mg / kg, and we found no histopathological changes in macroscopic examination by necropsy of mice treated with extract. We conclude that the extract may be safely used as an anticandidal agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia*
  5. Rao PV, Gan SH
    PMID: 24817901 DOI: 10.1155/2014/642942
    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia
  6. Sumathy V, Zakaria Z, Chen Y, Latha LY, Jothy SL, Vijayarathna S, et al.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2013 Jun;17(12):1648-54.
    PMID: 23832733
    Cassia (C.) surattensis Burm. f. (Leguminosae), a medicinal herb native to tropical equatorial Asia, was commonly used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of methanolic flower extract of C. surattensis against Aspergillus (A.) niger.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia*
  7. Jothy SL, Zakariah Z, Chen Y, Sasidharan S
    Molecules, 2012 Jun 07;17(6):6997-7009.
    PMID: 22678414 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17066997
    Cassia fistula seeds have many therapeutic uses in traditional medicine practice. The present investigation was undertaken to demonstrate the anticandidal activity of the C. fistula seed extract at ultra-structural level through transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The effect of seed extract on the growth profile of the Candida albicans was examined via time-kill assays and in vivo efficacy of the extract was tested in an animal model. In addition, the anticandidal effect of seed extract was further evaluated by microscopic observations using SEM and TEM to determine any major alterations in the ultrastructure of C. albicans. The complete inhibition of C. albicans growth was shown by C. fistula seed extract at 6.25 mg/mL concentration. The time-kill assay suggested that C. fistula seed extract had completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans and also exhibited prolonged anti-yeast activity. The SEM and TEM observations carried out to distinguish the metamorphosis in the morphology of control and C. fistula seed extract-treated C. albicans cells revealed the notable effect on the outer cell wall and cytoplasmic content of the C. albicans and complete collapse of yeast cell exposed to seed extract at concentration 6.25 mg/mL at 36 h. The in vitro time-kill study performed using the leaf extract at 1/2, 1 or 2 times of the MIC significantly inhibited the yeast growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of yeast culture, thus confirming the fungicidal effect of the extract on C. albicans. In addition, in vivo antifungal activity studies on candidiasis in mice showed a 6-fold decrease in C. albicans in kidneys and blood samples in the groups of animals treated with the extract (2.5 g/kg body weight). The results suggested that the C. fistula seed extract possessed good anticandidal activity and is a potential candidate for the development of anticandidal agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry*
  8. Jothy SL, Zakaria Z, Chen Y, Lau YL, Latha LY, Shin LN, et al.
    Molecules, 2011 Sep 05;16(9):7583-92.
    PMID: 21894090 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16097583
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation.

    RESULTS: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant seed revealed the presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. The isolation of active compounds was carried out in four steps: multiple extractions, fractionation using column chromatography and purification using preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The structure of separated compounds was determined on the basis of mass spectrometry data. One compound was identified is roseanone.

    CONCLUSIONS: The MS analysis on the active fraction from seed extract of C. fistula confirmed the presence of roseanone with antiyeast activity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry*
  9. Jothy SL, Zakaria Z, Chen Y, Lau YL, Latha LY, Sasidharan S
    Molecules, 2011 Jun 23;16(6):5268-82.
    PMID: 21701437 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16065268
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cassia fistula is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of ailments. The evaluation of toxic properties of C. fistula is crucial when considering public health protection because exposure to plant extracts can result in undesirable effects on consumers. Hence, in this study the acute oral toxicity of C. fistula seeds extract was investigated in mice.

    RESULTS: Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that C. fistula in nontoxic. Throughout 14 days of the treatment no changes in behavioural pattern, clinical sign and body weight of mice in both control and treatment groups. Also there were no any significant elevations observed in the biochemical analysis of the blood serum. Further, histopathological examination revealed normal architecture and no significant adverse effects observed on the kidney, heart, liver, lung and spleen.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results suggest that, the oral administration of C. fistula methanolic seeds extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized for pharmaceutical formulations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry*
  10. Somchit MN, Reezal I, Nur IE, Mutalib AR
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2003 Jan;84(1):1-4.
    PMID: 12499068
    Crude ethanol and water extract of leaves and barks from Cassia alata were tested in vitro against fungi, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Microsporum canis), yeast (Candida albicans) and bacteria (Staphylococcus aereus and Escherichia coli). C. albicans showed concentration-dependent susceptibility towards both the ethanol and water extracts from the barks, but resistant towards the extracts of leaves. The degree of susceptibility varied, the water extract from barks showed bigger inhibition zone than the ethanol extracts (12-16 and 10-14 mm, diameter respectively). The growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Microsporum canis were not affected by all types of the plant extracts. Results were comparable to standard antifungal drug Tioconazole (18 mm diameter) at equivalent concentration. The anti-bacterial activity of C. alata extracts on S. aureus was detected with only the leaves extracts using water and ethanol. The water extract exhibited higher antibacterial activity than the ethanol extract from leaves (inhibition zones of 11-14 and 9-11 mm, respectively). E. coli showed resistance to all types of extracts. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that this plant has antimicrobial activity, which is as potent as standard antimicrobial drugs against certain microorganisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry*
  11. Sivaranjana P, Nagarajan ER, Rajini N, Jawaid M, Rajulu AV
    Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 2017 Jun;99:223-232.
    PMID: 28237574 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.02.070
    Cotton linters were dissolved in aq. (8% LiOH+15% urea) that was pre-cooled to -12.5°C. Using this solution cellulose gel films were prepared by regeneration method with ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. These wet films were diffused with 10wt% Cassia alata leaf extract that acted as a reducing agent. The leaf extract diffused cellulose wet films were used as the matrix. The wet matrix films were dipped individually in lower concentrated 1-5mM aq.AgNO3 source solutions in the presence of sunlight and allowed the solutions to react with the diffused leaf extract reducing agent which in situ generated the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inside the films as well as in the source solution. The AgNPs formed in the source solution were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) while those formed in situ the films were observed by SEM and the particle size distribution was determined. The cellulose/AgNP composite films showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli bacteria. These nanocomposite films were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. At temperatures below 300°C, the thermal stability of the nanocomposite films was lower than that of the matrix due to the catalytic effect of AgNPs. The nanocomposite films also possessed good tensile properties. The ecofriendly cellulose/AgNP composite films with good antibacterial activity and tensile properties can be considered for medical applications like dressing materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry*
  12. Jibril S, Basar N, Sirat HM, Wahab RA, Mahat NA, Nahar L, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2019 Jan;30(1):101-109.
    PMID: 30288828 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2795
    INTRODUCTION: Cassia singueana Del. (Fabaceae) is a rare medicinal plant used in the traditional medicine preparations to treat various ailments. The root of C. singueana is a rich source of anthraquinones that possess anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal properties.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method for achieving a high extraction yield of anthraquinones using the response surface methodology (RSM), Box-Behnken design (BBD), and a recycling preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) protocol for isolation of anthraquinones from C. singueana.

    METHODOLOGY: Optimisation of UAE was performed using the Box-Behnken experimental design. Recycling preparative HPLC was employed to isolate anthraquinones from the root extract of C. singueana.

    RESULTS: The BBD was well-described by a quadratic polynomial model (R2  = 0.9751). The predicted optimal UAE conditions for a high extraction yield were obtained at: extraction time 25.00 min, temperature 50°C and solvent-sample ratio of 10 mL/g. Under the predicted conditions, the experimental value (1.65 ± 0.07%) closely agreed to the predicted yield (1.64%). The obtained crude extract of C. singueana root was subsequently purified to afford eight anthraquinones.

    CONCLUSION: The extraction protocol described here is suitable for large-scale extraction of anthraquinones from plant extracts.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry*
  13. Chua LYW, Chua BL, Figiel A, Chong CH, Wojdyło A, Szumny A, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Apr 24;24(8).
    PMID: 31022967 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24081625
    The preservation of active constituents in Cassia alata through the removal of moisture is crucial in producing a final product with high antioxidant activity. This study aims to determine the influences of various drying methods and drying conditions on the antioxidant activity, volatiles and phytosterols content of C. alata. The drying methods used were convective drying (CD) at 40 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C; freeze drying; vacuum microwave drying (VMD) at 6, 9 and 12 W/g; and two-stage convective pre-drying followed by vacuum microwave finish drying (CPD-VMFD) at 50 °C and 9 W/g. The drying kinetics of C. alata are best described by the thin-layer model (modified Page model). The highest antioxidant activity, TPC and volatile concentration were achieved with CD at 40 °C. GC-MS analysis identified the presence of 51 volatiles, which were mostly present in all samples but with quantitative variation. The dominant volatiles in fresh C. alata are 2-hexenal (60.28 mg 100 g-1 db), 1-hexanol (18.70 mg 100 g-1 db) and salicylic acid (15.05 mg 100 g-1 db). The concentration of phytosterols in fresh sample was 3647.48 mg 100 g-1 db, and the major phytosterols present in fresh and dried samples were β-sitosterol (1162.24 mg 100 g-1 db). CPD-VMFD was effective in ensuring the preservation of higher phytosterol content in comparison with CD at 50 °C. The final recommendation of a suitable drying method to dehydrate C. alata leaves is CD at 40 °C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry*
  14. Torey A, Sasidharan S
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2011 Aug;15(8):875-82.
    PMID: 21845797
    Candida (C.) albicans infection in its biofilm mode of growth has taken centre point with the increasing recognition of its role in human infections due to the development of resistance to the commonly used antibiotic or phenotypic adaptation within the biofilm. Hence, in this study the inhibitory effect of methanol extract of Cassia (C.) spectabilis leaves was evaluated against biofilm forming C. albicans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry
  15. Sumathy V, Zakaria Z, Jothy SL, Gothai S, Vijayarathna S, Yoga Latha L, et al.
    Microb. Pathog., 2014 Dec;77:7-12.
    PMID: 25457794 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2014.10.004
    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised host is a major infectious disease leading to reduce the survival rate of world population. Aspergillus niger is a causative agent causing IA. Cassia surattensis plant is commonly used in rural areas to treat various types of disease. C. surattensis flower extract was evaluated against the systemic aspergillosis model in this study. Qualitative measurement of fungal burden suggested a reduction pattern in the colony forming unit (CFU) of lung, liver, spleen and kidney for the extract treated group. Galactomannan assay assessment showed a decrease of fungal load in the treatment and positive control group with galactomannan index (GMI) value of 1.27 and 0.25 on day 28 but the negative control group showed high level of galactomannan in the serum with GMI value of 3.58. Histopathology examinations of the tissues featured major architecture modifications in the tissues of negative control group. Tissue reparation and recovery from infection were detected in extract treated and positive control group. Time killing fungicidal study of A. niger revealed dependence of the concentration of C. surattensis flower extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry*
  16. Uthaya Kumar US, Chen Y, Kanwar JR, Sasidharan S
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016;2016:6841348.
    PMID: 28053693 DOI: 10.1155/2016/6841348
    The therapeutic potential of Cassia surattensis in reducing free radical-induced oxidative stress and inflammation particularly in hepatic diseases was evaluated in this study. The polyphenol rich C. surattensis seed extract showed good in vitro antioxidant. C. surattensis seed extract contained total phenolic content of 100.99 mg GAE/g dry weight and there was a positive correlation (r > 0.9) between total phenolic content and the antioxidant activities of the seed extract. C. surattensis seed extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated levels of serum liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) and relative liver weight in paracetamol-induced liver hepatotoxicity in mice. Moreover, the extract significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the antioxidant enzymes and glutathione (GSH) contents in the liver tissues, which led to decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) level. The histopathological examination showed the liver protective effect of C. surattensis seed extract against paracetamol-induced histoarchitectural alterations by maximum recovery in the histoarchitecture of the liver tissue. Furthermore, histopathological observations correspondingly supported the biochemical assay outcome, that is, the significant reduction in elevated levels of serum liver enzymes. In conclusion, C. surattensis seed extract enhanced the in vivo antioxidant status and showed antihepatotoxic activities, which is probably due to the presence of phenolic compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry*
  17. MyJurnal
    This study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial properties of ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Nephelium lappaceum, Curcuma longa, Cinnamomun cassia, Durio zibethinus, Vitex trifolia, Amaranthus tricolor, Syzygium samarangense and Manihot esculenta. Antibacterial properties of the extracts were studied against fifteen strains of different gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio para, and Escherichia coli using the agar disk diffusion method. Among the tested extracts, only Amaranthus tricolor exhibited specific inhibition of one of the tested bacteria; Bacillus cereus. Using the microdilution method, its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was determined to be 20 mg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia
  18. John CM, Sandrasaigaran P, Tong CK, Adam A, Ramasamy R
    Cell. Immunol., 2011;271(2):474-9.
    PMID: 21924708 DOI: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2011.08.017
    The immunomodulatory activity of Cassia auriculata (CA)-derived polyphenols was tested on aged rats. Rats (24-26 months old) were given CA polyphenols supplementation at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg for 28 days. Flow cytometry analysis of CA polyphenols-treated aged rats showed increased T and B cells percentage along with enhanced proliferation of splenocytes in both resting and LPS-stimulated cells. Increased percentage of pan T cells is further supported by an elevation of CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells. In terms of innate immune cell activity, CA polyphenol supplementation reduced the oxidative burst activity of neutrophils in response to PMA and Escherichia coli activation. Our results collectively show that polyphenols derived from CA boost T cell immunity by increasing the number of T cells and its sensitivity towards stimulants and decreasing ROS production by neutrophils that could potentially harm multiple biological systems in aged individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/immunology*
  19. Einstein JW, Mustafa MR, Nishigaki I, Rajkapoor B, Moh MA
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2008 Oct;30(8):599-605.
    PMID: 19088944 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2008.30.8.1268401
    The protective effect of methanol extracts of Cassia fistula (flowers, leaves and bark) was examined in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) against toxicity induced by glycated protein (GFBS) in vitro. The experiments consisted of eight groups of HUVEC with five flasks in each group. Group I was treated with 15% FBS, group II with GFBS (70 microM) alone, and the other six groups were treated with GFBS plus 25 and 50 microg of each of the three types of C. fistula extracts. After 72 h of incubation, cells were collected and tested for lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The protective effect of C. fistula extracts against GFBS-induced cytotoxicity was examined in HUVEC by using trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays. Results showed that HUVEC incubated with GFBS alone showed a significant (P < 0.001) elevation of lipid peroxidation accompanied by depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), in addition to decreased cytosolic GST. Treatment of HUVEC with C. fistula extracts at a concentration of 25 and 50 microg significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and normalized the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and GST levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological changes of HUVEC were compared with respective controls; in addition, the C. fistula extracts increased the viability of HUVEC damaged by GFBS. A protective effect of C. fistula extracts on HUVEC against GFBS-induced toxicity suggested a potential beneficial effect of the extract in preventing diabetic angiopathies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia*
  20. Mohd Fauzi F, John CM, Karunanidhi A, Mussa HY, Ramasamy R, Adam A, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2017 Feb 02;197:61-72.
    PMID: 27452659 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.058
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cassia auriculata (CA) is used as an antidiabetic therapy in Ayurvedic and Siddha practice. This study aimed to understand the mode-of-action of CA via combined cheminformatics and in vivo biological analysis. In particular, the effect of 10 polyphenolic constituents of CA in modulating insulin and immunoprotective pathways were studied.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In silico target prediction was first employed to predict the probability of the polyphenols interacting with key protein targets related to insulin signalling, based on a model trained on known bioactivity data and chemical similarity considerations. Next, CA was investigated in in vivo studies where induced type 2 diabetic rats were treated with CA for 28 days and the expression levels of genes regulating insulin signalling pathway, glucose transporters of hepatic (GLUT2) and muscular (GLUT4) tissue, insulin receptor substrate (IRS), phosphorylated insulin receptor (AKT), gluconeogenesis (G6PC and PCK-1), along with inflammatory mediators genes (NF-κB, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) were determined by qPCR.

    RESULTS: In silico analysis shows that several of the top 20 enriched targets predicted for the constituents of CA are involved in insulin signalling pathways e.g. PTPN1, PCK-α, AKT2, PI3K-γ. Some of the predictions were supported by scientific literature such as the prediction of PI3K for epigallocatechin gallate. Based on the in silico and in vivo findings, we hypothesized that CA may enhance glucose uptake and glucose transporter expressions via the IRS signalling pathway. This is based on AKT2 and PI3K-γ being listed in the top 20 enriched targets. In vivo analysis shows significant increase in the expression of IRS, AKT, GLUT2 and GLUT4. CA may also affect the PPAR-γ signalling pathway. This is based on the CA-treated groups showing significant activation of PPAR-γ in the liver compared to control. PPAR-γ was predicted by the in silico target prediction with high normalisation rate although it was not in the top 20 most enriched targets. CA may also be involved in the gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in the liver based on the downregulation of G6PC and PCK-1 genes seen in CA-treated groups. In addition, CA-treated groups also showed decreased cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, CRP and Hb1Ac levels, and increased insulin and C-peptide levels. These findings demonstrate the insulin secretagogue and sensitizer effect of CA.

    CONCLUSION: Based on both an in silico and in vivo analysis, we propose here that CA mediates glucose/lipid metabolism via the PI3K signalling pathway, and influence AKT thereby causing insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. CA enhances glucose uptake and expression of glucose transporters in particular via the upregulation of GLUT2 and GLUT4. Thus, based on its ability to modulate immunometabolic pathways, CA appears as an attractive long term therapy for T2DM even at relatively low doses.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cassia/chemistry*
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