The potential health benefits of probiotics have long been elucidated since Metchnikoff and his coworkers postulated the association of probiotic consumption on human's health and longevity. Since then, many scientific findings and research have further established the correlation of probiotic and gut-associated diseases such as irritable bowel disease and chronic and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, the beneficial impact of probiotic is not limited to the gut-associated diseases alone, but also in different acute and chronic infectious diseases. This is due to the fact that probiotics are able to modify the intestinal microbial ecosystem, enhance the gut barrier function, provide competitive adherence to the mucosa and epithelium, produce antimicrobial substances, and modulate the immune activity by enhancing the innate and adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the current literature with respect to the association of probiotic and cancer, high serum cholesterol, and allergic and HIV diseases are still scarce and controversial. Therefore, in the present work, we reviewed the potential preventive and therapeutic role of probiotics for cancer, high serum cholesterol, and allergic and HIV diseases as well as providing its possible mechanism of actions.
NoveLin I and NoveLin II are palm-based oils. NoveLin I has an equal distribution of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, whereas NoveLin II has a moderate level of monounsaturated fatty acids, and a lower content of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, their hypocholesterolaemic and anti-atherogenic effects have not been studied. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the hypocholesterolaemic and anti-atherogenic effects of these oils. Forty male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing 35% energy fat with added 0.15% (w/w) dietary cholesterol. Group 1, as the control group (CNO) was fed with a diet containing coconut oil, group 2 and 3 were fed with diets containing either NoveLin I or NoveLin II, and group 4, was fed with diet containing olive oil (OLV) for 100 days. Our results demonstrated that both NoveLin groups have significantly lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to CNO group and are comparable to the OLV group. Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL/HDL-C) ratio was significantly lower after the NoveLin II diet but attained significance only in comparison to NoveLin I and CNO groups. Aortic fibrous plaque score was significantly lower in both NoveLin groups compared to CNO group. Our findings suggest that despite the high-fat cholesterol diet, NoveLin II oil resulted in atherogenic effects comparable to olive oil.
Alteration in lipid profile is a common observation in patients with thyroid dysfunction, but the current knowledge on the relationship between lipids and thyroid hormone levels in euthyroid state is insufficient. The current study aimed to determine the association between thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with lipid profile in a euthyroid male population.
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-designed study was conducted to investigate the effect of a synbiotic product containing Lactobacillus gasseri [corrected] CHO-220 and inulin on lipid profiles of hypercholesterolemic men and women. Thirty-two hypercholesterolemic men and women with initial mean plasma cholesterol levels of 5.7±0.32 mmol/L were recruited for the 12-wk study. The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups; namely the treatment group (synbiotic product) and the control group (placebo), and each received 4 capsules of synbiotic or placebo daily. Our results showed that the mean body weight, energy, and nutrient intake of the subjects did not differ between the 2 groups over the study period. The supplementation of synbiotic reduced plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol by 7.84 and 9.27%, respectively, compared with the control over 12 wk. Lipoproteins were subsequently subfractionated and characterized. The synbiotic supplementation resulted in a lower concentration of triglycerides in the very low, intermediate, low, and high-density lipoprotein particles compared with the control over 12 wk. The concentration of triglycerides in lipoproteins is positively correlated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Our results showed that the synbiotic might exhibit an atheropreventive characteristic. Cholesteryl ester (CE) in the high-density lipoprotein particles of the synbiotic group was also higher compared with the control, indicating greater transport of cholesterol in the form of CE to the liver for hydrolysis. This may have led to the reduced plasma total cholesterol level of the synbiotic group. The supplementation of synbiotic also reduced the concentration of CE in the LDL particles compared with the control, leading to the formation of smaller and denser particles that are more easily removed from blood. This supported the reduced LDL-cholesterol level of the synbiotic group compared with the control. Our present study showed that the synbiotic product improved plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol levels by modifying the interconnected pathways of lipid transporters. In addition, although Lactobacillus gasseri [corrected] CHO-220 could deconjugate bile, our results showed a statistically insignificant difference in the levels of conjugated, deconjugated, primary, and secondary bile acids between the synbiotic and control groups over 12 wk, indicating safety from bile-related toxicity.
There are contradictory results regarding the pattern of seasonal variation of serum lipids. The aim of this study was to compare serum lipid levels in different seasons in participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. This was a cross-sectional study among 2890 men and 4004 women 20-64 years old from the participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) between 1999 and 2001. Mean values of serum lipids in different seasons were compared with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) after adjustment for age, physical activity level, smoking, BMI and Waist-to-hip ratio. In men, there was a significant trend for change in the values of cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C in different seasons, with higher cholesterol and LDL-C values in winter than in summer (P < 0.05). In women, only the mean values of triglycerides were significantly different between different seasons with values lower in winter than in summer. There was a 26.2% relative increase in the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (> or = 240 mg/dl) in winter than in summer in men. The corresponding increase in the prevalence of high LDL-C (> or = 160 mg/dl) was 26.7% and 24.9% in men and women, respectively (P < 0.05). The prevalence of high triglycerides (> or = _ 200mg/dl) in women significantly decreased (23.8%) in winter relative to summer (P < 0.001). This study showed that there is seasonal variability in serum lipid values and this variability is greater in men than women. The increase in the prevalence of high LDL in winter in both sexes must be considered in population screening and in the follow-up of hyperlipidemic patients.
Serum lipid profiles were studied in 167 healthy fertile Singaporean women, aged between 18 and 40 and comprising 114 Chinese, 28 Malays and 25 Indians. Parity or ethnic differences did not affect lipid concentrations. Except for triglycerides which showed a decreasing trend, there was no significant variation in lipid concentrations with age. However, all lipid concentrations except HDL cholesterol (which decreased) appeared to increase with body mass index. Compared with other populations, these Singaporean women appeared to have higher mean concentrations of total cholesterol and lower mean concentrations of HDL cholesterol. The possibility that these differences could have contributed to the increasing incidence of coronary heart disease in Singapore is discussed.
The effects of castration with/ without testosterone replacement in male rats, and ovarectomy with oestrogen replacement in female rats, on serum lipids were studied. Simultaneous feeding with diets fortified with 20% weight/ weight (w/ w) soybean oil (Sb) or palm oil (P0) were done to determine the influence of these oils on serum lipids in castrated and sex hormone replaced rats. Two month old male and female Rattus norwegicus rats were given the above treatment for 4 months, and their sera assayed for lipid profile. Castration increased HDL-cholesterol (HDLchol) and total cholesterol (Tchol) concentrations. Testosterone or oestrogen replacement in male and female rats respectively increased HDLchol and decreased LDL-cholesterol (LDLchol) concentrations. Testosterone replacement also decreased Tchol concentration back to noncastrated levels, and reduced serum triglycerides (TG) to lower than non-castrated levels. Addition of Sb or P0 to the diet increased the LDLchol in the testosterone or oestrogen replaced male and female rats, but there was no difference between the two groups. P0 raised serum TG of the testosterone replaced group compared to control and Sb groups. In conclusion, testosterone and oestrogen were found to have favourable effects on serum lipids. Sb and P0 did not differ in their effects on lipoprotein cholesterol and Tchol, but P0 raised serum TG as compared to Sb.
Nutritive qualities of patties prepared from chicken, beef and oyster mushroom were determined. Three groups of rats were fed with patty diets prepared with either a combination of 75% chicken + 25% oyster mushroom (CMP) or 75% beef + 25% oyster mushroom (BMP) or 100% chicken patty + 0% oyster mushroom (CP). There was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in total tryglyceride (0.3-0.5 mmol/L), total cholesterol (1.7-1.9 mmol/L) LDL-cholesterol (0.3-0.4 mmol/L) and HDL-cholesterol (1.2-1.4 mmol/L) for all groups except for protein free. Protein effeciency ratio (PER) values of CMP and BMP groups were significantly lower than casein group but significantly higher than chicken patty (CP) group. Both CMP and BMP fed groups recorded PER values at 1.73 and 1.69 while CP had PER value at 1.52. The AD of rats fed with CMP, BMP and CP diets were closely ranged from 98.3-98.9% but not significant as compared to casein diet group (98.5%). The close AD values between CMP, BMP and CP indicated that the mixture of patty protein from either chicken or beef with protein of oyster mushroom did not affect digestibility aspect. In summary, addition of oyster mushroom into either chicken or beef patties did not changed AD but improved PER value, thus proving that oyster mushroom could be used as an alternative ingredient to replace meat partially in the making of patties.
Inflammation and lipid abnormalities are two important risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. This was an unblinded, randomized clinical trial. Thirty HD patients with dyslipidemia (triglyceride >200 mg/dL and/or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <40 mg/dL) were randomly assigned to either a flaxseed or control group. Patients in the flaxseed group received 40 g/day ground flaxseed for 8 weeks, whereas patients in the control group received their usual diet, without any flaxseed. At baseline and at the end of week 8, 7 mL of blood was collected after a 12- to 14-hour fast and serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Serum concentrations of triglyceride (P < 0.01), total cholesterol (P < 0.01), LDL-C (P < 0.01), and CRP (P < 0.05) decreased significantly in the flaxseed group at the end of week 8 compared with baseline, whereas serum HDL-C showed a significant increase (P < 0.01). These changes in the flaxseed group were significant in comparison with the control group. The study indicates that flaxseed consumption improves lipid abnormalities and reduces systemic inflammation in HD patients with lipid abnormalities.
The importance of serum lipids as cardiovascular risk factors is well recognized. However, most published studies have focused on western countries. The present study aimed to describe and analyze the lipid profile parameters in Malaysian dyslipidemic patients, and to identify concomitant clinical problems and risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) among such patients.
Members of the Semai group of Orang Asli ('aborigines') in peninsular Malaysia were examined for apolipoprotein E (apo E) variants in relation to plasma total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B (apo B). The e2 and e4 alleles were found to be higher than in most other groups as reported. The sample as a whole was normotriglyceridaemic (mean plasma TG, 1.5 mmol/l) and very markedly hypocholesterolaemic (mean plasma TC 1.7 mmol/l). The distribution of apo E variants was not related to any of the plasma lipids or apolipoprotein fractions using results from all subjects, but if a distinctly hypertriglyceridaemic sub-section was omitted (TG > 1.7 mmol/l) then apo E variants were determinants of plasma TC, LDLC, and apo B concentrations, the lower values of these being associated with the 2-2 and 2-3 genotypes, and the higher with 3-4, and 4-4.
The effects on serum lipids of diets prepared with palm olein, corn oil, and coconut oil supplying approximately 75% of the fat calories were compared in three matched groups of healthy volunteers (61 males, 22 females, aged 20-34 y). Group I received a coconut-palm-coconut dietary sequence; group II, coconut-corn-coconut; and group III, coconut oil during all three 5-wk dietary periods. Compared with entry-level values, coconut oil raised the serum total cholesterol concentration greater than 10% in all three groups. Subsequent feeding of palm olein or corn oil significantly reduced the total cholesterol (-19%, -36%), the LDL cholesterol (-20%, -42%%) and the HDL cholesterol (-20%, -26%) concentrations, respectively. Whereas the entry level of the ratio of LDL to HDL was not appreciably altered by coconut oil, this ratio was decreased 8% by palm olein and 25% by corn oil. Serum triglycerides were unaffected during the palm-olein period but were significantly reduced during the corn-oil period.
We studied the effects of saturated (palm olein) and polyunsaturated (soybean oil) cooking oils on the lipid profiles of Malaysian male adolescents eating normal Malaysian diets for 5 wk. Diets cooked with palm olein did not significantly alter plasma total-cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol concentrations or the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol compared with diets cooked with soybean oil. However, the diet cooked with palm olein significantly increased apolipoprotein A-I (11%) and apolipoprotein B (9%) concentrations. Unexpectedly, soybean-oil-cooked diets caused a significant increase (47%) in plasma triglycerides compared with palm-olein-cooked diets. We conclude that palm olein, when used as cooking oil, has no detrimental effects on plasma lipid profiles in Malaysian adolescents.
Nine cynomolgus monkeys were rotated randomly through four dietary treatments with each treatment lasting 6 weeks. A wash-out period of 4 weeks was maintained between each dietary rotation. The animals were fed diets containing 32% energy fat derived from palm olein (POL), lauric-myristic-rich oil blend (LM), American Heart Association (AHA) rich oil blend and hydrogenated soybean oil blend (trans). Diets were fed with (phase 1) or without (phase 2) the addition of dietary cholesterol (0.1%). In phase 1, when animals were fed without dietary cholesterol, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was significantly raised and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly depressed by the trans diets relative to all other dietary treatments. The resulting LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was also significantly increased. The LM diet increased TC significantly relative to the AHA diet while LDL-C was significantly increased compared to both POL and AHA. Apolipoprotein (apo) B was not affected significantly by these dietary treatments. Apo A1 was significantly increased by POL relative to all other dietary treatments. The trans diet reduced apo A1 and the resulting apo B/A1 ratio was increased significantly by trans relative to all other dietary treatments. Addition of 0.1% dietary cholesterol to these diets almost doubled the plasma TC and LDL-C in all dietary treatments. However, HDL-C was only marginally higher with the addition of dietary cholesterol. The LM + C (cholesterol added) diet resulted in the highest TC and LDL-C that was significant compared to all other dietary treatments. Trans + C increased TC compared to POL + C and AHA + C diets while increases in the LDL-C did not attain significance. The addition of dietary cholesterol did not affect HDL-C between treatments whereas plasma triglycerides were significantly increased by the trans + C diet relative to all other treatments. Both the trans + C and LM + C diets increased apo B and decreased apo A1 relative to the POL + C and AHA + C diets. The resulting apo B/A1 ratio was similarly altered. These results affirm that the lauric + myristic acid combination, along with trans fatty acids, increased lipoprotein-associated coronary heart disease risk factors compared to either POL or AHA.
Coronary atheroma is the principal cause of ischaemic heart disease. Among the factors considered to predispose to atheroma formation is raised plasma cholesterol and although it is regarded as a minor risk factor by some, others see its contribution as one of major importance. Whichever the view, the debate on plasma cholesterol and coronary heart disease (CHD) has long moved out of the exclusive domain of the scientific journal to the public arena and is reflected in the increasing frequency with which doctors are consulted by patients on the subject. The incidence of CHD in South-East Asian countries is also rising. For the practising clinician, the problem resolves itself into deciding if the evidence incriminating plasma cholesterol as a predisposing factor is strong enough, and if it is, what prophylactic and therapeutic steps are of value in reducing the incidence of CH D. An updated and brief review of lipid metabolism and the relationship of lipids to CHD is now necessary in view of the rapid accumulation of data from recent trials and prospective studies.