We sampled the Klang estuary during the inter-monsoon and northeast monsoon period (July-Nov 2011, Oct-Nov 2012), which coincided with higher rainfall and elevated Klang River flow. The increased freshwater inflow into the estuary resulted in water column stratification that was observed during both sampling periods. Dissolved oxygen (DO) dropped below 63 μM, and hypoxia was observed. Elevated river flow also transported dissolved inorganic nutrients, chlorophyll a and bacteria to the estuary. However, bacterial production did not correlate with DO concentration in this study. As hypoxia was probably not due to in situ heterotrophic processes, deoxygenated waters were probably from upstream. We surmised this as DO correlated with salinity (R2 = 0.664, df = 86, p 6.7 h), hypoxia could occur at the Klang estuary. Here, we presented a model that related riverine flow rate to the post-heavy rainfall hypoxia that explicated the episodic hypoxia at Klang estuary. As Klang estuary supports aquaculture and cockle culture, our results could help protect the aquaculture and cockle culture industry here.
Microplastic (MP) pollution is a major global issue that poses serious threats to aquatic organisms. Although research on MP pollution has been extensive, the relationship between MPs and water quality parameters in estuarine water systems is unclear. This work studied the spatiotemporal distribution and characteristics of MPs in the Karnaphuli River estuary, Bangladesh. MP abundance was calculated by towing with a plankton net (300 μm mesh size) at three river gradients (up-, mid- and downstream) and the association between physicochemical parameters of water (temperature, pH, salinity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, and dissolved oxygen) and MP distribution patterns was also investigated. Mean MP abundance in water was higher during the wet season (April) (4.33 ± 2.45 items per m3) compared to the dry season (September) (3.65 ± 2.54 items per m3). In descending order, the highest MP abundance was observed downstream (6.60 items per m3) > midstream (3.15 items per m3) > upstream (2.22 items per m3). pH during the wet season (April) and temperature during the dry season (September) were key physicochemical parameters that correlated with river MP abundance (r = -0.74 and 0.74 respectively). Indicating that if the Karnaphuli River water has low pH or high temperature, there is likely to be high MPs present in the water. Most MP particles were film-shaped, white in color, and 1-5 mm in size. Of the six polymers detected, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and cellulose were predominant, comprising roughly 17-19% each. These results can be used to model MP transport in the freshwater ecosystem of the Karnaphuli River estuary in Bangladesh to help develop future mitigation strategies.
The prediction models of MWQI in mangrove and estuarine zones were constructed. The 2011-2015 data employed in this study entailed 13 parameters from six monitoring stations in West Malaysia. Spatial discriminant analysis (SDA) had recommended seven significant parameters to develop the MWQI which were DO, TSS, O&G, PO4, Cd, Cr and Zn. These selected parameters were then used to develop prediction models for the MWQI using artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regressions (MLR). The SDA-ANN model had higher R2 value for training (0.9044) and validation (0.7113) results than SDA-MLR model and was chosen as the best model in mangrove estuarine zone. The SDA-ANN model had also demonstrated lower RMSE (5.224) than the SDA-MLR (12.7755). In summary, this work suggested that ANN was an effective tool to compute the MWQ in mangrove estuarine zone and a powerful alternative prediction model as compared to the other modelling methods.
Bisphenol analogues are prevalent globally because of rampant usage and imprecise processing techniques, prompting alerts about environmental and health hazards. The method employed in this study by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) for both quantification and qualitative analysis of the bisphenol compounds in the surface water samples. The coastal and estuarine surface water of Port Dickson and Lukut ranges from 1.32 ng/L to 1890.51 ng/L of bisphenol analogues. BPF mean concentration at 1143.88 ng/L is the highest, followed by BPA and BPS at 59.01 ng/L and 10.96 ng/L, respectively. Based on RQm for bisphenol analogues, the highest for BPF at 2.49 (RQ > 1, high risk), followed by BPS at 0.12 (0.1
Macrobenthos in coastal environment that play a significant role in the food web. It could also use as a good indicator of aquatic ecosystem health. The abundance and composition of macrobenthos in Bakkhali channel system, Cox's Bazar were conducted in relation to the soil parameters. Samples were collected using Ekman Berge bottom grab from five different stations of Bakkhali channel. Macrobenthos were comprised of five major groups namely Polychaeta (9.96-30.31%), Oligochaeta (3.68-59.707%), Crustacea (0.02-58.40%), Bivalvia (1.40-82.09%) and Gastropoda (0.08-4.25%). Total number of macrobenthos was higher at station I (9000 individuals m(-2)) and station II (8517 individuals m(-2)) compared to other stations. Shannon diversity index among the stations ranged from 0.65-1.04. Soil pH and soil moisture ranged from 6.1-6.4 and 23.44-31.29%, respectively. The highest organic carbon concentration was observed at station I (2.11%) and lowest at station III (1.40%). Maximum fraction of sand by weight was found at stations II (81.88%) and III (87.88) while the highest fraction of clay (21.52%) and silt (8.0%) were recorded in station I. It was observed that benthic bivalves were positively correlated (r = 0.891, p > 0.05) with silt fraction of the sediments.
Valuing sedimentary 'blue carbon' stocks of seagrass meadows requires exclusion of allochthonous recalcitrant forms of carbon, such as black carbon (BC). Regression models constructed across a Southeast Asian tropical estuary predicted that carbon stocks within the sandy meadows of coastal embayments would support a modest but not insignificant amount of BC. We tested the prediction across three coastal meadows of the same region: one patchy meadow located close to a major urban centre and two continuous meadows contained in separate open embayments of a rural marine park; all differed in fetch and species. The BC/total organic carbon (TOC) fractions in the urban and rural meadows with small canopies were more than double the predicted amounts, 28 ± 1.6% and 36 ± 1.5% (±95% confidence intervals), respectively. The fraction in the rural large-canopy meadow remained comparable to the other two meadows, 26 ± 4.9% (±95% confidence intervals) but was half the amount predicted, likely owing to confounding of the model. The relatively high BC/TOC fractions were explained by variability across sites of BC atmospheric supply, an increase in loss of seagrass litter close to the exposed edges of meadows and sediment resuspension across the dispersed patchy meadow.
An estuarine species of Nereididae (Annelida), Neanthesglandicincta (Southern, 1921) has been newly recorded on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia located in the South China Sea based on 23 specimens collected from three estuaries (Tumpat, Kelantan Delta, Kelantan; Setiu Lagoon, Terengganu; Kuala Ibai, Terengganu). The morphological characteristics of the Malaysian specimens agree well with those of the previous original description and the redescription of N.glandicincta based on Indian, Myanmar and Singapore specimens. The number of paragnaths in all groups on the proboscis of our Malaysian specimens is within the range of the intraspecific variation of N.glandicincta as shown in the previous descriptions. An identification key to species of the Neanthesglandicincta species complex, which includes two morphologically similar species, is provided.
The heavy metal contents (Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As) of 88 surface sediment samples from the western Sunda Shelf were analyzed to determine their spatial distribution patterns and contamination status. The results demonstrated that high enrichment regions of heavy metals were focused in the Kelantan, Pahang, and Ambat river estuaries, and deep water regions of the study area. These high enrichment regions were mainly controlled by riverine inputs and their hydrodynamic conditions. The enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo), and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were used to assess heavy metal accumulation. The results indicated that the study area was not significantly contaminated overall at the time of the study; however, Cd, As, and Hg were at levels corresponding to moderate contamination at many stations located in the Pahang River estuary, Kelantan River estuary, and north-eastern region of the study area, primarily because of anthropogenic activities.
Scanty information exists pertaining to the length-weight relationship (LWR) and length-length relationship (LLR) parameters of longsnouted catfish, Plicofollis argyropleuron in lotic systems throughout the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. It is vital to reveal these biological properties of P. argyropleuron in Kuala Muda and Merbok estuary for future management and to increase knowledge about this fish stocks. The fish samples were randomly collected in the estuary area of Kuala Muda and Merbok, Kedah for 10 months from March 2009 to December 2009. The values of the exponent b in the LWR equations (W = aL(b) ) were approximately 3, indicating an isometric growth with high correlation coefficient (r(2)). The value of LLR (r(2)>0.9) indicated that they are highly significant and highly correlated. These parameters are essential for evaluating the relative condition of fish and species managements as well as their fisheries and stock assessment.
This paper presents data on nitrogen characteristics in a tropical seagrass meadow located in Sungai Pulai estuary (Johor, Malaysia) and is related to the article "Nitrogen dynamics in tropical seagrass meadows under heavy anthropogenic influence" . Field sampling conducted from August 2015 to May 2016 aimed to collect sediments and seagrass tissues for analysis of nitrogen elemental content and stable isotope values. Sediment samples and seagrass tissue (above-ground and below-ground parts) were collected by using PVC cores. The information is presented as unprocessed and partially data, which incorporates nitrogen content (in %) and δ15N values (‰) of sediment and seagrass tissue samples. Nitrogen loadings in the seagrass sediments, as based on down-core data of sediment samples up to 30 cm depths, should be read with  to comprehend the baseline nitrogen dynamics of the study area.
Biodiversity surveys are crucial for monitoring the status of threatened aquatic ecosystems, such as tropical estuaries and mangroves. Conventional monitoring methods are intrusive, time-consuming, substantially expensive, and often provide only rough estimates in complex habitats. An advanced monitoring approach, environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding, is promising, although only few applications in tropical mangrove estuaries have been reported. In this study, we explore the advantages and limitations of an eDNA metabarcoding survey on the fish community of the Merbok Estuary (Peninsular Malaysia). COI and 12S eDNA metabarcoding assays collectively detected 178 species from 127 genera, 68 families, and 25 orders. Using this approach, significantly more species have been detected in the Merbok Estuary over the past decade (2010-2019) than in conventional surveys, including several species of conservation importance. However, we highlight three limitations: (1) in the absence of a comprehensive reference database the identities of several species are unresolved; (2) some of the previously documented specimen-based diversity was not captured by the current method, perhaps as a consequence of PCR primer specificity, and (3) the detection of non-resident species-stenohaline freshwater taxa (e.g., cyprinids, channids, osphronemids) and marine coral reef taxa (e.g., holocentrids, some syngnathids and sharks), not known to frequent estuaries, leading to the supposition that their DNA have drifted into the estuary through water movements. The community analysis revealed that fish diversity along the Merbok Estuary is not homogenous, with the upstream more diverse than further downstream. This could be due to the different landscapes or degree of anthropogenic influences along the estuary. In summary, we demonstrated the practicality of eDNA metabarcoding in assessing fish community and structure within a complex and rich tropical environment within a short sampling period. However, some limitations need to be considered and addressed to fully exploit the efficacy of this approach.
Microplastics have been considered as contaminants of emerging concern due to ubiquity in the environment; however, the occurrence of microplastics in river estuaries is scarcely investigated. The Klang River estuary is an important ecosystem that receives various contaminants from urbanised, highly populated areas and the busiest maritime centre in Selangor, Malaysia. This study investigates the abundance and characteristics of microplastics in surface water of the Klang River estuary. The abundance of microplastics ranged from 0.5 to 4.5 particles L-1 with a mean abundance of 2.47 particles L-1. There is no correlation between the abundance of microplastics and physicochemical properties, while there is a strong correlation between salinity and conductivity. The microplastics were characterised with a stereomicroscope and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse size, shape, colour, and polymer composition. The microplastics in the surface water were predominantly in the 300-1000 μm size class, followed by > 1000 μm and
Seasonal variations of zooplankton community in terms of biomass and size-fractionated densities were studied in a tropical Sangga Kechil river, Matang, Perak from June 2010 to April 2011. Zooplankton and jellyfish (hydromedusae, siphonophores and ctenophores) samples were collected bimonthly from four sampling stations by horizontal towing of a 140-?m plankton net and 500 ?m bongo net, respectively. A total of 12 zooplankton groups consisting of six groups each of mesozooplankon (0.2 mm-2.0 mm) and macrozooplankton (2.0 mm-20.0 cm) were recorded. The total zooplankton density (12375?3339 ind m(-3)) and biomass (35.32?14.56 mg m(-3)) were highest during the northeast (NE) monsoon and southwest (SW) monsoon, respectively, indicating the presence of bigger individuals in the latter season. Mesozooplankton predominated (94%) over the macrozooplankton (6%) during all the seasons, and copepods contributed 84% of the total mesozooplankton abundance. Macrozooplankton was dominated by appendicularians during most of the seasons (43%-97%), except during the NE monsoon (December) when chaetognaths became the most abundant (89% of the total macrozooplankton). BIO-ENV analysis showed that total zooplankton density was correlated with turbidity, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, which in turn was positively correlated to chlorophyll a. Cluster analysis of the zooplankton community showed no significant temporal difference between the SW and NE monsoon season during the study period (> 90% similarity). The present study revealed that the zooplankton community in the tropical mangrove estuary in the Straits of Malacca was dominated by mesoplankton, especially copepods.
In this study, estuarine water samples were collected at diverse hot spots in Miri River Estuary, East Malaysia to appraise the geochemical processes, which controls the river water quality. The collected water samples were analysed for various physicochemical parameters (insitu parameters, nutrients, major ions and trace metals), including stable isotopes (oxygen and hydrogen). Suspended solids are also extracted from the water samples and analysed for trace metals. Standard graphs, Piper plot, Gibbs diagram, water quality indices, geochemical modelling and statistical analysis were used for the data analysis. The acquired water quality data was compared with national and international guidelines for the suitability of water for various purposes. Interpretation of data reveals that the estuarine water quality is deemed unsuitable to be used for both drinking and irrigation purposes. Overall, the elemental concentrations are increasing from downstream to river mouth. Based on pollution indices (HEI and Cd), downstream region shows high vulnerability to metal pollution due to anthropogenic disturbance. Isotope values of river water indicate direct atmospheric precipitation with minimal evaporation. Factor analysis reveals that seawater influx, urban pollution, domestic and agricultural discharges at the downstream region are the main controlling factors to the river water quality. It is also deduced that suspended solids play a vital role in the adsorption and desorption of trace metals in the estuarine water. The outcome of this study provides a comprehensive information on pollution status of Miri estuary, which helps the policy makers to practice sustainable management of this water resource for Miri community.
This study reports the concentrations of trace metals in core sediments profile from the coastal and four rivers estuary in the Kuching Division of Sarawak, Malaysia, and the controlling mechanisms influencing their availability in sediments of the studied area. The bonding of trace metals with non-mobile fractions was confirmed with the sequential extraction. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to measure the concentrations of the trace metals. Granulometric analyses were performed using normalized sieve apertures to determine the textural characteristics of the sediments. Enrichment factor was used to evaluate the level of metal enrichment. Heavy metals concentrations in sediment samples varied in the range: Pb (8.9-188.9 mg/kg d.w.), Zn (19.4-431.8 mg/kg d.w.), Cd (0.014-0.061 mg/kg d.w.), Ni (6.6-33.4 mg/kg d.w.), Mn (2.4-16.8 mg/kg d.w.), Cu (9.4-133.3 mg/kg d.w.), Ba (1.3-9.9 mg/kg d.w.), As (0.4-7.9 mg/kg d.w.), Co (0.9-5.1 mg/kg d.w.), Cr (1.4-7.8 mg/kg d.w.), Mg (68.8-499.3 mg/kg d.w.), Ca (11.3-64.9 mg/kg d.w.), Al (24.7-141.7 mg/kg d.w.), Na (8.8-29.4 mg/kg d.w.), and Fe (12,011-35,124.6 mg/kg d.w.). The estimated results of the enrichment factor suggested enrichments of Pb, Zn, and Cu in all the core sediment samples and depths at all sites. The other trace metals showed no enrichments in almost all the sampled stations. Continuous accumulation of Pb, Zn, and Cu metals over a period can be detrimental to living organisms and the ecology. The results obtained from the statistical analyses suggested that the deposition of trace metals in the studied sites is due to anthropogenic inputs from the adjacent land-based sources.
Despite the nutritional benefits, bivalves like mussels are also an excellent aquatic heavy metal biomonitoring agent due to their high tolerance to varying levels of temperature, salinity and oxygen, as well as pollutants. Although the accumulated toxic heavy metals may not exert direct negative impacts on the mussels, such toxicants in mussel tissues can give harmful effects on human body when consumed in toxic quantities and/or over prolonged period. The booming of urban and industrial activities, and consequently the increment of runoffs, as well as wastewater effluents and leaching, further exacerbated the magnitude of this issue. Hence, continuous monitoring of heavy metal contents in mussels is vital to ensure its compliance with food safety regulations, protecting consumers at large. This review paper discusses the occurrence of heavy metals in mussels especially that of Perna viridis in Malaysia and other parts of the world since year 2000 until 2021. Heavy metal concentration data and patterns from various coastal and/or estuaries were compared. Where applicable, statistical data that indicate variations between sampling sites, sampling months or years and chemical treatments for heavy metal removal were critically reviewed. Health risk assessment findings were also discussed. More importantly, related chemical-based interventions to minimize and/or eliminate toxic heavy metals from mussels are also reviewed.
The study explores the spatio-temporal variation of water quality parameters in the Hooghly estuary, which is considered an ecologically-stressed shallow estuary and a major distributary for the Ganges River. The estimated parameters are chlorophyll-a, total suspended matter (TSM), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The Sentinel-3 OLCI remote sensing imageries were analyzed for the duration of October 2018 to February 2019. We observed that the water quality of the Hooghly estuaries is comparatively low-oxygenated, mesotrophic, and phosphate-limited. Ongoing channel dredging for maintaining shipping channel depth keeps the TSM in the estuary at an elevated level, with the highest amount of TSM observed during March of 2019 (41.59g m-3) at station A, upstream point. Since the pre-monsoon season, TSM data shows a decreasing trend towards the mouth of the estuary. Chl-a concentration is higher during pre-monsoon than monsoon and post-monsoon periods, with the highest value observed in April at 1.09 mg m-3 in station D during the pre-monsoon period. The CDOM concentration was high in the middle section (January-February) and gradually decreased towards the estuary's head and mouth. The highest CDOM was found in February at locations C and D during the pre-monsoon period. Every station shows a significant correlation among CDOM, TSM, and Chl-a measured parameters. Based on our satellite data analysis, it is recommended that SNAP C2RCC be regionally used for TSM, Chl-a, and CDOM for water quality product retrieval and in various algorithms for the Hooghly estuary monitoring.
Sediment is a great indicator for assessing coastal mercury contamination. This work profiled the magnitude of mercury pollution in the tropical estuaries and coastal sediments of the Strait of Malacca. Mercury was extracted through the ultrasound-assisted mercury extraction method and analyzed using the flow injection mercury system. The mean concentration of mercury in the sediment samples was 61.43 ± 23.25 μg/kg, ranging from 16.55 ± 0.61 to 114.02 ± 1.54 μg/kg. Geoaccumulation index revealed that a total of 13% of sampling sites were moderately enriched with mercury. The northern part of the Strait of Malacca had the highest mean mercury (Hg) concentration (76.36 ± 27.25 μg/kg), followed by the southern (64.59 ± 16.09 μg/kg) and central (39.33 ± 12.91 μg/kg) parts. Sediment mercury concentration in the current study was lower than other regions like Japan, China, Indian, east Mediterranean, and Taiwan. When compared to the Canadian interim marine and freshwater sediment, China's soil interim environmental guidelines, mercury contamination in the Strait of Malacca was found to be below these permissible limits. Sediment organic matter content was found to have significant correlation with sediment mercury concentration. This study could provide the latest benchmark of mercury pollution and prove beneficial to future pollution studies in relation to monitoring works in tropical estuaries and coastal sediments.
This study aims to determine the concentration of sterols used as biomarkers in the surface microlayer (SML) in estuarine areas of the Selangor River, Malaysia. Samples were collected during different seasons through the use of a rotation drum. The analysis of sterols was performed using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID). The results showed that the concentrations of total sterols in the SML ranged from 107.06 to 505.55 ng L(-1). The total sterol concentration was found to be higher in the wet season. Cholesterol was found to be the most abundant sterols component in the SML. The diagnostic ratios of sterols show the influence of natural sources and waste on the contribution of sterols in the SML. Further analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), showed distinct inputs of sterols derived from human activity (40.58%), terrigenous and plant inputs (22.59%) as well as phytoplankton and marine inputs (17.35%).
This study aims to determine the levels of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and ethyl violet active substances (EVAS) as anionic surfactants and of disulphine blue active substances (DBAS) as cationic surfactants in the surface microlayer (SML) around an estuarine area using colorimetric methods. The results show that the concentrations of surfactants around the estuarine area were dominated by anionic surfactants (MBAS and EVAS) with average concentrations of 0.39 and 0.51 μmol L⁻¹, respectively. There were significant between-station differences in surfactant concentrations (p<0.05) with higher concentrations found at the stations near the sea. The concentration of surfactants was higher during the rainy season than the dry season due to the influence of runoff water. Further investigation using total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic nitrogen (TON) shows that there is a significant correlation (p<0.05) between both anionic and cationic surfactants and the TON concentration.