Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 184 in total

  1. Tata MD, Dharmendran R, Ramesh G, Kandasami P
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Jun;68(3):275-7.
    PMID: 23749025 MyJurnal
    Stomach and esophageal cancers are both deadly and difficult to diagnose early. Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Asia. Both these are one of the most common causes of cancer related death in the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer*
  2. Siau K, Green JT, Hawkes ND, Broughton R, Feeney M, Dunckley P, et al.
    Frontline Gastroenterol, 2019 Apr;10(2):93-106.
    PMID: 31210174 DOI: 10.1136/flgastro-2018-100969
    The Joint Advisory Group on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (JAG) was initially established in 1994 to standardise endoscopy training across specialties. Over the last two decades, the position of JAG has evolved to meet its current role of quality assuring all aspects of endoscopy in the UK to provide the highest quality, patient-centred care. Drivers such as changes to healthcare agenda, national audits, advances in research and technology and the advent of population-based cancer screening have underpinned this shift in priority. Over this period, JAG has spearheaded various quality assurance initiatives with support from national stakeholders. These have led to the achievement of notable milestones in endoscopy quality assurance, particularly in the three major areas of: (1) endoscopy training, (2) accreditation of endoscopy services (including the Global Rating Scale), and (3) accreditation of screening endoscopists. These developments have changed the landscape of UK practice, serving as a model to promote excellence in endoscopy. This review provides a summary of JAG initiatives and assesses the impact of JAG on training and endoscopy services within the UK and beyond.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer
  3. Hilmi I, Goh KL
    Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2013 Jan;37(1):156-7; discussion 157-8.
    PMID: 23205475 DOI: 10.1111/apt.12122
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/standards*
  4. Sachithanandan A, Badmanaban B
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):3-6.
    PMID: 22582540 MyJurnal
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer*
  5. Akhtari-Zavare M, Latiff LA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(14):5595-7.
    PMID: 26320422
    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a new non-invasive, mobile screening method which does not use ionizing radiation to the human breast. It is based on the theory that cancer cells display altered local dielectric properties, thus demonstrating measurably higher conductivity values. This article reviews the utilisation of EIT in breast cancer detection. It could be used as an adjunct to mammography and ultrasonography for breast cancer screening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/instrumentation*
  6. Dunn RA, Tan AK
    Breast J, 2011 Jul-Aug;17(4):399-402.
    PMID: 21615819 DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2011.01098.x
    As is the case in many developing nations, previous studies of breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia have used relatively small samples that are not nationally representative, thereby limiting the generalizability of results. Therefore, this study uses nationally representative data from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 to investigate the role of socio-economic status on breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia, particularly differences in screening behaviour between ethnic groups. The decisions of 816 women above age 40 in Malaysia to screen for breast cancer using mammography, clinical breast exams (CBE), and breast self-exams (BSE) are modeled using logistic regression. Results indicate that after adjusting for differences in age, education, household income, marital status, and residential location, Malay women are less likely than Chinese and Indian women to utilize mammography, but more likely to perform BSE. Education level and urban residence are positively associated with utilization of each method, but these relationships vary across ethnicity. Higher education levels are strongly related to using each screening method among Chinese women, but have no statistically significant relationship to screening among Malays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/methods*
  7. Lee HP, Chew CT, Consigliere DT, Heng D, Huang DT, Khoo J, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Feb;51(2):170-3; quiz 174-5.
    PMID: 20358158
    The Ministry of Health publishes national clinical practice guidelines to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based guidance on managing important medical conditions. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with key recommendations from the guidelines) from the Ministry of Health clinical practice guidelines on cancer screening, for the information of readers of the Singapore Medical Journal. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website (http://www.moh.gov. sg/mohcorp/publications.aspx?id=24018). The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/standards*
  8. Sung JJ, Ng SC, Chan FK, Chiu HM, Kim HS, Matsuda T, et al.
    Gut, 2015 Jan;64(1):121-32.
    PMID: 24647008 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306503
    OBJECTIVE: Since the publication of the first Asia Pacific Consensus on Colorectal Cancer (CRC) in 2008, there are substantial advancements in the science and experience of implementing CRC screening. The Asia Pacific Working Group aimed to provide an updated set of consensus recommendations.
    DESIGN: Members from 14 Asian regions gathered to seek consensus using other national and international guidelines, and recent relevant literature published from 2008 to 2013. A modified Delphi process was adopted to develop the statements.
    RESULTS: Age range for CRC screening is defined as 50-75 years. Advancing age, male, family history of CRC, smoking and obesity are confirmed risk factors for CRC and advanced neoplasia. A risk-stratified scoring system is recommended for selecting high-risk patients for colonoscopy. Quantitative faecal immunochemical test (FIT) instead of guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) is preferred for average-risk subjects. Ancillary methods in colonoscopy, with the exception of chromoendoscopy, have not proven to be superior to high-definition white light endoscopy in identifying adenoma. Quality of colonoscopy should be upheld and quality assurance programme should be in place to audit every aspects of CRC screening. Serrated adenoma is recognised as a risk for interval cancer. There is no consensus on the recruitment of trained endoscopy nurses for CRC screening.
    CONCLUSIONS: Based on recent data on CRC screening, an updated list of recommendations on CRC screening is prepared. These consensus statements will further enhance the implementation of CRC screening in the Asia Pacific region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/standards*
  9. Teo CH, Ling CJ, Ng CJ
    Am J Prev Med, 2018 Jan;54(1):133-143.
    PMID: 29254551 DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.08.028
    CONTEXT: Globally, uptake of health screening in men remains low and the effectiveness of interventions to promote screening uptake in men is not well established. This review aimed to determine the effectiveness of interventions in improving men's uptake of and intention to undergo screening, including interventions using information and communication technology and a male-sensitive approach.

    EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Studies were sourced from five electronic databases (October 2015), experts, and references of included studies. This study included RCTs or cluster RCTs that recruited men and reported uptake of or intention to undergo screening. Two researchers independently performed study selection, appraisal, and data extraction. The interventions were grouped into those that increase uptake and those that promote informed decision making. They were further sub-analyzed according to types of intervention, male-sensitive, and web- and video-based interventions. The analysis was completed in December 2016.

    EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: This review included 58 studies. Most studies were on prostate cancer (k=31) and HIV (k=11) screening. Most of the studies had low methodologic quality (79.3%) and after excluding them from the analysis, one study found that educational intervention (which was also male-sensitive) was effective in improving men's intention to screen (risk ratio=1.36, 95% CI=1.23, 1.50, k=1) and partner educational intervention increased men's screening uptake (risk ratio=1.77, 95% CI=1.48, 2.12, k=1). Video-based educational interventions reduced prostate cancer screening uptake (risk ratio=0.89, 95%CI=0.80, 0.99, k=1) but web-based interventions did not change men's screening intention or uptake.

    CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the need to conduct more robust studies to provide conclusive evidence on the effectiveness of different interventions to improve men's screening behavior.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/methods*
  10. Ching SM, Chia YC, Cheong AT
    This case report highlights delay in the diagnosis of adenoma carcinoma of the lung in a female patient who has never smoked. It took three months to reach the diagnosis of stage IV lung carcinoma despite the presence of symptoms and an abnormal chest radiograph finding from the beginning. The clinical characteristics and predictors of missed opportunities for an early diagnosis of lung cancer are discussed. In this case, patient and doctor factors contributed to the delay in diagnosis. Thus, early suspicions of lung cancer in a woman with the presence of respiratory symptoms despite being a non-smoker are important in primary care setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer
  11. Naing C, Jun YK, Yee WM, Waqiyuddin SJ, Lui LC, Shaung OY, et al.
    Eur. J. Cancer Prev., 2014 Mar;23(2):71-5.
    PMID: 23722440 DOI: 10.1097/CEJ.0b013e328362e9b4
    The aims of the study were (i) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of colorectal cancer (CRC), (ii) to explore the willingness of the study population to take a screening test for CRC, and (iii) to identify factors affecting the willingness to take a screening test for CRC. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a semiurban town in Malaysia using a pretested structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were determined for all important variables. A binary logistic regression model was introduced to identify independent predictors of the willingness to take a screening test. Factors influencing willingness were explored according to the constructs of the health belief model. Of the 256 respondents who had heard about CRC, the majority were aware of altered bowel habits (67.3%) or the presence of blood in stool or rectal bleeding (63.4%) as the warning symptoms. Although 38% of the respondents knew of colonoscopy as the screening test, 22% were not aware of any screening test for CRC. A majority (77.4%) showed willingness to take a screening test for CRC. In the multivariate analysis, 'having family or friends with history of CRC' and 'self-perceived risk' were the two significant variables for predicting the acceptance of CRC screening among the study population. Findings suggested that the respondents' knowledge of the CRC screening test was inadequate, albeit a high proportion expressed their intention to take screening tests. Health education on the CRC addressing available screening tests and the benefits of early screening for CRC should be scaled up.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*; Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data
  12. Lee M, Mariapun S, Rajaram N, Teo SH, Yip CH
    BMC Public Health, 2017 01 28;17(1):127.
    PMID: 28129762 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-017-4015-3
    BACKGROUND: The incidence of breast cancer in Asia is increasing because of urbanization and lifestyle changes. In the developing countries in Asia, women present at late stages, and mortality is high. Mammographic screening is the only evidence-based screening modality that reduces breast cancer mortality. To date, only opportunistic screening is offered in the majority of Asian countries because of the lack of justification and funding. Nevertheless, there have been few reports on the effectiveness of such programmes. In this study, we describe the cancer detection rate and challenges experienced in an opportunistic mammographic screening programme in Malaysia.

    METHODS: From October 2011 to June 2015, 1,778 asymptomatic women, aged 40-74 years, underwent subsidised mammographic screening. All patients had a clinical breast examination before mammographic screening, and women with mammographic abnormalities were referred to a surgeon. The cancer detection rate and variables associated with a recommendation for adjunct ultrasonography were determined.

    RESULTS: The mean age for screening was 50.8 years and seven cancers (0.39%) were detected. The detection rate was 0.64% in women aged 50 years and above, and 0.12% in women below 50 years old. Adjunct ultrasonography was recommended in 30.7% of women, and was significantly associated with age, menopausal status, mammographic density and radiologist's experience. The main reasons cited for recommendation of an adjunct ultrasound was dense breasts and mammographic abnormalities.

    DISCUSSION: The cancer detection rate is similar to population-based screening mammography programmes in high-income Asian countries. Unlike population-based screening programmes in Caucasian populations where the adjunct ultrasonography rate is 2-4%, we report that 3 out of 10 women attending screening mammography were recommended for adjunct ultrasonography. This could be because Asian women attending screening are likely premenopausal and hence have denser breasts. Radiologists who reported more than 360 mammograms were more confident in reporting a mammogram as normal without adjunct ultrasonography compared to those who reported less than 180 mammograms.

    CONCLUSION: Our subsidised opportunistic mammographic screening programme is able to provide equivalent cancer detection rates but the high recall for adjunct ultrasonography would make screening less cost-effective.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/economics; Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data*
  13. Tze CN, Fitzgerald H, Qureshi A, Tan HJ, Low ML
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(7):3179-83.
    PMID: 27509948
    The aim of this study was to assess the rate of uptake of a customised annual Colorectal Cancer Awareness, Screening and Treatment Project (CCASTP) using faecal immunohistochemical test (FIT) kits in low income communities in Malaysia. The immediate objectives were (1) to evaluate the level of adherence of CRC screening among lowincome groups, (2) to assess the knowledge and awareness of the screened population and (3) to assess the accuracy of FIT kits. A total of 1,581 FIT kits were distributed between years 2010 to 2015 to healthy asymptomatic participants of the annual CCASTP organized by Empowered the Cancer Advocacy Society of Malaysia. Data for sociodemographic characteristics, critical health and lifestyle information of the registered subjects were collected. Findings for use of the FIT kits were collected when they were returned for stool analyses. Those testingd positive were invited to undergo a colonoscopy examination. A total of 1,436 (90.8%) of the subjects retuned the FITkits, showing high compliance. Among the 129 subjects with positive FIT results, 92 (71.3%) underwent colonoscopy. Six cases (6.5%) of CRC were found. Based on the data collected, the level of awareness of stool examination and knowledge about CRC was poor amongst the participants. Gender, age group, ethnicity and risk factors (i.e. smoking, lack of exercise and low consumption of fresh fruits) were associated with positive FITkit results. In conclusion, CRC screening can be performed in the community with a single FITkit. Although CRC knowledge and awareness is poor in lowincome communities, the average return rate of the FIT kits and rate of colonoscopy examination were 91.2% and 70.3%, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/economics*; Early Detection of Cancer/methods
  14. Ho E, Abdullah B, Tang A, Nordin A, Nair A, Lim G, et al.
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2008 Oct;4(4):e44.
    PMID: 21611021 DOI: 10.2349/biij.4.4.e44
    To date, the College of Radiology (CoR) does not see any clear benefit in performing whole body screening computed tomography (CT) examinations in healthy asymptomatic individuals. There are radiation risk issues in CT and principles of screening should be adhered to. There may be a role for targeted cardiac screening CT that derives calcium score, especially for asymptomatic medium-risk individuals and CT colonography when used as part of a strategic programme for colorectal cancer screening in those 50 years and older. However, population based screening CT examinations may become appropriate when evidence emerges regarding a clear benefit for the patient outweighing the associated radiation risks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer
  15. Nor Afiah, M.Z., Hejar, A.R., Looi, Y.K., Lim, S.J., Ng, C.Y., Tong, C.Y.
    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide and in Malaysia. It has better cure rate if detected early. However, the practice of breast cancer screening in Malaysia is still low. The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge and its associated factors as well as sources of information on breast cancer and breast cancer screening among female staff in a public university in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in 2005 involving 394 female staff including academic and non-academic staff, which was selected by cluster sampling. A self-administered questionnaire on socioeconomic characteristics and family history of breast cancer was used for data collection. Chi-square Test and Fisher’s Exact Test was used for testing an association using SPSS 12.0. Results: The response rate was 84.3%. Only 50.9% had high knowledge on breast cancer and breast cancer screening and this was significantly associated with occupational status, monthly family income and educational level (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer
  16. Chuah, U.C., Kamarul, T., Sara, T.
    JUMMEC, 2006;9(2):28-31.
    Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue is a highly malignant condition and results in high mortality and morbidity in patients despite its early detection (1). Early surgical interventions have been found to reduce mortality but in many reports, tongue reconstructions using live grafts have been found to reduce normal tongue function of speech, swallow and taste. In contrast, our report using free radial forearm flap (FRFF) to reconstruct the defect left over after a radical tongue resection in a 38-year-old gentleman with oral cancer has shown promising results. This type of reconstruction has left the patient with a functional and cosmetically acceptable tongue with minimal alteration in recognizable speech.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer
  17. Khoo, Suan Phaik, Shanmuhasuntharam, P., Mahadzir, W.M., Tay, K.K., Latif, A., Nair, S.
    Ann Dent, 1996;3(1):-.
    The diagnosis of oral cancer have been variously reported as being due to delay by clinicians, patients or both. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the referral pattern of 65 patients eventually diagnosed as having oral squamous cell carcinoma. The results showed that 50% of the patients delayed seeking professional help for more than 3 months after being aware of the lesion. The majority of the patients consulted medical practitioners as the first source of help. The mean clinicians' and patients' delay were 10.3 weeks and 28.9 weeks respectively. Dental practitioners showed a tendency to refer on more advanced lesions compared to the medical practitioners. The findings raise the concern that lack of patients' awareness, misdiagnosis by clinicians and late detection by dental practitioners prevail thus calling for urgent measures towards early detection of the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer
  18. Mohaideen Sitheeque, Zulkifli Ahmad, Rajan Saini
    The objective of this survey was to evaluate the knowledge of final year dental and medical students of Universiti Sains Malaysia concerning epidemiology, aetiology, clinical aspects, prevention, early detection and treatment of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD). A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire with 36 questions was used. Forty five dental students and 147 medical students participated in the study. Dental students were relatively better informed than their medical colleagues concerning most issues addressed in the questionnaire. Yet, in some areas of knowledge, the dental students did not differ significantly from their medical colleagues. Only a small proportion of both groups of students expressed confidence in their knowledge and skills in oral cancer prevention and detection. This study revealed areas of deficiency in the awareness of these students concerning oral cancer and OPMD. It points to a necessity to strengthen these aspects of medical and dental undergraduate curricula.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer
  19. Haque AT, Mohd Hisham MA, Ahmad Adzman NA, Azudin NA, Shafri NB, Haque M
    Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol, 2016 Oct-Dec;37(4):286-292.
    PMID: 28144097 DOI: 10.4103/0971-5851.195752
    Breast cancer (BC) is a major life-threatening problem and a global concern including Malaysia. BC is an equal threat for both developing and developed countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sociodemographic factors with knowledge, attitude, and perception on BC screening among the females of University Kuala Lumpur, Royal College of Medicine Perak (UniKL RCMP).
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer
  20. Noriah Jamal, Humairah Samad Cheung, Siti Kamariah Che Mohamad, Ellyda Muhamad Nordin
    This paper aims at presenting preliminary results of a survey on physical factors, namely tube
    potential (kV), tube current exposure time product (mAs) and compressed breast thickness (CBT)
    during voluntary mammography screening using Full-Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) System
    in Malaysia. Retrospective data were collected from 1128 FFDM images of 282 women from three
    major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) who underwent voluntary screening
    mammography at Breast Centre, International Islamic University Malaysia from January to March
    2008. Results from the present study were then compared with results from the previous study on
    Screen-Film Mammography System (SFM) according to the ethnic group for both Cranio-caudal
    (CC) and Mediol-Lateral (MLO) views. We found that the mean kV for CC view for the three ethnic
    groups are Malay (28), Chinese (28) and Indian (28), and for MLO view are Malay (29), Chinese
    (28) and Indian (29). These values are higher than the kV for SFM which were Malay (26), Chinese
    (27) and Indian (26) for CC and Malay (26), Chinese (27) and Indian (26) for CC and MLO views
    respectively. The mean mAs for CC and MLO views for FFDM were lower compared to SFM
    systems. These values were Malay (104), Chinese (108) and Indian (91) for CC views and Malay
    (106), Chinese (105), and Indian (94) for MLO views for the FFDM system. The values for SFM
    system are for CC and MLO views were Malay (120), Chinese (106) and Indian (126), and Malay
    (166), Chinese (132), Indian (183) respectively. The median CBT for CC and MLO views increased
    by 27% and 7% respectively on the FFDM compared to the SFM system. In conclusion, the FFDM
    operates with higher kV, lower mAs, and higher CBT when compared with SFM system. Median
    CBT on CC and MLO view with FFDM system are 27% and 7% higher respectively compared to
    the SFM. We are currently collecting data on mean glandular dose with FFDM systems to assess
    how the change in local mammography practice influences this value. This will allow comparison
    with related data from other parts of the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer
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