Various key aspects needing consideration in primary health care services for children are described. These include the need for basic curative facilities, a dyodic approach, concentration on major issues, use of appropriate technology and cultural appropriateness.
The number of children suffering from stress and anxiety in Malaysia is on the rise. Evidence shows that mind-body therapies such as mindfulness therapy, meditation and yoga have been practiced in many other countries to reduce and/or manage the psychological effects of stress and anxiety. This review article looks at the intervention of yoga as a meditative movement practice in helping school children manage stress and anxiety. Articles were retrieved using a combination of databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Not only peer-reviewed articles, but also those written in English language were included in this review. All studies reviewed had incorporated some form of meditative movement exercise. The intervention encompassed asanas (postures), pranayama (expansion of life force), dharana (concentration) and dhyana (meditation), which are the different paths in yoga. A total of eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The findings of this review reveal that the practice of yoga has brought about, among other things, improvement in managing and reducing stress and anxiety. Despite the limitations in most, if not all of the studies reviewed, in terms of heterogeneity and sample size, yoga appears to be an effective modality for helping children cope with stress and anxiety. It appears that if schools in Malaysia can incorporate yoga as part of the physical education curriculum, it will definitely benefit the students.
A study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of health services at two maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in Kuala Lumpur. The time spent for individual patient care by the clinic staff was used as an indicator for the evaluation. The main objective was to derive a model of ideal operation time for specific patient care activities at a MCH clinic. Primary data was collected through systematic random sampling of patients between 25/7/1985 and 31/7/1985. Secondary data was obtained from available clinic records for July, 1985. The time a patient spent at the clinic and the time she spent at each examination station and waiting between stations was recorded with digital watches. Results show tha patients spent 80% of their time at the clinics waiting. The actual time spent on each patient was found to be considerably less than the ideal time measured under ideal conditions. Various recommendation are presented in the paper to reduce waiting time and extend examination time. The ideal patient capacity for the two clinics was also calculated.
Citation: National Health Morbidity Survey 2016: Maternal Child Health Survey. Kuala Lumpur: Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, 2016
Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2016)
BACKGROUND: The 2016 Malaysia Active Healthy Kids Report Card aims to collect, assess, and grade current and comprehensive data on physical activity (PA) and associated factors in Malaysian children and adolescents aged 5 to 17 years.
METHODS: This report card was developed following the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card protocol. The Research Working Group identified the core matrices, assessed the key data sources, and evaluated the evidence gathered for grade assignments. A grade was assigned to each indicator by comparing the best available evidence against relevant benchmark using a standardized grading scheme.
RESULTS: Overall Physical Activity, Active Transportation, and Sedentary Behavior were assigned the D grade. The lowest grade of F was assigned to Diet, while School and Government Strategies and Investments were graded higher with a B. Five indicators were assigned INC (incomplete) due to a lack of representative data.
CONCLUSIONS: The report card demonstrates that Malaysian children and adolescents are engaging in low levels of PA and active commuting, high levels of screen time, and have extremely low compliance with dietary recommendations. More efforts are needed to address the root causes of physical inactivity while increasing the opportunities for children and adolescents to be more physically active.
MESH: screen time
The Municipal Maternal and Child Health Clinics at Kuala Lumpur were faced with a declining but continuing problem of diphtheria. The arrangements for immunization were such that a low coverage was obtained for triple vaccination, but a high one for smallpox, a disease they had not experienced for many years. By reversing the schedule, so that triple vaccine injections were administered first, and ensuring that fewer children were not immunized because of concurrent minor ailments, the diphtheria immunization coverage was greatly improved. There was some loss of smallpox cover.
The revision commenced in 1970 and the diphtheria incidence rate, which had been falling since 1965, continued to fall but at a lower rate. The author does not discuss possible explanations for this. The article illustrates a dramatic improvement in immunization cover by a simple re-arrangement better suited to the needs of the town
The advantages of breastfeeding have been well established. The objective of this study was to determine the practice and knowledge of breastfeeding in an urban com-munity and identify the influencing factors. This is a cross-sectional study. All mothers attending the Maternal and Child Health Clinic during the study period, who fulfilled the selection criteria, were included in the study. The mothers were interviewed using a self administered questionnaire. A total of 162 mothers participated in the study. The prevalence of initiating breastfeeding during the first week after childbirth was 93.8%. Breastfeeding was found to be higher among Malay mothers (p value
Study site: a Child Health Clinic in Cheras Baru, Kuala Lumpur
Matched MeSH terms: Child Health; Maternal-Child Health Centers
Paediatric palliative care services have increased both in numbers and capacity around the world in response to the needs of children living with life-limiting conditions. Members of the Asia Pacific Hospice Network, who render care to children, have increasingly realised the need to map existing services for enhanced collaborative, educational and advocacy efforts. An online survey was conducted over 2 months among professionals in the region to document current service provision, and at the same time to explore individual training needs and practice challenges. A questionnaire crafted through consensus by members of a new special interest group within the network was used to collect data. 59 distinct responses from 16 countries were obtained to build a directory, which has already been circulated. Content analyses of narrative responses yield further findings. Half of these services catered to adults as well as to children. Staffing and service provision varied across the region but most members worked in teams consisting of multidisciplinary professionals. Numerous service and funding models were found, reflecting wide differences in local conditions and responses to diverse patient populations unique to paediatric palliative care. The highest training needs centred around bereavement and spiritual care. Capacity and funding issues were expected, but significant lack of support by paediatricians was found to be alarming and warrants further study. Amid the heterogeneity, these services share common struggles and face similar needs. Identifying individual profiles of different services potentially helps to draw everyone together, towards a common vision, and towards creating opportunities for sharing of expertise and experience.
Matched MeSH terms: Child Health Services/standards; Child Health Services/statistics & numerical data*
One hundred and ninety-nine children brought by 181 adults to a child health clinic based in a rural health sub-centre in Peninsular Malaysia are studied. It is noted that the families from which they come are relatively poor, with a large number of children, and that they are fairly highly motivated. Forty-four per cent of children attending the clinic at the time of the study are symptomatic indicating the need to organise the child health clinic on a "preventive-curative" basis. It is also noted that the young child is initially seen in early infancy but is lost to the clinic when he is older making it judicious to formulate immunization schedules that take this into account.
Matched MeSH terms: Child Health Services/utilization*; Maternal-Child Health Centers
The traditional birth attendant (bidan kampong) or the TBA is still responsible for a substantial number of deliveries in Peninsular Malaysia. In the study area, the TBA s were responsible for about 47.2% of the deliveries in 1976. They were also responsible tor a substantial number of maternal deaths in the district. Therefore it was decided to identity and train the TBAs to identity ‘at risk’ cases at mothers and children and refer them to the nearest health facility. The TBA s were trained to use simple hygenic and aseptic procedures. At the end oi their training all at them were presented with a UNICEF midwifery kit. The short training proved useful because they now deliver fewer ‘at risk' cases and there is an in- creasing trend among them to refer the ‘at risk’ cases to the hospitals. The utilizations of TBA s in the maternal and child health program is a useful tool for the attainment at primary health care objective for developing countries by the year 2000.
Introduction The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of using TelePrimary Care (TPC) to monitor immunization programmed in a clinic. Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccination was selected as an example because its coverage has not been satisfactory when compared to that of other vaccinations, which generally exceed 90%.
Methods Data for all children who were eligible for JE vaccination (age range from 9 months to 30 months) who attended Sarikei Health Clinic between 1 January 2007 till 31 June 2008, was extracted from the TPC database and analyzed for completeness and timeliness of JE vaccination.
Results The analysis showed that although 1,243 children were eligible to receive their first dose of J vaccine at 9 months of age, only 560 (45%) received it. 15 (3%) received on time, and 545 (97%) received it late (age range from 10 months to 20 months). Out of the 560 who were scheduled to receive their second dose of JE vaccine four weeks after the first, 382 (88%) received it on time, and 55 (12%) received it late. Only 78 (18%) out of 429 children aged between 18 months to 24 months received their booster dose; 52 (67%) received it on time and 26 (33%) received it late.TPC not only enables health staff to monitor immunization coverage and timeliness accurately, but it also helps them to identify defaulters quickly so that these children can be traced and immunized. Doing these tasks manually is time-consuming and tedious, leading to delays in tracing defaulters.
Conclusions TPC provides an effective system for staff to easily access real time child health data to monitor and audit their immunization programme and take remedial action where necessary.
Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Sarikei, Sarawak, Malaysia
Previous researchers have shown that parents of children with physical disabilities have a higher risk of mental health problems that may be caused by significant challenges in raising children with disabilities. This challenge is compounded by the difficulty of living in rural areas. This study aimed to identify whether parents of children with physical disabilities experience Mixed Anxiety and Depression (MAD) and build a deep understanding of "why" parents experienced MAD. Material for this case study was obtained using the Kessler psychological stress scale (K-10) and in-depth interviews. Six parents who have MAD has been interviewed. Inductive content analysis with the help of computer program ATLAS.ti 7 has produced six symptoms of MAD among parents (sleep disturbance, irritable, anxious, easy crying, expecting something worse will happen, hopeless about the future) and five sources of MAD (lack of support, acceptance problems, lack of information and experience, the rural factor, child health problem). It can be concluded, this finding relates to the challenges faced by parents in raising children with physical disabilities in rural Sabah.
Citation: Manderson L. Political economy and politics of gender: maternal and child health in colonial Malaya. In: Cohen P, Purcall J (editors). The Political Economy of Primary Health Care in Southeast Asia. Canberra: Australian Development Studies Network an ASEAN Training Centre for Primary Health Care Development; 1989, p79-100