Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 225 in total

  1. Tata MD, Dharmendran R, Ramesh G, Kandasami P
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Jun;68(3):275-7.
    PMID: 23749025 MyJurnal
    Stomach and esophageal cancers are both deadly and difficult to diagnose early. Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Asia. Both these are one of the most common causes of cancer related death in the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer*
  2. Siau K, Green JT, Hawkes ND, Broughton R, Feeney M, Dunckley P, et al.
    Frontline Gastroenterol, 2019 Apr;10(2):93-106.
    PMID: 31210174 DOI: 10.1136/flgastro-2018-100969
    The Joint Advisory Group on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (JAG) was initially established in 1994 to standardise endoscopy training across specialties. Over the last two decades, the position of JAG has evolved to meet its current role of quality assuring all aspects of endoscopy in the UK to provide the highest quality, patient-centred care. Drivers such as changes to healthcare agenda, national audits, advances in research and technology and the advent of population-based cancer screening have underpinned this shift in priority. Over this period, JAG has spearheaded various quality assurance initiatives with support from national stakeholders. These have led to the achievement of notable milestones in endoscopy quality assurance, particularly in the three major areas of: (1) endoscopy training, (2) accreditation of endoscopy services (including the Global Rating Scale), and (3) accreditation of screening endoscopists. These developments have changed the landscape of UK practice, serving as a model to promote excellence in endoscopy. This review provides a summary of JAG initiatives and assesses the impact of JAG on training and endoscopy services within the UK and beyond.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer
  3. Akhtari-Zavare M, Latiff LA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(14):5595-7.
    PMID: 26320422
    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a new non-invasive, mobile screening method which does not use ionizing radiation to the human breast. It is based on the theory that cancer cells display altered local dielectric properties, thus demonstrating measurably higher conductivity values. This article reviews the utilisation of EIT in breast cancer detection. It could be used as an adjunct to mammography and ultrasonography for breast cancer screening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/instrumentation*
  4. Hilmi I, Goh KL
    Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2013 Jan;37(1):156-7; discussion 157-8.
    PMID: 23205475 DOI: 10.1111/apt.12122
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/standards*
  5. Sachithanandan A, Badmanaban B
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):3-6.
    PMID: 22582540 MyJurnal
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer*
  6. Dunn RA, Tan AK
    Breast J, 2011 Jul-Aug;17(4):399-402.
    PMID: 21615819 DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2011.01098.x
    As is the case in many developing nations, previous studies of breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia have used relatively small samples that are not nationally representative, thereby limiting the generalizability of results. Therefore, this study uses nationally representative data from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 to investigate the role of socio-economic status on breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia, particularly differences in screening behaviour between ethnic groups. The decisions of 816 women above age 40 in Malaysia to screen for breast cancer using mammography, clinical breast exams (CBE), and breast self-exams (BSE) are modeled using logistic regression. Results indicate that after adjusting for differences in age, education, household income, marital status, and residential location, Malay women are less likely than Chinese and Indian women to utilize mammography, but more likely to perform BSE. Education level and urban residence are positively associated with utilization of each method, but these relationships vary across ethnicity. Higher education levels are strongly related to using each screening method among Chinese women, but have no statistically significant relationship to screening among Malays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/methods*
  7. Teo CH, Ling CJ, Ng CJ
    Am J Prev Med, 2018 Jan;54(1):133-143.
    PMID: 29254551 DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.08.028
    CONTEXT: Globally, uptake of health screening in men remains low and the effectiveness of interventions to promote screening uptake in men is not well established. This review aimed to determine the effectiveness of interventions in improving men's uptake of and intention to undergo screening, including interventions using information and communication technology and a male-sensitive approach.

    EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Studies were sourced from five electronic databases (October 2015), experts, and references of included studies. This study included RCTs or cluster RCTs that recruited men and reported uptake of or intention to undergo screening. Two researchers independently performed study selection, appraisal, and data extraction. The interventions were grouped into those that increase uptake and those that promote informed decision making. They were further sub-analyzed according to types of intervention, male-sensitive, and web- and video-based interventions. The analysis was completed in December 2016.

    EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: This review included 58 studies. Most studies were on prostate cancer (k=31) and HIV (k=11) screening. Most of the studies had low methodologic quality (79.3%) and after excluding them from the analysis, one study found that educational intervention (which was also male-sensitive) was effective in improving men's intention to screen (risk ratio=1.36, 95% CI=1.23, 1.50, k=1) and partner educational intervention increased men's screening uptake (risk ratio=1.77, 95% CI=1.48, 2.12, k=1). Video-based educational interventions reduced prostate cancer screening uptake (risk ratio=0.89, 95%CI=0.80, 0.99, k=1) but web-based interventions did not change men's screening intention or uptake.

    CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the need to conduct more robust studies to provide conclusive evidence on the effectiveness of different interventions to improve men's screening behavior.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/methods*
  8. Sung JJ, Ng SC, Chan FK, Chiu HM, Kim HS, Matsuda T, et al.
    Gut, 2015 Jan;64(1):121-32.
    PMID: 24647008 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306503
    OBJECTIVE: Since the publication of the first Asia Pacific Consensus on Colorectal Cancer (CRC) in 2008, there are substantial advancements in the science and experience of implementing CRC screening. The Asia Pacific Working Group aimed to provide an updated set of consensus recommendations.
    DESIGN: Members from 14 Asian regions gathered to seek consensus using other national and international guidelines, and recent relevant literature published from 2008 to 2013. A modified Delphi process was adopted to develop the statements.
    RESULTS: Age range for CRC screening is defined as 50-75 years. Advancing age, male, family history of CRC, smoking and obesity are confirmed risk factors for CRC and advanced neoplasia. A risk-stratified scoring system is recommended for selecting high-risk patients for colonoscopy. Quantitative faecal immunochemical test (FIT) instead of guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) is preferred for average-risk subjects. Ancillary methods in colonoscopy, with the exception of chromoendoscopy, have not proven to be superior to high-definition white light endoscopy in identifying adenoma. Quality of colonoscopy should be upheld and quality assurance programme should be in place to audit every aspects of CRC screening. Serrated adenoma is recognised as a risk for interval cancer. There is no consensus on the recruitment of trained endoscopy nurses for CRC screening.
    CONCLUSIONS: Based on recent data on CRC screening, an updated list of recommendations on CRC screening is prepared. These consensus statements will further enhance the implementation of CRC screening in the Asia Pacific region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/standards*
  9. Lee HP, Chew CT, Consigliere DT, Heng D, Huang DT, Khoo J, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Feb;51(2):170-3; quiz 174-5.
    PMID: 20358158
    The Ministry of Health publishes national clinical practice guidelines to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based guidance on managing important medical conditions. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with key recommendations from the guidelines) from the Ministry of Health clinical practice guidelines on cancer screening, for the information of readers of the Singapore Medical Journal. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website (http://www.moh.gov. sg/mohcorp/publications.aspx?id=24018). The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/standards*
  10. Rezayi M, Farjami Z, Hosseini ZS, Ebrahimi N, Abouzari-Lotf E
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2018;24(39):4675-4680.
    PMID: 30636591 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190111144525
    Small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are known as noninvasive biomarkers for early detection in various cancers. In fact, miRNAs have key roles in carcinogenicity process such as proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. After cardiovascular disease, cancer is the second cause of death in the world with an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. So, early diagnosis of cancer is critical for successful treatment. To date, several selective and sensitive laboratory-based methods have been applied for the detection of circulating miRNA, but a simple, short assay time and low-cost method such as a biosensor method as an alternative approach to monitor cancer biomarker is required. In this review, we have highlighted recent advances in biosensors for circulating miRNA detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer*
  11. Ching SM, Chia YC, Cheong AT
    This case report highlights delay in the diagnosis of adenoma carcinoma of the lung in a female patient who has never smoked. It took three months to reach the diagnosis of stage IV lung carcinoma despite the presence of symptoms and an abnormal chest radiograph finding from the beginning. The clinical characteristics and predictors of missed opportunities for an early diagnosis of lung cancer are discussed. In this case, patient and doctor factors contributed to the delay in diagnosis. Thus, early suspicions of lung cancer in a woman with the presence of respiratory symptoms despite being a non-smoker are important in primary care setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer
  12. Schliemann D, Su TT, Paramasivam D, Treanor C, Dahlui M, Loh SY, et al.
    J Glob Oncol, 2019 04;5:1-20.
    PMID: 30969807 DOI: 10.1200/JGO.19.00011
    PURPOSE: The main objective of this systematic review was to identify whether mass and small media interventions improve knowledge and attitudes about cancer, cancer screening rates, and early detection of cancer in Asia.

    METHODS: The review was conducted according to a predefined protocol. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched in September 2017, and data extraction and rating of methodologic study quality (according to Joanna Briggs Institute rating procedures) were performed independently by reviewers.

    RESULTS: Twenty-two studies (reported across 24 papers) met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (n = 21) were conducted in high or upper-middle income countries; targeted breast (n = 11), cervical (n = 7), colorectal (n = 3), or oral (n = 2) cancer; and used small media either alone (n = 15) or in combination with mass media and other components (n = 5). Studies regarding cancer screening uptake were of medium to high quality and mainly reported positive outcomes for cervical cancer and mixed results for breast and colorectal cancer. The methodologic strength of research that investigated change in cancer-related knowledge and the cost effectiveness of interventions, respectively, were weak and inconclusive.

    CONCLUSION: Evidence indicated that small media campaigns seemed to be effective in terms of increasing screening uptake in Asia, in particular cervical cancer screening. Because of the limited number of studies in Asia, it was not possible to be certain about the effectiveness of mass media in improving screening uptake and the effectiveness of campaigns in improving cancer-related knowledge.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/methods*; Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*; Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data
  13. Lopes G, Stern MC, Temin S, Sharara AI, Cervantes A, Costas-Chavarri A, et al.
    J Glob Oncol, 2019 02;5:1-22.
    PMID: 30802159 DOI: 10.1200/JGO.18.00213
    PURPOSE: To provide resource-stratified, evidence-based recommendations on the early detection of colorectal cancer in four tiers to clinicians, patients, and caregivers.

    METHODS: American Society of Clinical Oncology convened a multidisciplinary, multinational panel of medical oncology, surgical oncology, surgery, gastroenterology, health technology assessment, cancer epidemiology, pathology, radiology, radiation oncology, and patient advocacy experts. The Expert Panel reviewed existing guidelines and conducted a modified ADAPTE process and a formal consensus-based process with additional experts (Consensus Ratings Group) for two round(s) of formal ratings.

    RESULTS: Existing sets of guidelines from eight guideline developers were identified and reviewed; adapted recommendations form the evidence base. These guidelines, along with cost-effectiveness analyses, provided evidence to inform the formal consensus process, which resulted in agreement of 75% or more.

    CONCLUSION: In nonmaximal settings, for people who are asymptomatic, are ages 50 to 75 years, have no family history of colorectal cancer, are at average risk, and are in settings with high incidences of colorectal cancer, the following screening options are recommended: guaiac fecal occult blood test and fecal immunochemical testing (basic), flexible sigmoidoscopy (add option in limited), and colonoscopy (add option in enhanced). Optimal reflex testing strategy for persons with positive screens is as follows: endoscopy; if not available, barium enema (basic or limited). Management of polyps in enhanced is as follows: colonoscopy, polypectomy; if not suitable, then surgical resection. For workup and diagnosis of people with symptoms, physical exam with digital rectal examination, double contrast barium enema (only in basic and limited); colonoscopy; flexible sigmoidoscopy with biopsy (if contraindication to latter) or computed tomography colonography if contraindications to two endoscopies (enhanced only).

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/methods; Early Detection of Cancer/standards*
  14. Tze CN, Fitzgerald H, Qureshi A, Tan HJ, Low ML
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(7):3179-83.
    PMID: 27509948
    The aim of this study was to assess the rate of uptake of a customised annual Colorectal Cancer Awareness, Screening and Treatment Project (CCASTP) using faecal immunohistochemical test (FIT) kits in low income communities in Malaysia. The immediate objectives were (1) to evaluate the level of adherence of CRC screening among lowincome groups, (2) to assess the knowledge and awareness of the screened population and (3) to assess the accuracy of FIT kits. A total of 1,581 FIT kits were distributed between years 2010 to 2015 to healthy asymptomatic participants of the annual CCASTP organized by Empowered the Cancer Advocacy Society of Malaysia. Data for sociodemographic characteristics, critical health and lifestyle information of the registered subjects were collected. Findings for use of the FIT kits were collected when they were returned for stool analyses. Those testingd positive were invited to undergo a colonoscopy examination. A total of 1,436 (90.8%) of the subjects retuned the FITkits, showing high compliance. Among the 129 subjects with positive FIT results, 92 (71.3%) underwent colonoscopy. Six cases (6.5%) of CRC were found. Based on the data collected, the level of awareness of stool examination and knowledge about CRC was poor amongst the participants. Gender, age group, ethnicity and risk factors (i.e. smoking, lack of exercise and low consumption of fresh fruits) were associated with positive FITkit results. In conclusion, CRC screening can be performed in the community with a single FITkit. Although CRC knowledge and awareness is poor in lowincome communities, the average return rate of the FIT kits and rate of colonoscopy examination were 91.2% and 70.3%, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/economics*; Early Detection of Cancer/methods
  15. Naing C, Jun YK, Yee WM, Waqiyuddin SJ, Lui LC, Shaung OY, et al.
    Eur. J. Cancer Prev., 2014 Mar;23(2):71-5.
    PMID: 23722440 DOI: 10.1097/CEJ.0b013e328362e9b4
    The aims of the study were (i) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of colorectal cancer (CRC), (ii) to explore the willingness of the study population to take a screening test for CRC, and (iii) to identify factors affecting the willingness to take a screening test for CRC. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a semiurban town in Malaysia using a pretested structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were determined for all important variables. A binary logistic regression model was introduced to identify independent predictors of the willingness to take a screening test. Factors influencing willingness were explored according to the constructs of the health belief model. Of the 256 respondents who had heard about CRC, the majority were aware of altered bowel habits (67.3%) or the presence of blood in stool or rectal bleeding (63.4%) as the warning symptoms. Although 38% of the respondents knew of colonoscopy as the screening test, 22% were not aware of any screening test for CRC. A majority (77.4%) showed willingness to take a screening test for CRC. In the multivariate analysis, 'having family or friends with history of CRC' and 'self-perceived risk' were the two significant variables for predicting the acceptance of CRC screening among the study population. Findings suggested that the respondents' knowledge of the CRC screening test was inadequate, albeit a high proportion expressed their intention to take screening tests. Health education on the CRC addressing available screening tests and the benefits of early screening for CRC should be scaled up.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*; Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data
  16. Lee M, Mariapun S, Rajaram N, Teo SH, Yip CH
    BMC Public Health, 2017 01 28;17(1):127.
    PMID: 28129762 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-017-4015-3
    BACKGROUND: The incidence of breast cancer in Asia is increasing because of urbanization and lifestyle changes. In the developing countries in Asia, women present at late stages, and mortality is high. Mammographic screening is the only evidence-based screening modality that reduces breast cancer mortality. To date, only opportunistic screening is offered in the majority of Asian countries because of the lack of justification and funding. Nevertheless, there have been few reports on the effectiveness of such programmes. In this study, we describe the cancer detection rate and challenges experienced in an opportunistic mammographic screening programme in Malaysia.

    METHODS: From October 2011 to June 2015, 1,778 asymptomatic women, aged 40-74 years, underwent subsidised mammographic screening. All patients had a clinical breast examination before mammographic screening, and women with mammographic abnormalities were referred to a surgeon. The cancer detection rate and variables associated with a recommendation for adjunct ultrasonography were determined.

    RESULTS: The mean age for screening was 50.8 years and seven cancers (0.39%) were detected. The detection rate was 0.64% in women aged 50 years and above, and 0.12% in women below 50 years old. Adjunct ultrasonography was recommended in 30.7% of women, and was significantly associated with age, menopausal status, mammographic density and radiologist's experience. The main reasons cited for recommendation of an adjunct ultrasound was dense breasts and mammographic abnormalities.

    DISCUSSION: The cancer detection rate is similar to population-based screening mammography programmes in high-income Asian countries. Unlike population-based screening programmes in Caucasian populations where the adjunct ultrasonography rate is 2-4%, we report that 3 out of 10 women attending screening mammography were recommended for adjunct ultrasonography. This could be because Asian women attending screening are likely premenopausal and hence have denser breasts. Radiologists who reported more than 360 mammograms were more confident in reporting a mammogram as normal without adjunct ultrasonography compared to those who reported less than 180 mammograms.

    CONCLUSION: Our subsidised opportunistic mammographic screening programme is able to provide equivalent cancer detection rates but the high recall for adjunct ultrasonography would make screening less cost-effective.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/economics; Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data*
  17. Mohamad M, Kok HS
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 May 25;20(5):1427-1432.
    PMID: 31127903
    Objective: This study aims to investigate the public pattern in seeking breast cancer screening information in
    Malaysia using Google Trends. Methods: The Google Trends database was evaluated for the relative Internet search
    popularity of breast cancer and screening-related search terms from 2007 to 2018. Results: Result showed downward
    trends in breast cancer search, whereas mammogram and tomosynthesis search fluctuated consistently. A significant
    increment was found during Pink October month. Breast cancer search term achieved the highest popularity in the east
    coast of Malaysia with [x2 (5, N=661) = 110.93, P<0.05], whereas mammogram attained the highest search volume in
    central Malaysia [x2 (4, N=67) = 18.90, P<0.05]. The cross-correlation for breast cancer was moderate among northern
    Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak (0.3 ≤ rs ≤ 0.7). Conclusion: Public interest trend in breast cancer screening is strongly
    correlated with the breast cancer awareness campaign, Pink October. Breast cancer screening should be promoted in
    the rural areas in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology; Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data*
  18. Romli R, Shahabudin S, Saddki N, Mokhtar N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 02;74(1):8-14.
    PMID: 30846655
    INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is among the most common cancers in women worldwide. The Pap smear test is the primary screening procedure used to detect abnormal cells that may develop into cancer.

    OBJECTIVES: This study analysed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of working women in Kedah state, Malaysia, about cervical cancer and Pap smear tests and the associations of knowledge, attitudes and practices with socio-demographic factors.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional questionnaire study analysed knowledge, attitudes and practices among 210 female entrepreneurs who received funding from Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia (AIM) in Kedah state. Women were included if they were married or previously married, aged 20-65 years and had not been diagnosed with cervical cancer.

    RESULTS: Most subjects could not recall common symptoms of cervical cancer, such as bleeding between periods, and did not know or were unsure of the suitable age for Pap smear tests and the interval between tests. Although most subjects agreed that Pap smear tests were necessary, some gave priority to other issues. About half (55.2%) had undergone Pap smear tests, but only 38.6% had been tested within the previous five years. Use of hormonal contraceptives, higher knowledge score, and higher attitude score were associated with Pap smear testing within the previous 5 years.

    CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear testing and attitudes toward testing were poor among most participants. These factors were significantly associated with lack of actual testing.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*; Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data
  19. Mu AK, Lim BK, Aminudin N, Hashim OH, Shuib AS
    Arch. Physiol. Biochem., 2016 Jul;122(3):111-6.
    PMID: 26849673 DOI: 10.3109/13813455.2016.1151441
    Endometrial (ECa), ovarian (OCa) and cervical (CCa) cancers are among 10 of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide. Cancers are known to cause some proteins to be differentially glycosylated or aberrantly excreted in the urine, which can be used as biomarkers. Since ECa, OCa and CCa are difficult to diagnose at the early stage, the aim of the present study was to identify a panel of new biomarkers for early detection of the cancers using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) technology. Identification of early biomarkers that are specific and efficient can increase the survival rate of the patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer
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