OBJECTIVE: The primary study objective was to evaluate the postprandial fate of tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherol in human plasma and lipoproteins.
DESIGN: Seven healthy volunteers (4 males, 3 females) were administered a single dose of vitamin E [1011 mg palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) or 1074 mg alpha-tocopherol] after a 7-d conditioning period with a tocotrienol-free diet. Blood was sampled at baseline (fasted) and 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 24 h after supplementation. Concentrations of tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers in plasma, triacylglycerol-rich particles (TRPs), LDLs, and HDLs were measured at each interval.
RESULTS: After intervention with TRF, plasma tocotrienols peaked at 4 h (4.79 +/- 1.2 microg/mL), whereas alpha-tocopherol peaked at 6 h (13.46 +/- 1.68 microg/mL). Although tocotrienols were similarly detected in TRPs, LDLs, and HDLs, tocotrienol concentrations were significantly lower than alpha-tocopherol concentrations. In comparison, plasma alpha-tocopherol peaked at 8 h (24.3 +/- 5.22 microg/mL) during the alpha-tocopherol treatment and emerged as the major vitamin E isomer detected in plasma and lipoproteins during both the TRF and the alpha-tocopherol treatments.
CONCLUSIONS: Tocotrienols are detected in postprandial plasma, albeit in significantly lower concentrations than is alpha-tocopherol. This finding confirms previous observations that, in the fasted state, tocotrienols are not detected in plasma. Tocotrienol transport in lipoproteins appears to follow complex biochemically mediated pathways within the lipoprotein cascade.
Methods: A multi-centred matched case control study was conducted in five local hospitals. A total of 140 histologically confirmed CRC cases were matched with 280 cancer free controls. Mean value and prevalence of the components of metabolic syndrome between cases and controls were measured based on the three definitions. A multiple variable analysis using Cox regression was conducted to measure the strength of the association between the definitions of MetS, components of MetS and risk of CRC.
Results: Multiple variable analyses showed that metabolic syndrome significantly and independently increased the risk of CRC, with an odds ratio ranging from 1.79 to 2.61. This study identified that the definition of metabolic syndrome by the International Diabetes Federation is the most sensitive in predicting the risk of CRC, compared to metabolic syndrome as defined by the World Health Organization and National Cholesterol Education Program Adults Treatment Panel III. Abdominal obesity, low HDL-cholesterol, and hypertension were identified as the three core risk factors, which promote inflammatory signals that contribute to metabolic syndrome and an increased risk of CRC.
Conclusions: These data hypothesized that simple measurement of abdominal obesity, abnormal BP and HDL-cholesterol especially using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition of MetS for South Asians for to detect individuals at CRC risk may have higher clinical utility than applying other universal complex MetS definitions.