Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 174 in total

  1. Siti-Munirah MY
    PhytoKeys, 2012.
    PMID: 23717191 DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.19.4064
    A new endemic species of Ridleyandra (Gesneriaceae), Ridleyandra iminii Siti-Munirah from Peninsular Malaysia is described and illustrated. Among Ridleyandra species, it is the only one with a dark red flower.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers
  2. Nasser AB, Zamli KZ, Alsewari AA, Ahmed BS
    PLoS One, 2018;13(5):e0195187.
    PMID: 29718918 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195187
    The application of meta-heuristic algorithms for t-way testing has recently become prevalent. Consequently, many useful meta-heuristic algorithms have been developed on the basis of the implementation of t-way strategies (where t indicates the interaction strength). Mixed results have been reported in the literature to highlight the fact that no single strategy appears to be superior compared with other configurations. The hybridization of two or more algorithms can enhance the overall search capabilities, that is, by compensating the limitation of one algorithm with the strength of others. Thus, hybrid variants of the flower pollination algorithm (FPA) are proposed in the current work. Four hybrid variants of FPA are considered by combining FPA with other algorithmic components. The experimental results demonstrate that FPA hybrids overcome the problems of slow convergence in the original FPA and offers statistically superior performance compared with existing t-way strategies in terms of test suite size.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/physiology*
  3. Low SL, Wong SY, Ooi IH, Hesse M, Städler Y, Schönenberger J, et al.
    Plant Biol (Stuttg), 2016 Jan;18(1):84-97.
    PMID: 25688576 DOI: 10.1111/plb.12320
    Homoplastic evolution of 'unique' morphological characteristics in the Schismatoglottideae - many previously used to define genera - prompted this study to compare morphology and function in connection with pollination biology for Aridarum nicolsonii, Phymatarum borneense and Schottarum sarikeense. Aridarum nicolsonii and P. borneense extrude pollen through a pair of horned thecae while S. sarikeense sheds pollen through a pair of pores on the thecae. Floral traits of spathe constriction, presence and movement of sterile structures on the spadix, the comparable role of horned thecae and thecae pores, the presence of stamen-associated calcium oxalate packages, and the timing of odour emission are discussed in the context of their roles in pollinator management. Pollinators for all investigated species were determined to be species of Colocasiomyia (Diptera: Drosophilidae).
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/anatomy & histology; Flowers/physiology*
  4. Wee SL, Tan SB, Jürgens A
    Phytochemistry, 2018 Sep;153:120-128.
    PMID: 29906658 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.06.005
    The plants of the enigmatic genus Rafflesia are well known for their gigantic flowers and their floral features such as pungent floral scent and vivid dark color, which mimics the food/brood sites of carrion. However, information on the pollination biology of this plant group remains limited and mostly anecdotal. In the present paper, we studied the floral volatiles of R. cantleyi Solms-Laubach and their role in pollinator attraction. To achieve these aims, the floral scent was collected in situ in the field using a dynamic headspace method followed by chemical analysis via GC-MS. The olfactory preferences of pollinators to the identified chemical compounds, were tested singly and in blends, in flight tunnel bioassays and compared with responses to headspace floral extracts. In addition, flower-visiting calliphorid flies and the local carrion fly community were sampled and identified. Five species of calliphorid flies (subfamilies of Chrysomyinae and Calliphorinae), all females, were found on the flowers, whereas nine species were found in the traps that were baited with tainted meat in the surrounding habitat. However, only flower visitors of one blow fly species, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, were observed to carry R. cantleyi pollen after visiting male flowers. The floral volatiles emitted by male flowers in full bloom were dominated by two sulphur-containing compounds, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). These were accompanied by other minor compounds such as benzenoids (4), monoterpenoids (4), trace amounts of aliphatic compounds (1), and sesquiterpenes (1). In flight-tunnel bioassays, a female-specific positive response of C. chani flies to individual DMDS, DMTS, and a blend of DMDS and DMTS was evident. Our findings suggest that R. cantleyi biochemically mimics carrion and that relative ratio of oligosulfides in the floral scent play a key role in sex-biased pollinator specialization, attracting only female C. chani carrion flies to the flowers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics; Flowers/chemistry*
  5. Yeang HY
    New Phytol, 2007;175(2):283-9.
    PMID: 17587376
    How tropical trees flower synchronously near the equator in the absence of significant day length variation or other meteorological cues has long been a puzzle. The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is used as a model to investigate this phenomenon. The annual cycle of solar radiation intensity is shown to correspond closely with the flowering of the rubber tree planted near the equator and in the subtropics. Unlike in temperate regions, where incoming solar radiation (insolation) is dependent on both day length and radiation intensity, insolation at the equator is due entirely to the latter. Insolation at the upper atmosphere peaks twice a year during the spring and autumn equinoxes, but the actual solar radiation that reaches the ground is attenuated to varying extents in different localities. The rubber tree shows one or two flowering seasons a year (with major and minor seasons in the latter) in accordance with the solar radiation intensity received. High solar radiation intensity, and in particular bright sunshine (as distinct from prolonged diffuse radiation), induces synchronous anthesis and blooming in Hevea around the time of the equinoxes. The same mechanism may be operational in other tropical tree species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/physiology*; Flowers/radiation effects*
  6. Yeang HY
    New Phytol, 2007;176(4):730-5.
    PMID: 17997756
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/physiology*; Flowers/radiation effects*
  7. Khandaker MM, Faruq G, Rahman MM, Sofian-Azirun M, Boyce AN
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:308651.
    PMID: 23970832 DOI: 10.1155/2013/308651
    Selected physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored at the vegetative and reproductive growth stages in potted Bougainvillea plants treated with five different concentrations of TRIA. Advanced flowering, flower bud number, and blooming rate increased significantly with 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Similarly, photosynthetic rate, pigment content, quantum yield, and stomatal conductance increased significantly with 2.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. Higher levels of N, P, and K, as well as increased total soluble solids (TSS) and higher sugar and protein contents, were recorded in treated plants. Furthermore, 46% more flowers, a 1.5-fold increase in bract weight, increased longevity, and 40% less leaf abscission were recorded following 2.5 mg/L TRIA treatment. Phenol and flavonoid contents, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and antioxidant activities were also markedly increased with 2.5 and 1.0 mg/L TRIA treatments. However, ethylene production was significantly lower in the treated plants. Positive correlations were observed between leaf TSS and flowering time and flower number, between leaf sugar content and bract weight, and between net photosynthesis and bract growth and dry matter production. It can be concluded that the foliar spray of TRIA stimulates growth, enhances flowering, and improves the quality of potted Bougainvillea plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/growth & development*
  8. Naito Y, Kanzaki M, Numata S, Obayashi K, Konuma A, Nishimura S, et al.
    J Plant Res, 2008 Jan;121(1):33-42.
    PMID: 17943228
    We monitored the reproductive status of all trees with diameters at breast height (dbh) >30 cm in a 40-ha plot at Pasoh, west Malaysia, and investigated the individual fecundity of 15 Shorea acuminata Dyer (Dipterocarpaceae) trees using seed-trapping methods during two consecutive general flowering periods in 2001 (GF2001) and 2002 (GF2002). The proportion of flowering trees was higher, and not dependent on size, in GF2002 (84.2%), than in GF2001 (54.5%), when flowering mainly occurred in trees with a dbh < or =70 cm. Fecundity parameters of individual trees per event varied widely (221,000-35,200,000 flowers, 0-139,000 mature seeds, and 1.04-177 kg total dry matter mass of fruit (TDM) per tree). Monotonic increases with increasing tree size were observed for flower production and TDM amongst trees up to 90 cm in dbh, but not for mature seed production or for any of these parameters amongst larger trees. The pattern of reproductive investment during the two consecutive reproductive events clearly differed between medium-sized and large trees; the former concentrated their reproductive investment in one of the reproductive events whereas the latter allocated their investment more evenly to both reproductive events. Our results suggest size-related differences in the resource allocation pattern for reproduction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/physiology*
  9. Lee XW, Mat-Isa MN, Mohd-Elias NA, Aizat-Juhari MA, Goh HH, Dear PH, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(12):e0167958.
    PMID: 27977777 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167958
    Rafflesia is a biologically enigmatic species that is very rare in occurrence and possesses an extraordinary morphology. This parasitic plant produces a gigantic flower up to one metre in diameter with no leaves, stem or roots. However, little is known about the floral biology of this species especially at the molecular level. In an effort to address this issue, we have generated and characterised the transcriptome of the Rafflesia cantleyi flower, and performed a comparison with the transcriptome of its floral bud to predict genes that are expressed and regulated during flower development. Approximately 40 million sequencing reads were generated and assembled de novo into 18,053 transcripts with an average length of 641 bp. Of these, more than 79% of the transcripts had significant matches to annotated sequences in the public protein database. A total of 11,756 and 7,891 transcripts were assigned to Gene Ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. In addition, 6,019 transcripts could be mapped to 129 pathways in Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. Digital abundance analysis identified 52 transcripts with very high expression in the flower transcriptome of R. cantleyi. Subsequently, analysis of differential expression between developing flower and the floral bud revealed a set of 105 transcripts with potential role in flower development. Our work presents a deep transcriptome resource analysis for the developing flower of R. cantleyi. Genes potentially involved in the growth and development of the R. cantleyi flower were identified and provide insights into biological processes that occur during flower development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics*
  10. Loh KE, Chin YS, Safinar Ismail I, Tan HY
    Phytochem Anal, 2022 Jan;33(1):12-22.
    PMID: 34000756 DOI: 10.1002/pca.3057
    INTRODUCTION: Hyperuricemia is the key risk factor for gout, in which the elevated uric acid is attributed to the oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid by xanthine oxidase (XO). Adverse effects of the current treatments lead to an urgent need for safer and more effective alternative from natural resources.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the metabolite profile of Chrysanthemum morifolium flower fraction with that of its detannified fraction in relation to XO inhibitory activity using a rapid and effective metabolomics approach.

    METHODS: Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR)-based metabolomics approach coupled with multivariate data analysis was utilised to characterise the XO inhibitors related to the antioxidant properties, total phenolic, and total flavonoid contents of the C. morifolium dried flowers.

    RESULTS: The highest XO inhibitory activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content with strong positive correlation between them were observed in the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction. Detannified EtOAc showed higher XO inhibitory activity than non-detannified EtOAc fraction. A total of 17 metabolites were tentatively identified, of which three namely kaempferol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and apigenin, could be suggested to be responsible for the strong XO inhibitory activity. Additive interaction between 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and apigenin (or kaempferol) in XO inhibition was demonstrated in the interaction assay conducted.

    CONCLUSION: Chrysanthemum morifolium dried flower-part could be further explored as a natural XO inhibitor for its anti-hyperuricemic potential. Metabolomics approach served as an effective classification of plant metabolites responsible for XO inhibitory activity, and demonstrated that multiple active compounds can work additively in giving combined inhibitory effects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry
  11. Mohd-Elias NA, Rosli K, Alias H, Juhari MA, Abu-Bakar MF, Md-Isa N, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 12 08;11(1):23661.
    PMID: 34880337 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-03028-x
    Rafflesia is a unique plant species existing as a single flower and produces the largest flower in the world. While Rafflesia buds take up to 21 months to develop, its flowers bloom and wither within about a week. In this study, transcriptome analysis was carried out to shed light on the molecular mechanism of senescence in Rafflesia. A total of 53.3 million high quality reads were obtained from two Rafflesia cantleyi flower developmental stages and assembled to generate 64,152 unigenes. Analysis of this dataset showed that 5,166 unigenes were differentially expressed, in which 1,073 unigenes were identified as genes involved in flower senescence. Results revealed that as the flowers progress to senescence, more genes related to flower senescence were significantly over-represented compared to those related to plant growth and development. Senescence of the R. cantleyi flower activates senescence-associated genes in the transcription activity (members of the transcription factor families MYB, bHLH, NAC, and WRKY), nutrient remobilization (autophagy-related protein and transporter genes), and redox regulation (CATALASE). Most of the senescence-related genes were found to be differentially regulated, perhaps for the fine-tuning of various responses in the senescing R. cantleyi flower. Additionally, pathway analysis showed the activation of genes such as ETHYLENE RECEPTOR, ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE 2, ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE 3, and ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR, indicating the possible involvement of the ethylene hormone response pathway in the regulation of R. cantleyi senescence. Our results provide a model of the molecular mechanism underlying R. cantleyi flower senescence, and contribute essential information towards further understanding the biology of the Rafflesiaceae family.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics*
  12. Kiew R, Sam YY
    PhytoKeys, 2012.
    PMID: 23717186 DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.18.3487
    Codonoboea personatiflora Kiew & Y.Y.Sam, sp. nov., is described from lowland forest in the foothills in Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. It is unique in the genus in its personate flower. Its conservation status falls within the IUCN Endangered category.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers
  13. Shamsul Bahri, A.R., Asma’-Samsudin
    Pollen distribution from the pollen loads of stingless bee foragers in KampungTempinis, Besut, Terengganu was observed and recorded using optical microscope. Heterotrigona itama, one of the most common IndoMalayan stingless bee species domesticated and widely distributed throughout Malaysia was selected for this observation.The objective of this study was to have an annual bee calendar for H. itama in Besut. Pollen collection was carried out twice a month from January to June 2015. Results showed, during the six months period of observation H. itama foraged 31 different flowering plants. Different months of the year showed different floral preference by the stingless bee. The most dominant flower visited by the stingless bee in January and February is Stevia rebaudiana while March to June is Antigonon leptopus (Honolulu creeper). This observation could be useful for conservation purposes and also in planning a good beescape in Malaysia meliponiculture industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers
  14. Phebe, D., Chew, M.K., Suraini, A.A., Lai, O.M., Janna, O.A.
    Red-fleshed pitaya fruit is a potential fruit for betacyanins extraction. However, there is lack of report on profiles and total contents of betacyanins in the peel and flesh. The objectives of this study were to determine colour, total betacyanins content and its separation in the peel and flesh of red-fleshed pitaya fruit harvested at 25, 30 and 35 days after flower anthesis (DAA) and to examine the usefulness of tristimulus colour measurement as predictors of pigment content in red-fleshed pitaya fruits. There were significant relationships between DAA and colour (L*, C* and h° values), and total betacyanins contents of peel and flesh of red-fleshed pitaya fruit. A total of three types betacyanins were separated from peel and flesh of pitaya fruit at 30 and 35 DAA while for 25 DAA, only one type of betacyanins was separated. The total concentration of betacyanins in the fruit peel of 25, 30 and 35 DAA was 0.24, 3.99 and 8.72 mg/mL, respectively. The fruit flesh contains 2.40, 7.93 and 11.70 mg/mL betacyanins at 25, 30 and 35 DAA, respectively, which was higher than peel. The tristimulus measurements can be adequately used to estimate the total betacyanins content of peel and flesh of red-fleshed pitaya fruit instead of tedious pigment extraction methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers
  15. Siti-Munirah MY, Suhaimi-Miloko Z, Ahmad MIZ
    PhytoKeys, 2021;172:121-134.
    PMID: 33664611 DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.172.59336
    This report describes Thismia belumensis Siti-Munirah & Suhaimi-Miloko, a novel species of achlorophyllous herb discovered in the Royal Belum State Park, Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is unlike any previously described species of Thismia. In particular, T. belumensis possesses a unique annulus, which has been expanded and modified into a cucullate (hood-like) structure. This structure covers the apical floral tube and has an opening on one side facing a thickened part of the annulus, and the off-centre floral aperture confers a zygomorphic symmetry to the flower, indicating T. belumensis is more similar to Thismia labiata J.J.Sm. This morphological detail makes this new species distinct from all other described species of Thismia. In this report, we provide descriptions, illustrations, colour plates, and the provisional conservation status of Thismia belumensis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers
  16. Yunoh SM
    PhytoKeys, 2021;174:127-146.
    PMID: 33776527 DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.174.62023
    Chroesthes is a small genus that includes three species from Peninsular Malaysia: Chroesthes faizaltahiriana Siti-Munirah sp. nov., C. lanceolata (T. Anderson) B.Hansen and C. longifolia (Wight) B.Hansen. Chroesthes faizaltahiriana, recently discovered in the State of Kelantan, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to the common species C. longifolia, but is distinguished mainly by its inflorescence type, calyx shape and its flowers being bright orange instead of dark purple internally. Chroesthes lanceolata is a new record for Peninsular Malaysia and has only been collected once. Following the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, these three species are assessed (national scale assessment) as Critically Endangered (C. faizaltahiriana and C. lanceolata) and Least Concern (C. longifolia).
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers
  17. Kiew R, Lau KH
    PhytoKeys, 2019.
    PMID: 30774505 DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.117.31560
    The genus Senyumia was previously known from a single species, S.minutiflora (Ridl.) Kiew, A.Weber & B.L.Burtt, from a limestone karst, Gunung Senyum, in Pahang, Malaysia. Senyumiagranitica Kiew, here described and illustrated, is the second species of the genus. It differs from S.minutiflora, not only in its habitat, but also in its shorter leaves, larger, non-resupinate or only partially resupinate flowers and smaller seeds. It is known from a small, fragmented population from a low range of hills. Therefore, under the IUCN Red List Categories & Criteria, it is assessed as Critically Endangered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers
  18. Ng YF, Ain N, Lau KH
    Zootaxa, 2019 Nov 11;4695(4):zootaxa.4695.4.9.
    PMID: 31719347 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4695.4.9
    Tenothrips keruing sp. n. is described from Malaysia. This new species was taken from the flowers of Dipterocarpus sublamellatus (local name Keruing kerut) during the recent mass-flowering. The male of this species has a pair of stout setae on abdominal tergite IX, and there are no sternal pore plates. A key to species of Tenothrips from Indomalaysia is provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers
  19. Clerget B, Sidibe M, Bueno CS, Grenier C, Kawakata T, Domingo AJ, et al.
    Ann Bot, 2021 07 28;128(1):97-113.
    PMID: 33821947 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcab048
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Daylength determines flowering dates. However, questions remain regarding flowering dates in the natural environment, such as the synchronous flowering of plants sown simultaneously at highly contrasting latitudes. The daily change in sunrise and sunset times is the cue for the flowering of trees and for the synchronization of moulting in birds at the equator. Sunrise and sunset also synchronize the cell circadian clock, which is involved in the regulation of flowering. The goal of this study was to update the photoperiodism model with knowledge acquired since its conception.

    METHODS: A large dataset was gathered, including four 2-year series of monthly sowings of 28 sorghum varieties in Mali and two 1-year series of monthly sowings of eight rice varieties in the Philippines to compare with previously published monthly sowings in Japan and Malaysia, and data from sorghum breeders in France, Nicaragua and Colombia. An additive linear model of the duration in days to panicle initiation (PI) and flowering time using daylength and daily changes in sunrise and sunset times was implemented.

    KEY RESULTS: Simultaneous with the phyllochron, the duration to PI of field crops acclimated to the mean temperature at seedling emergence within the usual range of mean cropping temperatures. A unique additive linear model combining daylength and daily changes in sunrise and sunset hours was accurately fitted for any type of response in the duration to PI to the sowing date without any temperature input. Once calibrated on a complete and an incomplete monthly sowing series at two tropical latitudes, the model accurately predicted the duration to PI of the concerned varieties from the equatorial to the temperate zone.

    CONCLUSIONS: Including the daily changes in sunrise and sunset times in the updated photoperiodism model largely improved its accuracy at the latitude of each experiment. More research is needed to ascertain its multi-latitudinal accuracy, especially at latitudes close to the equator.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers
  20. Yeang HY
    J Exp Bot, 2013 Jul;64(10):2643-52.
    PMID: 23645867 DOI: 10.1093/jxb/ert130
    In photoperiodic flowering, long-day (LD) plants are induced to flower seasonally when the daylight hours are long, whereas flowering in short-day (SD) plants is promoted under short photoperiods. According to the widely accepted external coincidence model, flowering occurs in LD Arabidopsis when the circadian rhythm of the gene CONSTANS (CO) peaks in the afternoon, when it is light during long days but dark when the days are short. Nevertheless, extending this explanation to SD flowering in rice, Oriza sativa, requires LD and SD plants to have 'opposite light requirements' as the CO orthologue in rice, HEADING-DATE1 (Hd1), promotes flowering only under short photoperiods. This report proposes a role of the plant's solar rhythm in promoting seasonal flowering. The interaction between rhythmic genes entrained to the solar clock and those entrained to the circadian clock form the basis of an internal coincidence model that explains both LD and SD flowering equally well. The model invokes no presumption of opposite light requirements between LD and SD plants, and further argues against any specific requirement of either light or darkness for SD flowering. Internal coincidence predicts the inhibition of SD flowering of the rice plant by a night break (a brief interruption of light), while it also provides a plausible explanation for how a judiciously timed night break promotes Arabidopsis flowering even on short days. It is the timing of the light transitions (sunrise and sunset) rather than the duration of light or darkness per se that regulates photoperiod-controlled flowering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/genetics; Flowers/growth & development*; Flowers/metabolism; Flowers/radiation effects
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