Cold environments characterised by diverse temperatures close to or below the water freezing point dominate about 80% of the Earth's biosphere. One of the survival strategies adopted by microorganisms living in cold environments is their expression of cold-active enzymes that enable them to perform an efficient metabolic flux at low temperatures necessary to thrive and reproduce under those constraints. Cold-active enzymes are ideal biocatalysts that can reduce the need for heating procedures and improve industrial processes' quality, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness. Despite their wide applications, their industrial usage is still limited, and the major contributing factor is the lack of complete understanding of their structure and cold adaptation mechanisms. The current review looked at the recombinant overexpression, purification, and recent mechanism of cold adaptation, various approaches for purification, and three-dimensional (3D) crystal structure elucidation of cold-active lipases and esterase.
Achieving reliable power efficiency from a high voltage induction motor (HVIM) is a great challenge, as the rigorous control strategy is susceptible to unexpected failure. External cooling is commonly used in an HVIM cooling system, and it is a vital part of the motor that is responsible for keeping the motor at the proper operating temperature. A malfunctioning cooling system component can cause motor overheating, which can destroy the motor and cause the entire plant to shut down. As a result, creating a dynamic model of the motor cooling system for quality performance, failure diagnosis, and prediction is critical. However, the external motor cooling system design in HVIM is limited and separately done in the past. With this issue in mind, this paper proposes a combined modeling approach to the HVIM cooling system which consists of integrating the electrical, thermal, and cooler model using the mathematical model for thermal performance improvement. Firstly, the development of an electrical model using an established mathematical model. Subsequently, the development of a thermal model using combined mathematical and linear regression models to produce motor temperature. Then, a modified cooler model is developed to provide cold air temperature for cooling monitoring. All validated models are integrated into a single model called the HVIM cooling system as the actual setup of the HVIM. Ultimately, the core of this modeling approach is integrating all models to accurately represent the actual signals of the motor cooler temperature. Then, the actual signals are used to validate the whole structure of the model using Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) analysis. The results demonstrate the high accuracy of the HVIM cooling system representation with less than 1% error tolerance based on the industrial plant experts. Thus, it will be helpful for future utilization in quality maintenance, fault identification and prediction study.
Dehydroquinase or 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase (DHQD) reversibly cleaves 3-dehydroquinate to form 3-dehydroshikimate. Here, we describe the functional and structural features of a cold active type II 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase from the psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica PI12 (GaDHQD). Functional studies showed that the enzyme was active at low temperatures (10-30 °C), but displayed maximal activity at 40 °C. Yet the enzyme was stable over a wide range of temperatures (10-70 °C) and between pH 6.0-10.0 with an optimum pH of 8.0. Interestingly, the enzyme was highly thermo-tolerant, denaturing only at approximately 84 °C. Three-dimensional structure analyses showed that the G. antarctica dehydroquinase (GaDHQD) possesses psychrophilic features in comparison with its mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts such as higher numbers of non-polar residues on the surface, lower numbers of arginine and higher numbers of glycine-residues with lower numbers of hydrophobic interactions. On the other hand, GaDHQD shares some traits (i.e. total number of hydrogen bonds, number of proline residues and overall folding) with its mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts. Combined, these features contribute synergistically towards the enzyme's ability to function at both low and high temperatures.
The objective of this research is to examine the impact of bioenergy usage on health outcomes, especially adult mortality in both developed and underdeveloped countries in the European Union, where the use of solid biomass is growing to generate bioheat, biocool, and biopower. Over the period studied, findings indicate that increased consumption of bioenergy has increased mortality rates in developed and underdeveloped EU28 countries during the period 1990-2018. This feedback proposes, using generalized least squares (GLS), that the resulting death rate from burning biomass-related cases is higher in the EU15 developed countries compared to EU13 underdeveloped countries. There is a need to lower burning biomass in the entire EU15 countries, more importantly its developed region, by critically evaluating the bioenergy production life cycle before it is available for final consumption. However, there is a continuous need to intensify stringent production procedures in the bioenergy industry in EU15 countries, more importantly the imported biomass crops for energy use. There is also a need to be consistent with the campaign on the usage of bioenergy products, i.e., bioheat, bioelectricity, and biofuels, particularly in the rural areas where the use of wood fuels for cooking, heating, and cooling are significant in EU15 developed countries in comparison to EU13 developing countries.
Polypyrrole (PPy) and polypyrrole-carboxylic functionalized multi wall carbon nanotube composites (PPy/f-MWCNT) were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The structure of the resulting complex nanotubes was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of f-MWCNT concentration on the electrical properties of the resulting composites were studied at temperatures between 100 K and 300 K. The Hall mobility and Hall coefficient of PPy and PPy/f-MWCNT composite samples with different concentrations of f-MWCNT were measured using the van der Pauw technique. The mobility decreased slightly with increasing temperature, while the conductivity was dominated by the gradually increasing carrier density.
The performance of sensing surfaces highly relies on nanostructures to enhance their sensitivity and specificity. Herein, nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of various thicknesses were coated on glass and p-type silicon substrates using a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The deposited films were characterized for morphological, structural, and optoelectronic properties by high-resolution measurements. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the deposited films have a c-axis orientation and display peaks that refer to ZnO, which exhibits a hexagonal structure with a preferable plane orientation (002). The thicknesses of ZnO thin films prepared using 1, 3, 5, and 7 cycles were measured to be 40, 60, 100, and 200 nm, respectively. The increment in grain size of the thin film from 21 to 52 nm was noticed, when its thickness was increased from 40 to 200 nm, whereas the band gap value decreased from 3.282 to 3.268 eV. Band gap value of ZnO thin film with thickness of 200 nm at pH ranging from 2 to 10 reduces from 3.263eV to 3.200 eV. Furthermore, to evaluate the transducing capacity of the ZnO nanostructure, the refractive index, optoelectric constant, and bulk modulus were analyzed and correlated. The highest thickness (200 nm) of ZnO film, embedded with an interdigitated electrode that behaves as a pH-sensing electrode, could sense pH variations in the range of 2-10. It showed a highly sensitive response of 444 μAmM-1cm-2 with a linear regression of R2 =0.9304. The measured sensitivity of the developed device for pH per unit is 3.72μA/pH.
The glow curve in TLD-100 was compared by applying long preheat time, short preheat time
techniques and without preheat technique before the TLD readout. Fading effect of the TLD signal
upon certain storage time with long preheat time (100°C, 10 minutes using the oven) and short
preheat time techniques (100°C, 10 seconds using the reader) were also studied. 15 TLD-100 chips
were used with 3 of the TLD chips were used for measuring background radiation. 12 TLD chips
were annealed, irradiated, preheated long and short preheat time techniques) and analyzed. The TL
signals output from TLD chips of without preheated were used as the control. Two sets of data were
taken using TLD chips irradiated with 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams. TL signal output was
recorded the highest for short preheat time, followed by long preheat time and no preheating. The
TL signal loss upon certain storage time was also reduced when short preheat time technique was
applied. By applying long preheat time technique the low temperature peak in the glow curve was
completely removed for both energies. Whereas, TLD chips exposed to 6 MV and with short preheat
time technique the low temperature peak did not disappear completely but decreased in intensity as
compared to the control data by 19.80%, 37.69%, 48.19% and 100% at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours
after exposure prior to readout, respectively. Meanwhile, for 10 MV photon beam with short
preheat time, the small peak intensity was reduced by 19.58% for readout at 24 hours after
irradiation and 100% for 48,72 and 96 hours delayed time prior to readout. It was observed that
the TLD-100 was highly dependent on preheat heating time before readout. Short preheat time
technique was able to reduce post irradiation fading of TLD-100 dosimeters
This paper discusses the effect of jet impingement of water on a photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) on electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and power production of a PVT system. A prototype of a PVT solar water collector installed with a jet impingement and CPC has been designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated. The efficiency of the system can be improved by using jet impingement of water to decrease the temperature of the solar cells. The electrical efficiency and power output are directly correlated with the mass flow rate. The results show that electrical efficiency was improved by 7% when using CPC and jet impingement cooling in a PVT solar collector at 1:00 p.m. (solar irradiance of 1050 W/m² and an ambient temperature of 33.5 °C). It can also be seen that the power output improved by 36% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 20% without CPC in the photovoltaic (PV) module at 1:30 p.m. The short-circuit current ISC of the PV module experienced an improvement of ~28% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 11.7% without CPC. The output of the PV module was enhanced by 31% when using jet impingement cooling with CPC, and 16% without CPC.
Oceanographic cruises in Pahang water in October 2003 and April 2004, monsoon transition months, produce data on water characteristics. The temperature in both months showed higher values in nearshore compared to the offshore stations. The nearshore salinity in both months is lower than offshore stations. Comparatively, there were smaller differences in temperature and salinity in October than in April, with very little variation between nearshore and offshore stations. T-S diagram showed significant differences between October and April water characteristics. According to the water characteristic observations, the temperature and salinity in October was lower than in April, while dissolved oxygen was higher than in April. The lower temperature and salinity taken during the sampling time in October suggested that during this time, the study area already received the influences of strong winds due to upcoming monsoon. The warmer and saltier water obtained in April showed that during this time, the study area was influenced by southwest monsoon. Winds related to rainfall were observed to have impact to the dynamics of water characteristics during both months.
Psychrophilic microorganisms are cold-adapted with distinct properties from other thermal classes thriving in cold conditions in large areas of the earth's cold environment. Maintenance of functional membranes, evolving cold-adapted enzymes and synthesizing a range of structural features are basic adaptive strategies of psychrophiles. Among the cold-evolved enzymes are the cold-active lipases, a group of microbial lipases with inherent stability-activity-flexibility property that have engaged the interest of researchers over the years. Current knowledge regarding these cold-evolved enzymes in psychrophilic bacteria proves a display of high catalytic efficiency with low thermal stability, which is a differentiating feature with that of their mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts. Improvement strategies of their adaptive structural features have significantly benefited the enzyme industry. Based on their homogeneity and purity, molecular characterizations of these enzymes have been successful and their properties make them unique biocatalysts for various industrial and biotechnological applications. Although, strong association of lipopolysaccharides from Antarctic microorganisms with lipid hydrolases pose a challenge in their purification, heterologous expression of the cold-adapted lipases with affinity tags simplifies purification with higher yield. The review discusses these cold-evolved lipases from bacteria and their peculiar properties, in addition to their potential biotechnological and industrial applications.
We report the synthesis of amorphous carbon nanotubes/silver (αCNTs/Ag) nanohybrids via simple chemical route without additional reactant and surfactant at low temperature. Field emission scanning microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) confirmed formation of CNTs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed the amorphous phase of carbon and the formation of Ag nanoparticles crystalline phase. Raman spectra revealed the amorphous nature of α CNTs. UV-visible spectroscopy showed enhancement of optical properties of α CNTs/Ag nanohybrids.
The psychrophilic enzyme is an interesting subject to study due to its special ability to adapt to extreme temperatures, unlike typical enzymes. Utilizing computer-aided software, the predicted structure and function of the enzyme lipase AMS8 (LipAMS8) (isolated from the psychrophilic Pseudomonas sp., obtained from the Antarctic soil) are studied. The enzyme shows significant sequence similarities with lipases from Pseudomonas sp. MIS38 and Serratia marcescens. These similarities aid in the prediction of the 3D molecular structure of the enzyme. In this study, 12 ns MD simulation is performed at different temperatures for structural flexibility and stability analysis. The results show that the enzyme is most stable at 0°C and 5°C. In terms of stability and flexibility, the catalytic domain (N-terminus) maintained its stability more than the noncatalytic domain (C-terminus), but the non-catalytic domain showed higher flexibility than the catalytic domain. The analysis of the structure and function of LipAMS8 provides new insights into the structural adaptation of this protein at low temperatures. The information obtained could be a useful tool for low temperature industrial applications and molecular engineering purposes, in the near future.
Presently, plant oils which contain high percentage of linoleic acid 1 are perceived to be a viable alternative to mineral oil for biolubricant applications due to their biodegradability and technical properties. In order to get biodegradable lubricant, triester derivatives compounds (1-5) were synthesized and characterized. The processes involved were monoepoxidation of linoleic acid 2, oxirane ring opening 3, esterification 4 and acylation 5. The structures of the products were confirmed by FTIR, 1H and 13C-NMR and LC-MS. The results that showed lowest temperature properties were obtained for triester 5, with a pour point value (PP) of -73°C, highest onset temperature (260°C) and lowest volatility at 0.30%. Viscosity index (VI) increased for the ester's synthetic compounds (2, 3, 4, 5), while the PP decreased. This behavior is the result of the increase of the chain length of the branching agents. Triester based linoleic acid has improved properties such as low-temperature and tribological properties. These results will make it feasible for plant oil to be used for biolubricants, fuels in chain saws, transmission oil and brake fluid.
An analysis was carried out on a total of 883 cold chain monitor (CCM) cards, which had been attached to batches of poliomyelitis, measles, DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus) and hepatitis B vaccines, during their transport and storage from the central store in Kuala Lumpur to Kelantan, a state in north-eastern Malaysia; 234 freeze watches attached to hepatitis B vaccines were also analysed. The monitor cards and freeze watches were observed at six levels between the central store and the periphery during distribution of the vaccines, and a colour change in any of the four windows (A, B, C, D) on the CCM cards or the freeze watches was recorded. In addition, 33 unopened vials of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), collected from refrigerators in 29 health facilities in Kelantan, were tested for potency using the tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50) method; 14 of them (42%) did not meet the WHO criteria for potent vaccines. The results showed that at the final destination 13.4% of all cards remained white while a colour change to blue was observed in 65% in window A, 16.6% in window B, and 4.4% in window C; none had turned blue in window D indicating that the vaccine had not been subjected to temperatures > or = 34 degrees C for 2 hours. All but 2 of the 234 freeze watches had turned purple, which indicates exposure of the hepatitis B vaccines to temperatures below 0 degree C. These results will assist health planners to correct the weaknesses identified in the cold chain system.
Malaya, an ancient crossroads of trade, was the recipient of Chinese and Ayurvedic humoral ideas and, later, those of medieval Islam. These ideas were readily accepted by Malays, since they are highly congruent with pre-existing notions among aboriginal peoples of Malaya involving a hot-cold opposition in the material and spiritual universe and its effects upon human health. Islamic Malays have adapted these aboriginal beliefs to correspond to the Greek-Arabic humoral model in matters concerning foods, diseases, and medicines. Although Malay theories of disease causation include such concepts as soul loss and spirit attack, along with 'naturalistic' ideas such as dietary imbalance and systemic reactions to foods, all of these theories can either be reinterpreted in humoral terms, or, at least, are congruent with the basic tenets of Islamic humoral pathology. Behaviors and beliefs regarding human reproduction, however, while essentially following a humoral pattern, diverge from Islamic, as well as traditional Chinese and Indian Ayurvedic, humoral theories. Unlike any other major humoral doctrine, Malay reproductive theory (like that of non-Islamic aboriginal peoples of Malaya) equates coldness with health and fertility and heat with disease and sterility. These ideas, in turn, are related to beliefs regarding the nature of the spirit world: the destructiveness of spiritual heat and the efficacy of cooling prayer.
Eggs of temperate Aedes albopictus populations are cold hardy and can diapause, but tropical populations are not cold hardy and cannot diapause. Heterozygotes possess intermediate diapause and cold hardiness. Males of a tropical strain from Malaysia with a distinctive genetic marker were released into an existing temperate population in East St. Louis, Illinois. Subsequent egg samples from the release site had genetic marker frequency of up to 24%. Reduced cold hardiness and decreased diapause incidence were also observed in the release site population. No such changes occurred at a nearby control site. The rank order of overwintering survival of eggs at the release site was: Aedes triseriatus > temperate Ae. albopictus > hybrid temperate/tropical Ae. albopictus > tropical Ae. albopictus. Eggs collected from the release population the next summer showed total absence of the genetic marker; presumably carriers were removed by the winter.
The purpose of this study was to investigate ethnic differences in cutaneous thermal sensation thresholds and the inter-threshold sensory zone between tropical (Malaysians) and temperate natives (Japanese). The results showed that (1) Malaysian males perceived warmth on the forehead at a higher skin temperature (Tsk) than Japanese males (p<0.05), whereas cool sensations on the hand and foot were perceived at a lower Tsk in Malaysians (p<0.05); (2) Overall, the sensitivity to detect warmth was greater in Japanese than in Malaysian males; (3) The most thermally sensitive body region of Japanese was the forehead for both warming and cooling, while the regional thermal sensitivity of Malaysians had a smaller differential than that of Japanese; (4) The ethnic difference in the inter-threshold sensory zone was particularly noticeable on the forehead (1.9±1.2C for Japanese, 3.2±1.6°C for Malaysians, p<0.05). In conclusion, tropical natives had a tendency to perceive warmth at a higher Tsk and slower at an identical speed of warming, and had a wider range of the inter-threshold sensory zone than temperate natives.
The discovery of anammox process has provided eco-friendly and low-cost means of treating ammonia rich wastewater with remarkable efficiency. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that the possibility of operating the anammox process under low temperatures and high organic matter contents broadening the application of the anammox process. However, short doubling time and extensive levels of sensitivity towards nutrients and environmental alterations such as salinity and temperature are the limitations in practical applications of the anammox process. This review article provides the recent yet comprehensive viewpoint on anammox bacteria and the key perspectives in applying them as an efficient strategy for wastewater treatment.
Psychrophiles are cold-living microorganisms synthesizing enzymes that are permanently active at almost near-zero temperatures. Psychrozymes are supposed to be structurally more flexible than their homologous proteins. This structural flexibility enables these proteins to undergo conformational changes during catalysis and improve catalytic efficiency at low temperatures. The outstanding characteristics of the psychrophilic enzymes have attracted the attention of the scientific community to utilize them in a wide variety of industrial and pharmaceutical applications. In this review, we first highlight the current knowledge of the cold-adaptation mechanisms of the psychrophiles. In the sequel, we describe the potential applications of the enzymes in different biotechnological processes specifically, in the production of industrial and pharmaceutical products. KEY POINTS: • Methods that organisms have evolved to survive and proliferate at cold environments. • The economic benefits due to their high activity at low and moderate temperatures. • Applications of the psychrophiles in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industry.
Seeds of two selected clones of Artemisia annua L., TC1 and TC2, were germinated in a greenhouse. Four-week-old seedlings from both clones were grown in the Thù Đúc province of Ho Chi Minh City on 2(nd) January 2009 and Đà Lat on 20(th) January 2009. During this study period in Thù Đúc province, which is situated 4-5 m above sea level, was experiencing a tropical, dry season with temperatures ranging from 26.2°C-32.8°C. Đà Lat, situated at 1500-2000 m above sea level, was having temperate, dry season with lower temperatures, ranging from 10.5°C-18.0°C. The high temperatures and low elevation in Thù Đúc Province led to slow vegetative growth for all of the plants from the two different clones and the artemisinin contents were significantly reduced. The temperate environment of Đà Lat supported robustly growing plants, with plant heights and branch lengths 4-5 times taller and longer that those planted at Thù Đúc Province. The artemisinin contents of A. annua planted at Đà Lat were 3-4 times greater than those cultivated at Thù Đúc Province. Hence, this study indicated that the variations observed in plant growth and artemisinin contents were due to temperature effects because the two selected clones were genetically homogenous. The cold weather of Đà Lat was suitable for planting of A. annua as opposed to the tropical weather of Thù Đúc Province.